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B Y T H E 
E N C Y C L O P./E D I A B R IT A N N I C A , I N C , 


A. A. M. A. A. MICHELSON, PH.D., Sc.D., LL.D ] 

Distinguished Service Professor of Physics, University oi Chicago. Nobel Prucman -Interferometer (/;/ part). 
(Physics), 1907. J 


Formerly Professor of Literature at Instituto di studi superiori at Florence. Author ^Italian Literature (/// part). 
of Storia della letteratura Italiana; etc. J 

A. Del R. ARUNDELL DEL RE, O.B.E., M.A. 1 

Professor of English Literature, Imperial University, Tokyo. Formerly Taylonan I Tf T - f f , . .^ 
Lecturer in Italian, University of Oxford, and Lecturer in Italian, King's College, llalian literature (in part). 
University of London. Editor of The Oxford Magazine. I 

A. D. I. A. D. IMMS, M.A., D.Sc. 1 

Chief Entomologist, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, Hymenoptera * 
England. Formerly Forest Zoologist to the Government of India and Professor of (~T n s ec t<; ' 

Biology, University of Allahabad. Author of A General Textbook of Entomologv. 
etc. J 

Ad. M. ADOLF MEYER, M.D., LL.D. "] 

Professor of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University, and Director of Henry Phipps Irncanitv (in bart) 
Psychiatric Clinic, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore. Formerly Director off J \ P ) 

Pathological Institute, New York State Hospitals. J 

A. D. M. A. D. MITCHELL, D.Sc., F.I.C. ) r 

Assistant Editor to the Journal of the Chemical Society. Assistant Examiner in f, ,1 . 
Chemistry, University of London and Institute of Chemistry J lnai cator. 

A. E. Da. A. EMIL DAVIES. ] 

Chairman of Several Investment Trusts, and Alderman, London County Council. LT nves tment Trusts (in birt} 
Fellow, Royal Economic Society. Author of The Afoney and the Stock and Share \ irusu* {in pan). 

Markets; Foreign Investments. J 

A. E. G. REV. A. E GARVIE, M.A., D.D. ] Immortality 

Principal of Hackney and New College, Hampstcad, London. Author of Studies in - T . .. y * 
the Inner Life of Jesus. /Inspiration. 


Keeper in the Victoria and Albert Museum, in charge of Textiles, 1897-1921, of I Inter : or Decoration (in barfi 
Ceramics, 1899-1902, and Woodwork, 1904-8. Author of English Embroidery, f interior Decoration (tnpart). 
Oriental Carpets; etc. J 


Knight of Sb. Maunzio e Laz/aro. Knight of the Italian Crown, Officer of the 
Italian General Staff. Formerly Chief of Staff of the Italian Military Mission in rltaly (in part). 
Siberia; Secretary of the Interallied Military Commission in Hungary. Militar\ 
Attache to the Italian Embassy in London. J 

A. G. M. B. A. G. M. BATTEN. ] 

The Alliance Assurance Company, London. Fellow of the Chartered Insurance I Insurance, Miscellaneous 
Institute. Sometime Stanley Brown Prizewinner of the Chartered Insurance Int>ti- [ (in part). 
tutc. J 


Emeritus Professor formerly of Colour Chemistry and Dyeing, and Dean of the I T 
Faculty of Technology, University of Leeds. Davy Medallist of the Royal Society, f 
1925. Joint-author of The Natural Organic Colouring Matter*. J 

A. Hf. ARTHUR HASELOFF. ( Illuminated Manuscrintfi 

Rector and Professor of Art at the Christian Albrechts University, Kiel. J mummaiea Manuscripts. 

A. H. F. S. A. H. Fox STRANT.VVAYS. 1 

Music Critic of The Observer, London. Editor of MUMC and Letters. Author ( ^ ' Tndi an Music 
Music of Hindostan. Joint-author of Schubert's Songs Translated. Late Tutor and f 
Assistant Master at Wellington College, J 

Indian and Sinhalese Art 


Keeper of Indian, Persian and Mohammedan Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 
Author of The Indian Craftsman; Art and Swadeshi; History of Ind-ian and Indo- 
nesian Art. 

and Archaeology; 
Indian Architecture; 
Indonesian and Further 

Indian Art; 

Iron in Art (in part). 


Professor of Statistics at the London School of Economics. Formerly Professor of I j^ex Numbers 

Mathematics and Economics, University College, Reading. Author of Elements of f 
Statistics; An Elementary Manual of Statistics; etc. J 


A. L. Ho. ALBERT L. HOFFMAN. ^ International Telephone. and 

Assistant Vice-President, The International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation, > Telegraph Corporation, 

New York. J 

A. L. K. A. L. KROEBER, Pir.D. ^ 

Professor of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. Author of flroquois. 
Zuni Kin and Clan; Anthropology, etc. J 

A. M. A. A. M. ARXETT, A.M., PH.D. 1 

Professor of History, North Carolina College for Women, Greensboro, North Caro- May, John. 
lina. Author of The Populist Movement. J 


Commissioner of Controlled Revenues, Berlin, (*eneral Secretary to Reparation I Inter-Ally Council of War 
Commission, 1922-4 and to Dawes Committee, 1925. Treasury Representative, [ Purchases and Finance 
Paris, 1919-20. J 

A. Mr. A. M-o rSserv . ce ^^ }lndnLaw (in part). 

A. Ni. ABBE NILES, B.A., LL.B. . , 1 

Author of many articles and reviews on American popular music. Co-author of >Jazz. 
Bluet, an Anthology. } 

A. N. J. W. A. NEVILLE J. WHYMANT, PH.D., Lnr.D. ] 

Professor of Chinese and Oriental Philosophy in Hosci University, Tokyo. Member I jgu:: Kikuiiro* 
of Council of Asiatic Society of Japan. Sometime Davis Chinese Scholar, University >- T ' v.f ' *~ 
of Oxford. Member of the Editorial Staff, Hth Edition, Encyclopaedia Britannica. Japanese Literature. 
Author of The Oceanic Theory of the Origin of the Japanese Language and People. J 

A. R. B. A. R. BOYLE, O.B.E , M.C. ) Italy (in part); 

Formerly Squadron -Leader, Royal Air Force. \ Japan (in part). 

A. Sab. A. SABONADIRE, I.C.S.(retired). ? Ttidinn TAW (lv <hnrt\ 

Professor of Indian Law, School of Oriental Studies, London University. J lnman ^ aw V* P<*rt). 

A. Smi. ALEXANDER SMIRNOFF. _ J Italian Wars 

Formerly Military Correspondent to Rossi ya. J * 


Keeper of Geology in the British Museum, 1901-24. Past President of the Linnean I 
and Geological Societies of London. Royal Medallist of the Royal Society. Cuyier ^ 
Prizeman of the French Academy. Author of Catalogue of Fossil Fishes in the British - 
Museum; Outlines of Vertebrate Palaeontology; etc. J 

A. Th. ALBERT THOMAS. ' j International Labour 

Director of the International Labour Office, Geneva. j Organisation, The. 

A. Ti. AVRAY TIPPING, M.A., F.S.A. ") 

Author of English Homes; Gnnling Gibbon* and the Woodwork of His Age; The Cabriole [-Interior Decoration (in part). 
Period of English Furniture. J 


Chief of Police, Berkeley, Calif. Author of miscellaneous articles in Journal of the /-Investigation, Criminal. 

Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology; The Police Journal. ) 

A. V. W. A. V. WILLIAMSON, M.A. ] Indian Desert The 

Lecturer in Geography, University of Leeds. J m(Uan Llesert ine ' 

A, Wo. ABRAHAM WOLF, M.A., D.Lrrr. "] Induction; 

Professor of Logic and Scientific Method, University of London; sometime Fellow I Infinite ; 
of St. John's College, Cambridge. Fellow of University College, London. Author /-Innate Ideas; 
of The Oldest Biography of Stnnoza; Textbook of Logic. Editor of the Philosophy and Intelligence; 
Psychology section, I4th Edition, Encyclopaedia Britannica. J Intuition. 

A. W. P. ALFRED WILLIAM POLLARD, C.B., F.B.A., M.A., D.Lrrr. "] 

Professor of English Bibliography, King's College, University of London. Keeper of LTncunabula 
the Printed Books in the British Museum, 1919-24. Author of Shakespeare's Fight r xm ' ul "*" 
with the Pirates; Five Books; The Foundations of Shakespeare's Text; etc. J 


Principal of the Institute of Pathology and Research, St. Mary's Hospital, London. 

Professor of Experimental Pathology, University of London. Originator of the sys- 
tem of Anti-typhoid Innoculation, tne system of Therapeutic Innoculation for bac- 
terial infection (Vaccinotherapy) and of methods for measuring the protective 
substances in human blood. 



Puisne Justice Supreme Court, Procureur and Advocate General, Mauritius, 1001-5, Llnehrietv (in 
Ceylon, 1905-15. Chief Justice, 1914. Author of Law and Practice of Lunacy. Editor r*"*"*""* V'f 
of Encyclopaedia of English Law; etc. J 


Government Actuary, 1917. Chief Actuary to the National Health Insurance Com- >-InsUrance| Introduction to. 
mittee, 1912-9. President of the Institute of Actuaries, 1920-2. J 

B. F. C. A. B. F. C. ATKINSON, Pn.D. 1 1; 

Under Librarian, University Library, Cambridge. 3 lonians, 


Head of Department of Economics, Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, ^Instalment Selling (in part). 
Pa. Author of New York Call Money Market. J 

B. H. L. H. CAPTAIN B. H. LIDDELL HART, F.R.Hm.S. lllipa, Battle of; 

Military Historian and Critic. Military Correspondent to the Daily Telegraph. fTnfajUrv (in 
Kditor of the Military History section, I4th Edition, Encyclopedia Britannica, J J v 



Curator of Asiatic Art, The Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, Mich. Author of The flron in Art (in part). 
History of Chinese Painting in Outline. j 


Formerly Member of the Supreme Economic Council and Chairman of its Raw I Industry, War Control of 
Materials Division. Economic Adviser to the American Peace Commission. Author [ (in part) 
of The Making of Economic and Reparation Sections of Peace Treaty. } 

B. W. Ba. BENJAMIN WISNER BACON, A.M.. D.D., Lirr.D., LL.D. ) 

Professor of New Testament Criticism and Exegesis in Yale University, 1896-1928. > James, Epistle of. 
Author of The Fourth Gospel in Research and Debate; The Founding of the Church. J 


Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster since 1927. Parliamentary under-Secrctary of IT~~ . r* T A- 

. State for Foreign Affairs, 1922-4 and 1924-5. Financial Secretary to the Treasury, f J efrre y s George Jeffreys. 
'925-7. Assistant Editor of the nth Edition of the Encyclopcedia Rritannica. J 


Chairman of Business Publications, Ltd. Editorial Director of The A dverttsing ^Instalment Selling (in part). 
Weekly. Editor of System. Author of Marketing and Merchandising. J 

C. Chr. CHARLES CHREE, M.A., Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S. "] 

Superintendent, Kew Observatory, 1893-192*. Awarded James Watt Medal, Insti- ^Inclinometer. 
tution of Civil Engineers, 1905, and Hughes Medal, Royal Society, 1919. J 

C. E. C. F. C. E. C. FISCHER. "] 

Assistant Botanist on Indian Botany, Kew Herbarium, and formerly Conservator of X India (in part). 
Forests, Madras Presidency. J 


President, Oxford University Speed Skating Club. Holder of World's Skating I T/ ,_ TT^W,, r * *\ 
Record (hour), 1898, 1899-1906. Represented Oxford v. Cambridge (speed skating), [ lce woc * e y ( m ? an )< 
1891, 1895 and 1904. j 


British Ambassador to Japan, 1919-26. Principal of the University of Hong Kong, > Japan (in part). 
1912. H.M.'s High Commissioner, Siberia, 1918-9. J 

C. E. T. CECIL EDGAR TILLEY, B.Sc., PH.D., F.G.S. } liolite 

Demonstrator in Petrology, University of Cambridge. j * 

C. F. CESARE FOLIGNO, M.A. 1 Italian Lanmaire Modern- 

Serena Professor of Italian at Oxford University since 1919. Fellow of Magdalen ^JS^ ilSSXIXlV A ;? f 
College, Oxford, 1926. Author of Epochs of Italian Literature; etc. J ItaUan Llter ature (in part). 


Hon. Fellow, Jesus College, Cambridge. Formerly in Service of Rajah of Sarawak. 
Member of the Supreme Council and Judge of the Supreme Court of Sarawak, 1904. Ly avft fi 
Member of the Sarawak State Advisory Council at Westminster, 1910,. Director of ^ 

Agricultural and Industrial Kxhibits, Sarawak Pavilion, British Empire Exhibition, 
Wembley, 1924. Author of many books and articles. 

C. H. Tut. CHARLES H. TUTTLE, A.B.. LL.B. ^ 

United States Attorney /or the Southern District of New York. Member of the Board ^Insanity in Law (in part). 
of Higher Education of the City of New York. J 

C. P. Cu. C. P. CURRAN, M.A. 1 r . A Literftture 

Irish Correspondent of The Nation and The Athenaeum, 1916-21; of The Nation and > m *~ WWre 
Athenaeum, 1921-3. J ( m P ari >' 


Professor of History, University of Birmingham. Late Fellow of Merton and Uni- 
versity Lecturer in History and Geography, Oxford. Formerly on Council of Royal 
Geographical Society, and of Hakluyt and African Societies, and a Member of the | 
House of Laymen. 

^1 Hypnotism; 
C. S. R. C. STANFORD READ, M.D., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. Hypochondriasis; 

Joint Editor of the Journal of Neurology and Psychology. /-Hysteria; 

Insanity (in part); 
J Insomnia* 

C. V. D. C. V. DRYSDALE, O.B.E., D.Sc., M.I.E.E., F.lNST.P., F.R.S.E. } 

Superintendent, Admiralty Research Laboratory, Teddington. Editor of the Journal ^Instruments, Electrical. 
of Scientific Instruments. J 


Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, Conn. >- Y . ^. f T ... ,. 
Author of Development of Muslim Theology; etc. /Islamic Institutions. 

D. C. SIR DAVID CHADWICK, C.S.I.. C.I.E. J Imperial Economic 

Secretary to the Imperial Economic Committee since 1927. ) Committee. 


l I 

Reid Professor of Music in Edinburgh University. Author of Kssays in Musical I 

Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations and analyses > Instrumentation. 

of many other classical works. Editorial Adviser, Music section, I4th Edition of the 

Encyclopcedia Britannica. 



D. O. DENIS GWYNN. ) Tr t fth Frpf!l e fllfA / . 

Author of The Irish Free State, 1922-7. j Wsh Free State (m 


Formerly British Vice Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal Navy, ^Impressment. 
1217-1688; Life of Don Emilia Castelar. J 


D. Hy. DOUGLAS HYDE, LL.D., P.Lrrr. 

Professor of Modern Irish Language and Literature, University College, Dublin. 

Founder of (he Gaelic League and President thereof, 1893-1915. President of the [-Irish Literature (in part). 

Irish Texts Society. Author of A Literary History of Ireland; TJie Love Songs of [ 

Connacht; The Religions Songs of Connacht; etc. 


Chief, Division of Anthropology, National Museum of Canada, Ottawa. j Ivory Carving (in part). 

D. K. DAVID KJNI.KY, 1'ii.D., LL.D. ] Tn . . 

President, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. Author of The Independent Treas- r;!!! no * s ^ . 

rv of the United States. J Illinois, The University of. 

D. T. W. I). T. WALUS, A R.I.B.A., M I.A.(Soum AFRICA). "1 T . , . , A ... . " 

Partner in Messrs. Wallis, Gilbert and Partners, Chartered Architects and Engineers, L lndus tnal Architecture (in 
London. J P<*r*)- 

E. A. CAPTAIV EDWARD AITIIAM, C.B , R X "] Italy (in part) 

Secretary and Chief Executive Officer, Royal United Service Institution, since 1927. janan / / ii\ 
Senior Naval Officer, Archangel River Expeditions, 1918-9. Editor of the Journal K i r \ m - p :* n) > . . u 
of the Royal United Service Inihtutwn. Editor of the Naval section, I4th Edition, Jewcoe, J^nn KusHworth 
Encyclopedia Bntannua. J JelllCOe (in part). 


Formerly Principal of Kind's College, University of London Professor of Political LT 
Science, Cambridge, and Fdhw of Peterhouse. Author of Greek Political Theory; C 
The Cru\ades, etc. J 

E. C. B. RT. REV. EDWARD CUTHBERI BUTLER, O.S B., D.LITT. / Imitation of Christ, The (in 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Hath, 1906-22. J part). 

Head of 'Secretarial Department, International Red Cross, Geneva. | International Bureaux. 


Fellow of, and Lecturer in Modern Languages, ?nd Monro Lecturer in Celtic, Gonville flrish Literature (in part). 
and Caius College, Cambridge. J 

E. Cu. EDMUND CURTIS, M.A. lT*itw 

Erasmus Smith's Professor of Modern History, University of Dublin. | ireiana 


Consulting Chemist and Physicist. Lecturer on Outlines of Science, New York ^-Inventions. 
University. Author of Pocket Guide to S(jence. } 

E. E. L. EDWARD E. LONG, C.B.E. 1 

Officer in Charge, Eastern Section, News Department, Foreign Office, London, 
K)i8-2i. The Tune* (London) Correspondent in Northern India. Late Editor of Matnbi. 
The Indian Daily Telegraph, of The Rangoon Time*, etc.; also on the staff of The 
Singapore Free Press. J 

E. E. T. E. E. THUM, E.M. 1 - - t . 

Associate ICditor, The Iron Age, New York. Author of Elementary Metallurgy. ] iron ana C)tee1 ' 

E. G. C. E. GLADYS CLARKE. ) Ice-Cream 

Principal of the National Training School of Cookery, London. 3 


Hon. Fc B llo\v, (ionville and Cams College, Cambridge. Hon. Fellow, University 
College, London, and formerly Vice-Chancellor of the University. Formerly Yatcs /-Inscriptions. 
Professor of Archaeology and Dean of the Faculty of Arts, University of London. 
Author of Chapter on Inttription*, in Xankrativ /.; etc. J 

E. Ha. E HACKFORHI. } Invalidirv 

Deputy Controller of Health Insurance, Ministry of Health, London. j invalidity 


Prime Minister of the French Republic, 1924-6. Senator, 1912-9. Minister of Public tjaurds, Auguste Marie 
Works, 1916-7. Formerly Professor of Rhetoric in the Lyc6e at Lyons. Author of f Joseph Jean. 
Madame Rccamier ft scs Amis, etc. ' J 

E. J. E. E. J. ELLIOT. ) International Trade Associa- 

Principal, Board of Trade, London. ) tions and Congresses. 


Translator, Vedic Hymns. Author of The Life of Buddha as Legend and History. 


Talbot Professor of Preventive Medicine, Welsh National School of Medicine, Cardiff. I Industrial Welfare and 
Late Director of Health, Ministry of Munitions. II. M. Medical Inspector of Fac- f Medicine. 
tones, 1908-17. J 


Professor in the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Heidelberg. Editor of Archiv ^International, The (in part}. 
fur Sozialunwntchaft und Sozialpolitik. J 


Professor of Ps\choloKy, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York. Author ^Intelligence Tests. 

of Educational Psychology; Mental and Socidl Measurements; Animal Intelligence. J 

E. MacN. EOIN MACNEILT, B.A., D.LITT. ) T - ,. w j / . w \ 

Professor of Karly History, University College, Dublin University. J ireiana (m part). 

E. Men. ERICH MENDELSOHN. ^i fw/ | llofr | a | A^UU^*,,^ /.-, 

German Architect, Charlottenburg. Author of America, Picture Book of Architecture; X ^ JP Ar C m ^C^re (in 
Russia, Europe, America: A Transverse Architectonic. J P ar t)- 

E. M. H. L. E. M. H. LLOYD. 1 T -i * w * 

f)f the Empire Marketing Board, London. Author of Experiments in State Control Y^, WW 

at the War Office and V/nm/rv of Food. J P ari >' 



Quain Professor of Physics in the University of London. Author of The Structure o/ly-A _* + / . .\ 

the Atom; Airs; The Atom; etc. Editor of the Physics section, I4th Edition, Em y<lo- fAnterterometer ( part). 
podia Britannica. } 


Dean, Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia. Formerly member of United States Isthmian Canal Commission, ( T ntAr c* a t c mm 
Public Service Commission of Pennsylvania. Special United States Commissioner f mie *-3iaie Commerce. 
on Panama Canal Traffic and Tolls. Author of Inland Waterways, Their Relation to 
Transportation; American Railway Transportation. j 

E. Ro. EDWARD ROBERTSON, M.A. i Jamnia; 

Professor of Semitic Languages, University College, North Wales. 3 Jebeil. 


Editor of United Empire, journal of the Royal Empire Society. Formerly on the > Java (in part). 
stall of The Saturday Review. Author of Life of General Wolfe, etc. J 

E. T. J. E. TAYLOR JONES, D.Sc., F.lNST.P., F.R.S.E. I TtlHi ^ f . r ^ 

Professor of Natural Philosophy, University of Glasgow. j induction Coil. 


Minister for Foreign Affairs in the Belgian Government. Formerly Minister of Jus- lTTi+rri *; i TV, / A A 
tice. Represented Belgium at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Author of Le Parti rKernational, ltt (in part). 
o wrier betge; etc. J 


Professor of Zoology at the Imperial College of Science, London. Formerly Strath- I T nVAr t<Kr**i T?K i 
cona Professor of Zoology at McGill University, Montreal. Author of A Textbook of ' lnv erteorate Embryology. 

F. A. M. W. F. A. M. WEBSTER. 

Joint Editor of the Blut Magazine, London, and writer on athletics. j J aveun 


Director of Military Operations, Imperial General Staff, 1915-8. Author of Robert I T ac u^ n ThnrnnQ Innathan 
E. Lee, the Soldier; The Russo-Turkhh War, 1877-8; Forty Day* in 1914, etc. Con- rJ acKSon > inomas jonatnan. 
tributor to The Cambridge Modern History. J 


iic [ 

es, London, in Japan. Editor of the Japan Mail, 1881^-1905. Author of Jap 

Late Foreign Adviser to Nippon Ynsen Kaisha, Tokyo, and (Correspondent of Tiic j flnfln / /, , /\ 
Times, London, in Japan. Editor of the Japan Mail, 1881^-1905. Author of Japan, fJ a P an ^" P an >- 



President of the National Hockey League, New York. ) 

F. E. M. F. E. MATTHEWS, PH.D., F.I.C. 1 

Former Professor of Chemistry at the Royal India Engineering College, Cooper's iTriditim 
Hill. Consultant to Messrs. Johnson and Matthey, Research Chemists, 1 Litton j 
Garden, London. J 


Member of the Staff of The Times, London. London Correspondent of Hie Time* c>/> j \ n >. , ^ u *" 'icueiu,* 
India. Formerly Editor of The Indian Daily Telegraph. * J Lmdl ey Wood, ist Baron. 

F. Hed. FRANK HEDLEY. J Interborough Rapid Transit 

President and General Manager, Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York J Company. 


Past President, Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. Adviser on Metalliferous Min- 
ing to the Mines Department. Author of The Mineral Resources of Natal (Report to rllmenite or Titanic Iron Ore. 
Natal Government); The Iron and Steel Industry of the United Kingdom under \Var\ 
Conditions; etc. J 


General Officer, Commanding i8th Division, 1914-7, and XVII L' Corps, lt ^7~ <s - ' I n f an trv (in to ivi\ 
Inspector-General of Training to the British Armies in France, 1918-9. Commander- f' lluamr J \ ul P atl > 
in-Chief, Northern Command, England, 1919-23. Author of Seymour Vandcleur } 


Director, Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art. Author of Jefferson I Interior Decoration (/;/ bart} 
and the First Monument of Classical Revival. Editor of Foundations of Classu Archi- f ^ pan), 

tecture. } 


Editorial Staff, New York, I4th Edition, Encyclopaedia, Bntannica. Formerly Pro- 
fessor of Public Speaking and Director of Dramatics at Davidson College, Davidson, [ 
North Carolina. > J 


, Member of the Philadelphia Bar. Head of Rawle Law Offices. Formerly Overseer I inheritance (in birC\ 
of Harvard University. Editor of Revisions of Bouvier's Law Dictionary, 1883, 1898, f ^ pan). 

1913; etc. J 


Editorial Staff, Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903-11 and 1914-5. Staff of The Times, 1 Ibadan; 

London, since 1916. Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union; The f Illorin. 
Great War in Europe; Tlie Peace Settlement. } 


Artist and Illustrator. 


Professor of Law, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Translator of Hubner'* ^Jefferson, Thomas. 
History of Germanic Private Law. J 



Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at-Law. Assistant Honorary Secretary of the International 

Law Association and of the Grptius Society. Mernber of the Representative Body flnsanity in Law (in part). 
of the British Medical Association. Assistant Deputy Coroner, County of London. 
Late Surgeon, Royal Navy. J 


Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Nobel Prizeman for Chemistry, 1922. Author ^Isotopes. 

of ho to pcs. . \ 

* W> L ' F ' ^Jistan^Sccrctary, Ministry of Labour, London. 1 Industrial Relations (i 

F. Wt. FRANCIS WATT, M.A. ) Inns and Innkeepers (in 

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Author of Law's Lumber Room. } part). 


Boden Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Oxford since 1927. Fellow of 
Balliol College. Formerly Librarian to the India Office, London. Lecturer in Com- iTjwiian Literature 
rurative Philology and Reader in Tibetan, University College, University of London, f J-ueraiure. 

Hon. Secretary of Royal Asiatic Society and Director, 1921-2. Formerly Editor of 
Eptgraplna India. J 

F. Y. P. FREDERICK YORK POWELL, D.C.L., LL.D. } T^U-H^ T it^ratm-* /v,, 

English Historian and Scholar. Part Author of Icelandic Prose Reader; Origins L lcew aiC literature (in 
islanduae. See biographical article: POWELL, FREDERICK YORK. } part)- 

G. A. Bu. G. A. BURLS, M.lNST.C.E. ] Internal Combustion 

Author and Joint Editor with Sir Dugald Clerk of works on internal combustion L" 1 ^*"^ 1 Vxumuu&uua 
engines. J Engines. 


Formerly Director of the Geological Survey of Ireland and Professor of Geology, I T rA t onr i / J^/N 
Royal College of Science for Ireland, Dublin. Author of Aids in Practical Geology; f ireiana V n P^n). 
etc. J 

G. A. R. GEORGE A. RANNEY. \ International Harvester 

Vice-President and Treasurer, International Harvester Company, Chicago. j Company, The. 


Late Oriental Secretary to the British High Commissioner of 'Iraq. Author of xlraq (in part). 
Review of the Civil Administration of Mesopotamia. J 

G. B. He. G. B. HECKEL. "| interior Decoration (in 

Secretary, American Paint and Varnish Manufacturers' Association. Editor of > /, /7l ,/\ 
Drugs, Oils and Paints. J panh 

G. E. REV. GEORGE EDMUNDSON, M.A., D.Lrrr., F.R.HiST.S. \ T flrrt h<i 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. J jacooa 

G.F.K. GEORGE FREDERICK KUNZ, A.M., PH.D., Sc.D \ Jade and Other Hard Stone 

Vice- President and Gem Expert, Tiffany and Co., New York, since 1879. Author of y Carvings 

Ge wi and Precious Stones of North A menca; The Curious Lore of Precious Stones. J ^* * 

G. G. A. MAJOR-GENERAL SIR GEORGE G. ASTON, K.C.B. "| *it&n (i n p a rt) 

Lecturer on Naval History, University College, London. Formerly Professor of 

Fortification at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. Author of .SVo, Land and Air l t 
Strategy; Memories of a Marine; The Navy of To-day. Editor ol The Study of War. J msn * ree btate ( tn 


Assistant Curator of Vertebrate Palaeontology, the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. Author of A Catalogue of the Mesozoic Mammalia in the Geo- 
logical Department of the British Museum. J 

G. H. B. REV. GEORGE HERBERT Box, M.A., HoN.D.D. "j 

Rector of Sutton, Beds. Hon. Canon of St. Albans. Davidson Professor of Old 
Testament Studies in the University of London. J 

G. Ma. LIEUT.-GENERAL SIR GEORGE MACMUNN, K.C.B., K. C.S.I., D.S.O. *] i n A{ an Mutiny The- 

Comm.uidcr-in-Chief, Mesopotamia, April 1919 to January 1920; Q.M.G. in India, ?- Ttir j{ a /. hnvf \ * 

1920-4. Author of The Armies of India; A Free Lance in Kashmir; etc. J lulua v* part). 


Regius Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism in the University of Glasgow. LTom es 

Author of The Theology of the Epistle to the Hebrews, Selections from the Gretk Papyri; fJ*" 1 ** 5 *' 
etc. " J 


Italian Advocate, Inner Temple, London. J *wa*** w a. 

G. O'B. GEORGE O'BRIEN, p.Lnr., F.R.HiST.S. ] 

Professor of National Economics of Ireland, University College, Dublin. Author of Vlrish Free State (in part). 
Economic History of Ireland (1800-47). ) 


Professor and Head of tne Department of Zoology, Kast London College, University VIncubators (in part). 
of London. J 

G. R. D. G. R. DRIVER. 

Lecturer in Comparative Semitic Philology, University of Oxford. 

G. W. Co. GRAHAM W. COLE, B.S. } . 

Director of Safety Service, Policy Holders Service Bureau, Metropolitan Life Insur- 1 Industrial Accidents, 
ance Company, New York. Member of American Engineering Council Committee j Prevention of (in part). 
.preparing report on standardization of street signs, signals and markings. m J 


Head of Department of Criminology, New York School of Social Work. Formerly ^Imprisonment. 

Warden of Sing Sing Prison. Author of Readings in tfie Law of Real Property. ) 



G. W. T. 

! A. Xx. 

H. B. B. 
H. C. P. 

H. C. S. 
H. E. A. 

H. E. C. 
H. E. H. 

H. H. L. B. 


H. L. He. 
H. M. D. 

H. M. K. 

H. M. P. 
H. M. V. 


H. St J. B 
H. W. C. 

H. W. P. 

J. A. D. 
J. A. S. 

J. A. Si. 


Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old >Ibn Fftrid' 
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. J JQ^ Z ' 


Superintendent of Ethnography, District and Sessions Judge, Punjab, 1906-17. J lneua v fw part). 


Member of the Council of the British Medical Association. Chairman of the Insur- flnsect Bites and Stings, 
ance Acts Committee, London. J 


Senator, Irish Free State, 1922-3. Vice-President of the Department of Agriculture 
and Technical Instruction for Ireland, 1899-1907. Founder of the Irish Agricultural 
Organisation Society, 1894. Commissioner, Congested Districts Board, Ireland, 
1891-1918. Chairman of the Irish Convention, 1917-8. Author of Ireland in the New 
Century, etc. 


Assistant Collector, United States Custom Service, New York. 

Ireland (in part). 

Importing: In Practice (in 


HUGH E. AGNEW, A.B., M.Po. i T . ,. . A . 

Chairman of the Department of Marketing, New York University School of Com- International Advertising 
merce, Accounts and Finance. Author of Co-operative Advertising by Competitors. J Association, The. 

Jams and Jellies (in part). 

H. E. Cox, M.Sc., PH.D., F.I.C. 

Public Analyst for the Metropolitan Borough of Hampstead, London. 


Chemist and Editor, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Washington. Author of f Industrial Chemistry. 
The New Stone Age; Chemistry in the Home; etc. J 


Late Associ6 de Mnstitut dc Droit International; Honorary Secretary, International 

Law Association and Grotius Society.' Formerly Acting Professor of Constitutional 

Law, University of London, and Secretary, Breaches of the Law of War Committee. 
Author of Commerce in War; The Pharmacy Act; Permanent Court of International 


Director-General of the Chamber of Commerce, Marseilles. General Secretary to L 
the National Colonial Exhibition at Marseilles, 1922, and to the Colonial Organisa- f 
tion Congress, 1922. J 

K Inns of Court and Chancery 

(in part). 

-cv ^^u 


[ Intestinal Obstruction. 

H. M. DAWSON, PH.D., D.Sc. 

Professor of Physical Chemistry, University of Leeds. 


Professor of Philosophy and Psychology, The New School of Social Research, New ^ James, William. 
York. Author of William James and Henri Bergson; The Philosophy of William James. 


First Minister of Finance for Ulster. Member of Parliament for South Belfast. 


Keble College, Oxford. Author of The Last of the Royal Stuarts; The Last Stuart f James (The Pretender). 
Queen; etc. J 


Late Taylorian Professor of the Romance Languages in University of Oxford. I 
Member of Council of the Philological Society. Author of Frederic Mistral; A History \ 
of Provencal Literature; etc. J 

Ions, Catalytic Action of. 

Ireland, Northern (in part). 

a t\ 
(tn part). 

Japanese Language. 


Japanese Councillor of I l.M. Embassy in Tokyo since 1919. Formerly Assistant Japa- 
nese Secretary at H.M. Legation in Tokyo and Consul at Dairen. Joint-Compiler 
of An English- Japanese Dictionary of the Spoken Language. } 

P. HARRY ST. JOHN BRIDGER PHILBY, C.I.E., F.R.G.S., B.A., I.C.S.(retired). } 

Explorer in Arabia. Author of Tht Heart of Arabia; Arabian Mandates; The Truth rlbn Sa'ud. 
about Arabia. J 

Industrial Architecture (in 



Lecturer in Architecture, Columbia University, New York. Past President Archi- 
tectural League of New York. Member, Fine Arts Commission, State of New York. 
Member of the firm of Helmlc and Corbett, New York. Architect of Bush Terminal 
Office Building (N. Y.); Bush House (London) ; etc. 

H. W. PARKER, B.A. ^i 

Assistant in the Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, South Ken- >Iguana. 
sington, London. J 


Formerly Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cam- 1 
bridge and President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short I 
History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; etc. J 

JAMES A. DUNNAGE, F.S.S., A.M.lNST.T. ) Importing: In Practice (in 

Author of How to Import Goods; The Importer's Handbook; The Manual of Exporting. ) part). 


Author of Renaissance in Italy; etc. See the biographical article: SYMONDS, JOHN Vltaly (in part) 


Diplomfe of Domestic Science, M.I.H. Formerly Trade Investigator, Ministry of ^Invalid Cookery. 
Labour, Journalist and Domestic Science Consultant. J 

Jellinek, Adolf. 



J. A. St. 
J. C. van D. 

J. C. We. 
J. D. B. 

J. F. C. F. 

J. G. D. 

J. Har. 

J. H. Ba. 
J. H. Be. 

J. H. Br. 
J. H. Mu. 
J. Ho. 
J. J. R. MacL. 

J. L. H. 

J. M. F. R. 
J. M. La. 

J. O'C. 
J. P. Ea. 


Barrister-at-Law. Emeritus Professor of Jurisprudence, University of Belfast, ylntestacy (in part). 
Reader of Kquity, Inns of Court, London. Author of The Bench and Bar of England.) 


Professor of The History of Art, Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. Formerly I T nnACC 
Editor of the Studio and Art Review. Author of Art for Art's Sake; History of Painting; f Inne55 > 


1 1nns of Court and Chancery 

) (in part). 

Old English Masters. 

Barribtcr-at-Law, Middle Temple. 


Late Correspondent of The Times in South Eastern Europe. ) 


Reader and Combe Lecturer in Psychology, University of Edinburgh. Assistant Llnstinct in Man* 

Editor, British Journal of Psychology. Associate Editor, Journal of Abnormal and ( 

Social Psychology. Author of Instinct in Man; Psychology of Everyday Life; etc. J 

Military Assistant to the Chief of the Imperial General Staff. General Staff Officer, I Issus, Battle of; 

Tank Corps, 1917 H. Formerly Chief Instructor, Camberley. Author of Tanks in [Ivry, Battle of; 

the Great War; The Reformation of War; Sir John Moore's System of Training; etc. J Jemappes. 


Hockey Department, Madison Square Garden, New York City. Author of Madison Vice Hockey (in Part). 
Square Garden Otfu nil Hockey Program and Guide. J 


Assistant Keeper, Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, South Ken- vlnsectivora. 
smgton. J 

JOHN HILTON. . 1 In dustri al Councils; 

Director of Statistics, Ministry of Labour, London. 


Of the Imperial Household Museums, Japan. Formerly Professor in the Nagoya 
College of Technology, and in the 8th Higher School. Imperial Japanese Government 
Commissioner to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition at San Francisco, 
1915. Author of The Gardens of Japan. 

J Industrial Transference. 

Interior Decoration (in part); 

Ivory Carving (in part); 
^Japanese Architecture; 

Japanese Gardens; 

Japanese Music ; 

Japanese Sculpture. 

T , 


District Attorney, State of New York for County of New York. 


Professor of Law, Harvard Law School. Author of Cases on Criminal Law; Foreign \ 
Corporations; Cases on Taxation; Conflict of Laws. 


Professor of Egyptology and Oriental History and Chairman of the Department of flkhnaton. 
Oriental Languages, University of Chicago. J 


Emeritus Professor of Philosophy in the University of Birmingham. Author of ^Idealism. 
Elements of Ethics; Philosophy and Life; etc. Editor of Library of Philosophy. } 

JOSEF HOFFMANN. "I T-*^..:,.- n^^ro*;/^ is , 

Professor at the School of Industrial Arts, yienna. Art Director of the Wiener f f ,5 ^ ecoratlon \ in 
Werkstatte. Architect of many public and private buildings. J P (ir <)> 

J. J. R. MACLEOD, M.B., Cn.B., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. ] 

Regius Professor of Physiology, University of Aberdeen. Formerly Professor of Ijjjsnijji 
Physiology, University of Toronto. Author of Physiology apid Biochemistry in f 
Modern Medicine; Carbohydrate Metabolism and Insulin. } 


Director of the International Institute of Intellectual Co-operation, Paris. Hon. I Intellectual Co-Operation, 
Professor of the University of Grenoble. Formerly Director of Education, Mm- j International Institute of . 
istry of the Colonies and Inspector General of Public Instruction. J 


Formerly Scholar of St. John's College, Oxford. Joint Author of The Village Labourer, yTnfa\ctr\*\ Revolution The 
1760-1832; The Town Labourer, 1760-1832; The Skilled Labourer, 1760-1832; Lord\ -R.CVUIUUUH, AUG. 

Shafte^bury; The Rise of Modern Industry. ) 

M. F. ROMFIN. \ TrtlartH Wo+ttr Trancw\*t 

Member of Transit Section, League of Nations, Geneva. } miana water iransport. 

J. M. LANDIS, A.B., LL.B., SJ D. \ M^AV* (in * ari \. 

Professor of Legislation, I iarvard Law School. Author of The Business of the Supreme "ilS , / > P ,\ }t 
Court of the United State*. j ^testacy (in part). 


Attorney-General, Ireland, 1916-8. Lord Justice of Appeal. 1918-24. Author of ^Ireland (in part). 

History of Ireland , 1798-1024. J 


Professor of Law, George Washington University, Washington. Member of the >-Inebriety, Law of (in part). 

American Bar Association. I 



Chairman and President of the Executive, London Midland and Scottish Railway. 
Director of the Bank of England. Member of the British Royal Commission on 
Income Tax, 1919, of the Committee on Taxation and National Debt, 1924. British 
Representative on the Reparation Commission's Committee on German Currency 
and Finance, 1924; and chief British representative on the Reparations Committee, 
Paris, 1929. Author of Wealth and Income of the Chief Powers; Wealth and Taxable 

Income : Economic 

Income Tax: Economic 

Inheritance: Economic 




Hon. Lecturer, .King's College, London. Fullerian Professor of Physiology in the iTjwiivi duality 
Royal Institution. Author of Essays of a Biologist; etc. Editor of the Biology and Zo- r 1110 ^ 10 * 1 * 111 /' 
ology section, I4th Edition, Encyclopedia Britannica. J 


President of the New York Rangers Professional Hockey Club, New York and Vice- flee Hockey (//; part). 
President of the Madison Square Garden Corporation. J 


J.V. JULES VIAKD, , _ j Jacquerie, The. 

Of the Middle Temple, Barrister-at-La\v. 


Late Archivist of the National Archives, Paris. 

J, Wa. JAMES WALKER. ) Inteqfjirv (; 

Advocate of the Scottish Bar. Author of Intestate Succession in Scotland. j ^rewacy V"* 

K. N. L. KARL N. LLEWELLYN. ? Instalment Purchase (in 

Associate Professor of Law, Columbia University, New York. j part). 


DONDERRY, K.G., P.C., M.V.O., LL.D. Ur*1twl WAr*li*i r * A 

Minister of Education, Northern Ireland, 1921-6. Chancellor of Queen's University, f 1 " 1 ^ ^ortnem (tn part). 
Belfast. J 

L. A. D. L AW= K A. DOWNS, B.C a E. ystemi ^ ^ J niinois Central 

L. Bi. LAURENCE BINYON, Hoisr.LL.D. . ") T 

Author and Deputy Keeper of Sub-department of Oriental Prints and Drawings, f J 
British Museum. Co-author of Japanese Coloi4r Prints. J 

L. C. M. SIR LEO CHIOZZA MONEY, F.R.STAT.S., F.R.G.S., F.Z.S. "] iniperial Chemical 

Author and Journalist. Member of the War Trade Advisory Committee, 1915-8- Industries Limited' 
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Shipping, 1916-8. Chairman of the f T . . T . ^yj;*' 
Tonnage Priority Committee, 1917-8. Editor of the Economic, Engineering and impenal Tobacco Company 
Industry section of the I4th Edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica. J Limited. 


Reader in Economic Geography in the University of London. Author of An Intro- 
Auction to Stratigraphy. 

L. E. B. REV L. ELLIOTT BINNS, D.D J Jash Book of 

Vicar of Gedncy, Lincolnshire. ) J ' 

L. Ga. LE L ( n A ^ ctury of the urinating Engineering Society, London. | ^minating Engineering. 


Principal Entomologist, Bureau of Entomology, United States Department of Agri- V Japanese Beetle. 
culture since 1878. Author of The Insect Book, Mosquitoes, How They Live. J 

L. V. LUIGI ViLLARi. 1 Ita n an Front, in the World 

Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906; Philadelphia, 1907, and Acting-Consul at I yfai IOI4-IOI8* 
Boston, 1907-10. On the Secretariat of the League of Nations, 1920 3. Author of f Tfalv / h ,\ ' 
Italian Life in Town and Country; The Awakening oflkily, The Fa*ci*t Expert men t; etc J liaiy (in P an )' 


Reader in Ancient History in the University of London. Secretary to the Classical >Irene (in part). 
Association, 1911-4. J 

M. D. K. CAPTAIN M. D. KENNEDY. ) T / . t \ 

Tokyo Correspondent, Reuters Limited. i Japan (tn pan) ' 


Chancellor of Aberdeen University, 1928. Secretary to Finance Department, Govern- I ^^ / ^ 7 ^\ 
ment of India, 1906^-12, Lieut. -Governor, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, | \ r ' 

1912-7. Representative of India, Imperial War Cabinet and Conference, 1917. J 

M. E. P. MARLEN EDWIN PEW. | International News Service 

f i ... rr^i -< -j j r> 1 1 T XT -vr i < AliiCI IlciUvillll llCWa OC1V1CC. 

Editor, The Editor and Publisher, New York. J 

M. H. G. MOSES H. GROSSMAN. ) Industrial Relations (in 

Judge and Honorary President, American Arbitration Association, New York. ) part). 

M. H. L. Miss M. H. LONGHURST. ] 

Assistant in the Department of Architecture and Sculpture, Victoria and Albert >-Ivory Carving (in part). 
Museum, South Kensington. J 


Consulting Civil Engineer. Late Adviser and Under-Secretary of State for Public Linigation (in Part) 
Works, Egypt. Civu Engineer, Assuan Dam Protective and Heightening Opera- | 
tions and Isna Barrage Construction. J 


Assistant Editor of the International Section of the Contemporary Review, 1921; The xlnfant Schools. 
New Leader, 1923-6; Foreign Affairs, 1926-8. J 

M. S, B. M. S. BIRKETT, O.B.E. [ Iron and Steel: World's 

Secretary of the National Federation of Iron and Steel Manufacturers. ) Statistics. 

M. Sm. MAY SMITH. ^ 

Senior Investigator to the Industrial Fatigue Research Board, Medical Research ^Industrial Psychology. 
Council, London. J 


M. S. R. MERRYLK S. RUKEYSER, B.Lirr , M A *] 

Member, Teaching Stall, School of Journalism, Columbia University, New York. I Investment (in part); 
Formerly Financial Editor, New York Tribune and New York Evening Journal. [Investment Trusts (in part). 
Author of The Common Senw of Money and Investments; etc. J 


Corresponding Member, Sociedad Geografica de Lima. Author of Peru, Land 0/>Ica, 
Con/rash; Geographical Control* in Peru } 


Statistical Correspondent to the Financial J'imt"*, London. Member of the Council I International Payments; 
of the Royal Statistical Society Joint Author of Clarr\ A B C. of the Foreign [Investment (/;/ part}. 
Exchanges. j 


Practising Lawyer in Association with the firm of Cook, Nathan and Lehman, New [-Injunction (/;/ part). 
York. Co-author of The Labour Injunction Author of numerous legal articles. J 

Professor of History and Archaeology of the Dutch East Indies, University of Leyden. ) J ava \ ln P art )- 


Author, Decorator and Lecturer on Interior Decoration. Author of Historic Wall - > 
Papers; etc. J 


Secretary for India, 1924 Governor of Jamaica, 1907-13. Author of White Capital and I . 
Coloured Labour, The Anatomy of African Misery; The Empire Huilder. See biograph- j Jamaica. 
ical article: OLIVIKR, S J 


Secretary of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Geographical f Ireland (in part). 
Scholar, Oxford, 1901 Geographical Assistant, i ith Edition, Encyclopedia BriUmnwa, } 


Writer, Lecturer and Interpreter to the Assembles of the League of Nations and the International Institute of 
International Economic Conference. Connected with the founding of the Inter- 1 Agriculture* 
national Institute of Agriculture in Rome Lectured in the U. S. on Italian Economic (V i / h lf \ 
Conditions, 1919, 1920, 1923. Author of Giovanni Costa, His Life and Time*; on ltai Y \ in part)- 
the editing staff of the General Fascist Confederation in Industries, Rome. J 


Director of Studies, History of Dogma, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Sorbonne, Llnquisition The (in part). 
Paris. Author of Le v Idees morale^ chez les heterodoxes latine^ au debut du XIII* f ' 

Stfrlc. J 

P. A. S. F. PHILIP A S. FRANKLIN. 1 International Mercantile 

President, International Mercantile Marine Company ) Marine Company. 

T* ^ -n /, ,, , * "1 Industrial Insurance (in 


Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries. Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society. Assis- f T P arif '> 
tant Actuary, Government Actuary's Department, London. ^S 11 ^ 6 ' Post Ottlce 

* ) Facilities. 

P. O. H. B. P. G. H. BOSWELL, O.B.E., D.Sc. / Itacolumite 

George Herdman Professor of Geology in the University of Liverpool. 3 Atov ' v ' lw "** l ' c ' 

P. Gi. PETER GILKS, M.A., LL,D., Lixx.D., F.B.A. ] 

Master of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Reader in Comparative I 
Philology. Vice-Chancellor of the University, 1919-21 Author of The A ryans f 
(Cambridge History of India). J 


Art Critic of The Observer and The Daily Mail, London. Author of Velasquez, I ft* ^Impressionism. 
Life and Work, The Brothers Van ILyck; Raphael; Fra Filippo Lippi, etc. J 

P. La. I'HIUP LAKE, M.A , F.(i.S. ] 

Lecturer in Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly I India (in part); 
of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph in British Cambrian Trilo- [Japan (in part). 
bites. Translator and Editor of Kaysers Comparative Geology. } 


Acting British Minister to Persia, 1918-20. High Commissioner in Mesopotamia, I <j raa n n j> a rt) 
1920-3. Secretary, Foreign Department, Government of India, 1914. Consul and | 4 V r / 
Political Agent, Muscat, Arabia, 1899-1904; etc J 


Professor of Celtic Archaeology, University College, Dublm. Formerly Director of T/jumaeft (in 
Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund. President of the Royal Irish Acad- 
emy, President of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Irel 
Ireland in Pre-Celtic Times; The Archaeology of Ireland; etc 

- ffrimH * A 
emy, President of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, 1925-8. Author of ireiana v pan). 



Public Orator, Cambridge University, 1869^75, anc j Professor of Greek, 1889-1 905. Llgocnrtes (in part). 
Author of Translations into Greek and Latin, The Growth and Influence of Classical f \ r / 

Greek Poetry. See the biographical article. JEHB, SIR RICHARD C. J 

R. D. Ca. R. D. CARMICHAEL. I Infinity. 

Professor of Mathematics at University of Illinois, Urbana, 111 J J " 

R. Ed. RALPH EDWARDS, B. A. 1 . 

Member of Staff of Country Life. Assistant, Department of Woodwork, Victoria and ^Interior Decoration (in part), 
Albert Museum. Joint-author of The Dictionary of English Furniture. J 

R. E. R. R ELLIS ROBERTS, B.A. llhfian Hcnrik Tohan 

Author of A Roman Pilgrimage; Henrik Ibsen; The Other End; Reading for Pleasure. J * UD *** *****" J 



Librarian and Author. Late Superintendent of the Reading Room, British Museum, 

and Keeper of the Printed Books. Co-editor with Edmund Gosse of Kn&hsh Liter- f Irving, Washington. 
ature. Author of Essays in Librarians hip and Bibliophily; Emerson; Milton; etc. See 
the biographical article: GARNETT, RICHARD. J 

R. H. Ch. ROBERT HENRY CHARLES, M.A., D.D., D.Lirr. ) 

Archdeacon of Westminster. Formerly Grinfield Lecturer and Lecturer in Biblical L !<-*.., T n ;cfi A ** 
Studies, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Professor of Biblical Greek at f J erem y> ^Pistie OI. 
Trinity College, Dublin, 1898-1906. J 

R. H. G. ROBERT, FREIHERR VON HEINR-GELDERN. ) indQ^ftcJ- //.. barl \ 

o v n \ P ) 

Visiting Professor in Anthropology and Archaeology, University of Vienna. ] 

Intelligence Department of the British Overseas Bank, London. 

R. J. S. R. J. STOPFORD. ) 



Author of The Language ami Literature of China, The Life of Jenghiz Khan; etc. ) 


Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia' Tlie\ 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513-1000; The First Romanov*, flvan IV. (in part). 
1613 to 17*5; Slavonic Europe: The Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 
to 1706; etc. J 

R. P. Co. RICHARD P. COWL, M.A. "| 

Late Professor of English at Bristol University. Author of Poetic Ttieory in England. [-Icelandic Literature (/// part). 
Editor of Henry the Fourth, Parts I and II, in Arderne Shakespeare. J 

R. Re. RAYMOND REGAMEY. ) Tr __ . Arf / 

Artist and Designer. Author of Gcruault. j &On m *** (vi 


Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. 
Formerly Professor of Latin, University College, Cardiff, and Fellow of Gonville and 
Cams College, Cambridge. J 


Actuary, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, New York. Fellow, Actuarial 
Society of America. Co-author of An Epoch in Life Insurance. J 


Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac and Fellow of (>onville and Caius C College, 

Cambridge; University Lecturer in Hebrew and Aramaic Examiner in llel>re\\ 
and Aramaic, London University, 1901-8. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund 
and Co-editor of the Cambridge Ancient History. Author of Religion of Ancient \ 
Palestine. J 

bar I) 

S.B1. SIGFUS BLONDAI . { Icelandic Literature 

Formerly Librarian in the University of Copenhagen. ) 


Member, American Academy of Social and Political Science. Formerly Assistant ^Illegitimacy. 
Registrar-General, Great Britain. J 

S. Fo. SAMUKT, FORTIER, M.E., D.Sc. ) 

United States Department of Apiculture, Merkcley, California. Author of fV of ^Irrigation (/;/ part). 
Water in Irrigation. I 

S. G. STEPHEN Lucius GWYNN. *] 

n, 1 

1917-8. Author of Irish Books and Irish People; The Irish Situation; The History of ( 


Irish Correspondent of The Observer, London. Mcml)er of the Irish Convention, 1.1^5^ Free State (in batt) 
1917-8. Au 
Ireland; etc. 


Lecturer on Child Hygiene, Columbia and New York l!im<rsihes. Author of Vlnfancy. 

Healthy Af others; Healthy Babies, Child Hygiene. I 

S. L. B. S. L. BAKER, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P, D.P.H I Incubators (/// P<irt). 

Reader in Pathology and Anatomy, Middlesex Hospital Medical School ) 


Colonel, Army Medical Service (retired). Formerly David Da vies Profeshot of ^Influenza. 
Tuberculosis, University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, Cardiff J 

S. Le. STUART LEWIS, A.M., PH.D., D.C.L., M.F.S | 

Professor of Law, New Jersey Law School. Author of Parly Principle^ and I*rattutil /^Initiative. 
Politics; An Outline of American Federal Government. } 

S. Ln. SAM LEWISOHN, A.B., LL.B. "] 

Director, Bank of America. Meml>er of Adolph Lewisohn and S>ns, New York t 

President, American Association for Labor ^Legislation. Writer and speaker ^Industnal Relations (in part). 

on Industrial Relations and wage problems. Author of The New Leadership in 

Industry. Co-author of Can Business Prevent Unemployment? ) 

S. Ra. S. RADHAKRISHNAN, M.A. ] __... , 

George V. Professor of Philosophy, Calcutta University. Author of The Reign of -Indian Philosophy. 
Religion in Contemporary Philosophy; The Hindu View of Life; etc. J 


British Statesman. Lord Rector of Edinburgh University, 1883. Author of Lectures Mansenism (in part). 
and Essays. See biographical article: IDDFSLMOH. STAFFORD HENRY NORTHCOTE. J 

S. T. H. W. CAPTAIN S, T. H. WILTON, R.N.(retired). I fafa (i n part ) t 

Late Assistant Director of Naval Ordnance, Admiralty, London. ) 


Formerly Teacher in the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art, Phila r Iron in Art (w/ part). 
delphia. Master Craftsman and an authority on art metal work. J 


S. Ya. SKIRYO YAMANOI CHI. j Japanese Industrial Bank, 

Professor of Commercial and Colonial Policy, Tokyo University of Commerce. J The. 

T. A. THOMAS ASHBY, D.Lirr., F.B.A., F.S.A., Hov.A.R.I.B.A. 

Formerly Director of the British School at Rome Author of Turner' \ Vision* of 
Rome; The Roman Campagna in Classical Times; Roman Architecture. Revised and r,, . 
completed for press a Topographical Dictionary of Ancient- Rome (by the late Prof. [ Ata *y 
J. B. Plattner). Author of numerous archaeological articles. 

T. A. J. T. A. JOYCE, M.A., O.B.E. ( j 

Deputy Keeper, Department of Ethnography British Museum j 

T. A. S. T. A. STKPHKNSON, D.Sc j Hvdrozoa 

Senior Assistant in the Department of Zoology, University College, London. ) jruiv*im. 


Vice- President, International Law Association. Author of International Law and ^International Law, Public. 
Practice, etc. J 

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B 1YDROZOA. The Hydrozoa (sometimes 
called Hydromedusae) are a class of ani- 
mals, the vast majority of which are 
marine, and which belong to the still 
greater assemblage known as the Coel- 
enterata (q.v.). 
The Hydrozoa include not only polyps, 
but also medusae or jellyfish (these terms 
_J are defined in the article COELENTERATA), 
They are, in fact, that group of Codenterata in which neither the 
one nor the other of these two forms of body predominates, and 
in this respect they contrast strongly with the other main classes 
(Scyphozoa and Anthozoa). Moreover, both polyp and medusa 
have a simpler plan of structure than in the other classes The 
polyp itself is frequently (though not always) small Its mouth 
leads directly into the internal cavity of its body (coelenteron), 
without the intermediary of a definite throat or gullet of any kind, 
and the ectoderm and endoderm (see COELENTKRATA) meet at 
the lips. The coelenteron is a simple cavity lined by endoderm ; 
it is not subdivided by partitions into lesser cavities, nor does it 
contain definite organs of any kind With these limitations the 
actual form of the polyp varies very greatly. The medusa pre- 
sents infinite variety of form, but it too lacks a throat, and al- 
though its coelenteron sends out radiating canals which run from 
the central cavity through the solid tissues of the bell, it is other- 
wise simple in that it contains no definite organs. The medusae 
of Hydrozoa are generally speaking smaller and more slightly- 
built creatures than the medusae belonging to the related class 
Scyphozoa, although in certain cases they attain a larger size 
than the average, which is a matter of millimetres. The Hydrozoa 
are also characterized by the fact that the sex-cells, when they 
ripen in the clusters known as gonads, typically lie in or under 
the ectoderm, although the site of their original formation may 
be in either ectoderm or endoderm. 

It is among the Hydrozoa above all other Coclenterata that the 
phenomenon, briefly characterized elsewhere (article COELEN- 
TERATA), and known as polymorphism, attains its height. The 
details of this condition are described in parts of the present 
article and a summary of the question is given after the section 
on Siphonophora. 

The infrequency of brackish or freshwater forms among the 
Coelenterata makes their occurrence of interest. The ordinary 
marine Hydrozoa are either pelagic (swimming or floating organ- 

isms) or sedentary, according to their nature, and many of either 
kind exist. The brackish and freshwater forms exhibit the same 
diversity, though few in number One of the most interesting is 
a minute creature, Protohydra, the length of which is about 3mm. 
This organism inhabits the surface-layer of mud, rich in diatoms, 
which is to be found in the bottom of pools in certain tidal 
marshes; it also occurs in oyster-beds and similar places. It is 
carnivorous, and reproduces freely by transverse fission, but its 
sexual mode of reproduction is unknown It possesses no ten- 
tacles, and is as simple in structure as any known Coelenterate. 

The best known of the non-marine Hydrozoa, however, are 
the genera Limnocodium, Linmocnida, Cordylophora and Hydra 
Of Hydra more details are given below, and the chief interest of 
Cordylophora lies in the fact that it may flourish in water of 
different degrees of salinity as well as in fresh water; it is other- 
wise ordinary Limnocodium ryderi possesses a feebly developed 
polyp-generation (up to about 2mm long) which produces small 
colonies containing about 2-7 individual polyps without tentacles. 
These colonies can produce buds of two kinds; some become 
separated from the parent, form polyps and produce new colonies, 
others develop into medusae, and these are liberated and swim 
away. The species of Limnocodium (with which is now included 
Microhydra) are not very clearly recognized, but representatives 
of the genus occur in lakes, mill-streams and similar places in 
the United States, Germany, China and Japan, and have appeared 
in water-lily tanks at various botanic gardens, and in other tanks 
and aquaria. The genus Limnocnida contains medusae which have 
been found in several river-systems in Africa and in some of the 
great lakes, as well as in India 

The Hydrozoa comprise three large orders which from this 
point onward will be treated separately. 


The Hydroida are, roughly speaking, those Hydrozoa which 
possess a definite alternation of the polyp and the medusa in 
their life-history, and in which one generation (the polyp) is 
sedentary and usually constructs a fixed colony, the other being 
free-swimming when fully developed There are various excep- 
tions to this general statement, but they are not characteristic of 
the group as a whole. The variety of form and life-history ex- 
hibited, however, is so great, that it will need detailed treatment. 

It is convenient to begin with the consideration of the common 
and well-known but quite untypical freshwater genus Hydra (fig. 


i), which is the only thoroughly successful freshwater Coelen- 
terate. Hydra, of one species or another, occurs in ponds and 
' ditches and similar situations in many parts of the world. It 
consists of small isolated polyps, each with a pillar-like body and 
a limited number of tentacles. The length of the body is a matter 
of millimetres, and the tentacles in some species may be longer 
when stretched out than the body, although both they and the 
body can contract into rounded 
knobs. The Hydra attaches itself 
to stems and water- weeds, or 
floats beneath the surface film. It 
catches prey, often of a large size 
compared with its own bulk, in 
the manner characteristic of the 
Coelenterata (this is described in 
the article COELENTERATA) by 
stinging and then swallowing it. 
From the body of the Hydra 
there grow out buds, each of 
which acquires tentacles of its 
own and ultimately becomes sep- 
arated from the parent; but no 
medusae whatever are produced, 
this being quite exceptional 
among the Hydroida. There are 
usually developed separately, on 
different parts of the body, ova- 
ries and testes which give rise to 
the sex-cells Whether this repre- 


SCntS a degenerate Condition, and CONCRETE- ( RKINWALD) (BONNAIRO 

there was once a medusa-stage in FIG. i FRESH-WATER POLYP 
the life-cycle, or whether it is a HYDRA, ENLARGED 
primitively simple condition, can- ^7 
not be determined. tended and it bears two buds on its 

The few Other simple genera id. one of which has acquired ten- 
which are known, such as Proto- taclos of lu own 
hydra, may be related to Hydra, or may be primitive or degener- 
ate forms of separate origin. With the above preliminary, the 
characteristics of the group as a whole, without reference to these 
special forms, may be considered. 

Structure. The following is a description of the structure of 
a typical Hydroid, provided by the genus Obelia (fig. 2). Obelia 
begins its life, after the embryonic stages which succeed fertil- 
ization of the egg have transpired, as a single polyp, possessing 
a number of simple tentacles in a circlet around the base of its 
conical peris tome or manubrium. The polyp sends out roots which 
attach it to the surface of a stone, the frond of a sea-weed, or 
other suitable support, and grows a stalk which raises it some- 
what in the water From this stem a bud arises from which, 
although it is at first a mere knob, a new polyp is gradually de- 
veloped. This process of growth proceeds in a definite and 
regular manner, until a small tree-like colony, from less than an 
inch to several inches in height, is formed; the branches are 
definitely arranged, and all bear polyps If one of the colonies be 
examined in detail, it will be found that each of the polyps 
possesses, outside its body, a little transparent cup of relatively 
stiff, horny material, into which it can withdraw when alarmed; 
and that not only arc the polyps connected with each other by 
a stem composed of soft tissues, but the cups also are connected 
by a horny layer, outside the soft stem, which stiffens and sup- 
ports the latter. The cups are known as hydrothecae, the soft 
stem as cocnosarc, and the horny layer (including stem and cups) 
as the perisarc. The new polyps develop only from the tips of 
a branch of coenosarc, and not from one another; and in a well 
developed colony it will be seen that some additional branches 
have grown out, mostly in the lower part of the colony, each of 
them similar in structure to a developing polyp, and usually re- 
garded as representing one. These branches (known as blasto- 
styles) do not develop a mouth and tentacles; instead each 
produces a number of buds which gradually develop into small 
medusae, and which are known as medusoid buds. The blastostylfe, 
like an ordinary polyp or hydranth, has a covering of perisarc 

known as a gonotheca, but this is at first imperf orate. la due 
course it becomes open at the end, and the medusae separate off 
from the blastostyle and swim away into the sea, where, after a 
period of free life, they become hydroid polyps. 




The structure of one of these fully developed medusae must 
now be considered in more detail (fig. 3). The body has the form 
of an umbrella, with a manubrium similar to that of a polyp 
hanging down inside it and bearing the mouth at its end. The 
manubrium is lined by endoderm, and contains a cavity, the main 

part of the coelenteron. The sub- 
stance of the umbrella consists of 
mesogloea with ectoderm on both 
external surfaces; but the layer 
of mesogloea is penetrated by 
four narrow tubes or canals, lined 
by endoderm, which run out from 
the base of the manubrium like 
the four arms of a cross. Con- 
necting these radial canals with 
each other is a flat sheet of endo- 
derm like a web (endoderm lam- 
ella) and also a circular canal 


( DC C " UYT " I) umbrella close to the bases of the 

FIG. a.-DiAGRAM OF A VERTICAL tentacles. The latter are solid, 

iTe^ 0, both in medusa and polyp. At the 

oonad; ME, metogioea; MO, mouth; edge of the bell, on the inner side 

CC, circular canal; NR, Inner and of the ring of tentacles, is a little 

drcular shelf < the fa) wW* 
projects inwards and slightly nar- 
rows the opening of the bell. Round the margin of the bell, at the 
bases of certain of the tentacles, lie the sense organs, minute sacs, 
formed by the ectoderm, and each containing a calcareous par- 
tjcle (the statolith). They are known as statocysts (fig. 5), and 
are eight in number, two being definitely placed in each of the 
quadrants between the radial canals; they probably initiate and 
control the swimming-contractions of the bell. The sex-cells of 
the medusa ripen in the ectoderm of four gonads which occur on 
the course of the four canals, and which, when ripe, shed their 
products into the sea. The fertilized eggs develop into new polyps 





This is an example of a jellyfish with 
branched tentacles. The gonads here 
form swellings on the manubrium; and 
the medusa adheres to surfaces through 
knobs on the basal branches of Its 

which initiate fresh colonies. 

The story of Obelia is typical of the Hydroida, with modifica- 
tions of one kind and another. In some cases the polyp-generation 
includes a single nutritive individual only, but usually it forms a 
colony. The form of the individual polyps and medusae, as also 
that of the colony, undergoes great modification however. 

The polyps sometimes possess cups of perisarc as does Obelia; 
but often they are without these. 
Their tentacles are sometimes 
simple, sometimes knobbed at the 
tip or branched; sometimes ar- 
ranged in one circlet, sometimes 
in two (one round the lip, one at 
the base of a conical manu- 
brium), in other cases arranged 
irregularly over part or most of 
the surface of the polyp. 

The medusae vary even more 
than the polyps, both in shape 
and structure, and some idea of 
the diversity which occurs among 
them may be gained by reference 
to figs. 2-4 and 7-8. The shape 
of the bell may be shallow or 
almost flat, or on the other hand 
may be a high dome, and natu- 
rally varies with the movements 
of the animal. The number, ar- 
rangement and structure of the tentacles is widely various. The 
living medusae are some of the most beautiful of marine creatures. 
Their transparency, which is often touched with definite colour in 
given parts, and the regularity of their structure are responsible for 
this, and in some cases their movements also are extremely grace- 
ful. The sense organs vary from one kind of medusa to another. 
Statocysts are present in a number of cases, and these exhibit vary- 
ing degrees of complexity of structure, with this in common to all 
of them that the epithelium of the statolithic sac or pit (for the 
simplest of statocysts consist of an open pit) is derived from the 
ectoderm, and no endoderm takes part in its formation. Many 
medusae possess sense-organs of another nature, known as ocelli, 
and these are sensitive to light. In their simplest condition they 

consist of a clump of sensory 
cells mingled with pigment cells; 
but the more complicated ones 
possess a definite lens. These 
ocelli may be situated close to 
statocysts, but many medusae 
possess ocelli only, and others 
statocysts only. Another impor- 
tant variation in structure is, that 
in some medusae, as in Obelia, 
the gonads are situated on the 
radial canals ; but in many others 
the sex-cells ripen instead on the 

Colonies. The next consid- 
eration must be that of the kinds 
of colonies which Hydroids con- 
struct. These colonies are fre- 
quently small and relatively soft, 
the horny perisarc giving a con- 
siderable amount of support, but 
not constituting a really rigid skeleton. Many such colonies are 
an inch or less in heigty, although colonies several inches long are 
common. Only rarely does the colony become actually large, but 
in a few cases it achieves a size and solidity which give it rank 
with the reef-forming corals; in these cases the skeleton is massive 
and calcareous, and is in fact "coral." 

Hydroid colonies are roughly speaking of two kinds mat-like 
and tree-like structures. The mat-like forms consist of a network 
of rootlets, attached to a stone, sea-weed or other support, from 
the upper surface of which arise the polyps. The network is 



AC, sensory cell with sensory hair; 
C, statolithlo sao; CO, circular canal; 
EX, ex-umbrella; M, mesogloea; NR 1 , 
outer nerve ring; NR 1 , inner nerve 
ring; SC, statolithlo cell; ST, stato- 
lith; SU, sub-umbrella 

sometimes straggling, sometimes compact, and may form a con- 
tinuous sheet. The tree-like forms are mostly delicate feathery 
structures, resembling rather the fronds of a finely divided sea- 
weed than any animal. The general aspect of some of them is 
shown in the accompanying Plate. The size of the whole colony, 
the exact way in which it branches, and the way in which one 
polyp after another is added upon a branch, affect the general 
appearance of the ultimate result. Sometimes the branches them- 
selves are thick and are composed of a dense network of branching 
rootlets (Clathrozoon, fig. 6), the polyps projecting at the surface. 
This condition, which is achieved in a manner different from that 
which produces the average tree-like colony, leads on to the state 
of affairs found in the massive, limy colonies. 

These massive forms deserve special mention. They have been 
considered in time past as a separate group of Hydrozoa, the 
Hydrocorallina; but it has become evident that they are simply 
Hydroids with a more than usually solid skeleton, and that some 
of them are probably related to one series of Hydroid ancestors, 
others to a different series. A good example of these creatures 
is found in Millepora (see Plate). This animal constructs a 
colony containing innumerable minute individual polyps, which 
are connected with each other by a continuous surface-sheet of 
ectoderm and by a network of ramifying tubular rootlets. The 
colony secretes a massive, limy skeleton which may become a foot 
or more in height, and which is branched somewhat like the antlers 
of a stag, but in more compact fashion. The polyps inhabit little 
pits in the surface of the skeleton, and can retire into these com- 
pletely when alarmed. The network of rootlets is lodged in a 
network of canals in the surface layers of the skeleton, the deeper 
parts consisting of coral only and containing no soft parts; this 
internal portion was secreted by the soft parts originally, but as 
growth proceeded and further skeleton was formed, these retired 
to the surface-layers. One can imagine that a similar state of 
affairs would be produced if a colony such as that of Clathrozoon 
were to secrete limy material into the meshes between its net- 
work of rootlets. Millepora is extraordinarily interesting in one 

respect. When the time comes 
for sexual medusae to be pro- 
duced by the colony, these are not 
formed from buds as in Obelia 
and other Hydroids. Instead the 
sex-cells, which an* fnigratory, 
move from the rootlets into one 
or other of the polyps. Each 
polyp so affected loses under 
their influence its characteristic 
structure, and becomes trans- 
formed by degrees into a medusa. 
The pit surrounding it enlarges 
and becomes closed in, so that it 
forms a cavity cut off from the 
outer world, and until the medusa 
is ready to escape it remains so; 
finally the cavity opens again and 
the medusa comes out. It is a 
FIG. e. PART OF A COLONY OF weak swimmer and cannot feed; 
CLATHROZOON it swims a very little distance 

before shedding its ripe eggs or spermatozoa, the union of which 
gives rise to a polyp so that the life-cycle begins once more. 

Diversities Exhibited by the Polyps and Medusae. We 
may now pass on to some of the interesting diversities which the 
polyps and medusae exhibit. To begin with, in certain colonies, 
such as those of Millepora and Hydractinia (fig. 7), the hy- 
dranths are not all alike. Some of them (gastrozooids) possess 
mouths as well as tentacles, and inside these polyps digestion of 
food takes place. Other polyps on the contrary possess no 
mouths, but may have tentacles and are well provided with 
stinging capsules such as are described in the article COELEX- 
TERATA. These polyps themselves cannot feed, but they play a 
defensive part in the colony and assist the others in the capture 
and paralysing of food; they are known as dactylozooids. This is 
a simple example of the phenomenon of polymorphism, which 



has been previously mentioned and which will be further dis- 
cussed later. It is carried to greater lengths in Hydractinia than 
in Millepora, since in this case the colony produces also blasto- 
styles similar in principle to those of Obelia. These may be re- 
garded as modified polyps with a body but without mouth or 
tentacles, which produce sexual buds. Therefore a Hydractinia 
colony possesses four kinds of individuals gastrozooids, dactylo- 
zooids, blastostyles and sexual buds. 

To turn to the medusae, we find here a most curious state of 
affairs. To begin with, medusae may arise from blastostyles or 
direct from ordinary polyps; and the blastostyles may arise from 
the root or stem of a colony or from a polyp itself. Moreover, 
a medusa may itself bud off others from its manubrium, or from 
its tentacle-bases or other parts. The most remarkable fact con- 
nected with the medusae, however, is that despite the fact that 
a medusa is obviously an advantageous development, in that it 
can swim away and spread the eggs and spermatozoa over an area 
vastly wider than they could otherwise reach, there is yet a strong 
tendency among the Hydroida towards a condition in which the 
medusa not only remains permanently attached to the colony 
whence it sprang, but also becomes much reduced and simplified 
in structure. A series of medusae can be traced, in which at one 
end there is found the fully formed free-swimming jellyfish, at 
the other end a degenerate sac-like structure, devoid of any 
medusa-like features, and resembling the gonad of an active 
medusa, such as that of Obelia. This degenerate formation, which 
remains attached to the colony, is known as a sporosac, and con- 
sists of a layer of ectoderm containing or covering the sex-cells, 
and surrounding an endodermal core. Between these two ex- 
tremes all intermediate stages may be found. 

It has been considered by some authors that the sporosacs 
represent, not a reduced but a primitive condition, and that the 
other stages are to be regarded as developments leading up to 



the fully formed medusa. This would seem reasonable from the 
point of view that the roving medusa is an obvious gain to a 
fixed colony; but the facts of the case do not seem to support 
it. From the structure and mode of occurrence of the various 
grades of medusae, and from the fact that in the development 
of certain of the reduced forms, medusoid features appear for 
a time and are subsequently lost, it is judged that they are not 
primitive but degenerate. The precocious development of the 
sex-cells may be the factor which leads to the reduction of the 

medusae ; the gain being increased fertility. 

The Coelenterata are singularly free from parasitic members. 
Of the few that are known, one is particularly interesting. This 
Hydrichthys boycei, a species referred to the Hydroida but which 
may be an unusual sipbonophore. The colony is one of the mat- 
like kind, and the mat, instead of being affixed to a stone or weed, 
is attached to the fins or body of a fish. The underside of it sends 




The figure* ihow the direct transformation of a polyp-like larva, with a long 

proboscis, Into a medusa 

roots into the integuments of the fish, and under its growing edge 
are cells which are able to destroy the surface of the fish's skin 
and expose the vascular layer beneath. The polyps, which have 
no tentacles, bend down over the edge of the mat, apply their 
mouths to the wound made by the latter, and obtain blood from 
the vessels of the fish. Another parasite, better known than 
HydrichthySy is Poly podium; this is parasitic at one stage of its 
life in the eggs of a sturgeon, which it destroys. 

Classification. The classification of the Hydroida is instruct- 
ive, though as yet imperfect. The connection between medusae 
and polyps was at first not understood by naturalists, since it 
could not be deduced from observation of one of these types only, 
without a study of the whole life-history. Even now there are 
polyps and medusae which have not yet been linked on to their 
corresponding alternative form. Consequently a double classifi- 
cation has grown up, dealing with the two sets independently, and 
the two systems can be correlated with each other so far as the 
inter-connections are known. 
The polyps are divided into: 

Gymnoblastea. Here the polyps are not enclosed in cups of 

peHsafc (hydrothecae), nor are the blastostyles enclosed in 


Calyptoblastea. Here the polyps possess hydrothecae and the 

blastostyles gonothecae. 

The medusae are classified as follows : 
Anthomedusae. Medusae in which there are no statocysts (though 
there are usually ocelli) and in which the gonads develop on 
the manubrium. These are the medusae belonging to the Gymno- 
blastic polyp-generation. 

a, Leptomedusae. Medusae in which there are typically statocysts 
and sometimes ocelli, and in which the gonads are arranged on 
the radial canals. These medusae belong to the Calyptoblastic 

In the above scheme Hydra and its relatives would be con- 
sidered Gymnoblasts by some authors, by others they would be 
placed in an independent group, the Hydrida. The affinities of 
Limttocodium and Lintttocnlda are somewhat uncertain. 




1. Aglaophonia, showing fcatherlike form of the colonies which bear the 

minute polyps along the side branches 
3. Colonies of Pennaria, showing polyps borne on small lateral branches 

2. Millepora. a hydroid coral, bearing the polyps In minute tubular pits 

in the hard calcareous skeleton 
4. Colonies of Ohelia, showing complex tree like branching 



The Trachylina are an assemblage of Hydrozoa which differ 
sufficiently from any of the Hydroida or Siphonophora to warrant 
their inclusion in a separate group. 

Among the Trachylina the medusa is the dominant form, and 
many reach a considerable size (e.g., 10 x 3cm.). In accordance 
with this fact the Trachylina are mostly oceanic forms, pelagic 
throughout life; whilst the Hydroida are tethered, so far as their 
polyp-generation is concerned, to the bottom or to sea-weed, and 
include many characteristic shore-forms. The cleavage of the 
fertilized egg of the Trachylina typically produces a planula (see 
COELENTERATA), which develops into a more or less distinctly 
polyp-like larva ; the latter is transformed directly into a medusa 
(fig. 8). In certain forms (Cuninidae) the polyp-larva is para- 
sitic within medusae of its own or other kinds. In such cases it 
reproduces by budding, and both the parent and daughter polyps 
become transformed into medusae; or, the larva may form a 
stolon from which medusae are budded. 

Beyond the facts thus outlined the Trachylina contribute little 
of general interest to the study of the Coelenterata, although 
their structure and life-histories are in themselves extremely in- 
teresting. For this reason they are dealt with very briefly here, 
and the only part of their structure calling for further mention 
is that of the sense organs. Ocelli (eye-spots) are rare amongst 
them, but all possess organs containing statoliths. These are of 
a different grade from those of the Hydroida, in that they exhibit 
the structure, not of ectodermal pits or sacs containing statoliths, 
but of small tentacles containing an endodermal core in which lie 
one or more statoliths, and covered by ectoderm. These modified 
tentacles are known as tentaculocysts (fig. 9), and they may, 
like tentacles, project freely at the surface, or may themselves 
become embedded in a pit or sac formed by the surrounding 


The Siphonophora constitute one of the most interesting groups 
of the animal kingdom, since they illustrate the lengths to which 
an organism may go in the direction of stringing together a num- 
ber of different kinds of individuals in a single chain. In scien- 
tific terminology they exhibit at its height the phenomenon of 

The Siphonophora, unlike the Hydroida, are essentially pelagic 
" animals: they are exclusively marine, and 

most characteristic of warm seas. They 
one and all form colonies, but the colony is 
unattached and either floats or swims. It 
produces sexual medusae comparable to 
those of a hydroid, and these may or may 
not be set free from the colony; conse- 
quently there may be an alternation of gen- 
erations, both pelagic, or the medusa-gen- 
eration may never gain independent ex- 
istence. There is however this differ- 
ence from the state of affairs among the 
Hydroida, that a medusa which Is set free 
as such is an exception, and that it has 
never the full structure of a Hydroid me- 
dusa, possessing no mouth or sense-organs. 
Most siphonophore medusae remain at- 
tached to the colony or to a segment of it, 
and many of them exhibit grades of reduc- 
tion in structure. These are known as 


In the endodermal core of 

thii organ ttatoiitht are gonophores, but they are never as degen- 
Amounted* o^^p'rom'! crate a * * Hydroid sporosac. From the eggs 
nenoe from which rise long produced by the medusae or gonophores a 
sentory hairt planula larva of a curious type develops, 

and this by budding produces a colony. The siphonophore con- 
trasts with a trachyline in that it is here the colony, and not the 
sexual medusa, which is the dominant form; and in addition to this 
a new factor is introduced which is not found dther in the Trachy- 
lina or in the Hydroida. This is the production by the colony not 
only of more than one kind of polyp (as in HydracHniv) but also 



B, braeti C, ooenoiarof CO, oormidiumj D, dactylozooid; F, float? FL, tentacle 
of gastrozoold; Q, bunch of gonophorei? QZ, otrozoold; NB, battery of itlno 
oellt | 8, iwfmmingbell{ T, tentacle of dactylozooid 

of more than one kind of medusa. In addition to the sexv * me- 
dusae corresponding to the sole medusa- form in the other t ,ups, 
there are found here medusae of modified structure which neither 
feed nor produce gonads, but which act as swimming-bells for the 
whole colony; and other structure* which ate also probably modi- 
fied medusae. Of these latter one is a medusa transformed into a 
gas-containing float. 

Structure of Colonies. It will be impossible to understand 
or to visualize the siphonophore organization, without first con- 


sidering the structure of several typical colonies; these are so 
diverse in constitution that a general statement at the present 
stage would be unprofitable. 

The first colony to be described will be that of Halistemma 
(figs. 10 and n). At the upper end of this lies a small iloat, and 
depending from it a long thin string which is tubular and con- 
tractile. This is the coenosarc and corresponds to the stalk of 
an Obelia. Arranged on the string just below the float are a num- 
ber of swimming-bells; each of these is a medusa attached to the 
coenosarc by a short stem arising from the outer side of its bell, 
and possessing radial canals and a velum but no manubrium or 
mouth. At intervals along the coenosarc are found little knots or 
clusters of individuals. These are not all alike, larger and smaller 
ones alternating regularly Each cluster (cormidium) contains a 
certain number of individuals, but not the same selection in each 
case. The types of individuals comprised in the whole series are 
leaf-like protective structures, the bracts, together with digestive 
polyps (gastrozooids) each with a mouth and with a single ten- 
tacle which is attached to it at the base; other polyps (dactyl- 
ozooids) with no mouths, each with a single tentacle at its base, 
which act as feelers and stingers; and lastly blastostyles upon 
which male and female gonophores are produced. The tentacles 
of the gastrozooids, which act as fishing-lines, are branched, the 
branches bearing terminal stinging-batteries; those of the dactyl- 
ozooids are unbranched 

A type of colony similar in principle to that of Halistemma 
is formed by Physophora. Here we begin as before with a small 
float bearing a tubular string of coenosarc with swimming-bells. 
But below these bells, the rest of the coenosarc, instead of form- 
ing a long string, is short and compact, with the result that all 
the other individuals of the colony (which include dactylozooids, 
gastrozooids and blastostyles) are concentrated into a group with 
the dactylozooids forming a protective circlet round the outside. 
The same principle is further exemplified in a still more modified 
degree by Stephalia (fig. 12), in which the same essentials arc 
present but the proportions and shapes of all the parts have 
changed. In this case the iloat is large and prominent and it 
opens to the exterior through a special spout-like, structure 
(aurophore) at one side. The swimming-bells are restricted to 
a single circle below the float, instead of being strung out as 
in Halistemma and Physophora, and the coenosarc bearing the 
cormidia is neither the long string of the former nor the insignifi- 
cant vesicle to which it is reduced in the latter, but is a bulky 
mass bearing in the middle of its lower surface a large terminal 
gastrozooid, and supporting the 
cormidia on its sides. This mass 
is penetrated by a number of 
tubes lined by endodcrm, which 
run into each other and com- 
municate with the digestive cav- 
ities of the gastrozooids 

From Stephalia to Physalia 
(Tig. 13) is a natural transition 
Here there are no longer any 
swimming-bells, but there is a 
large crested float opening to the 
outside by a pore, and bearing a 
gastrozooid at one end. In a ;^c^!!r;H.Tr"?i T il c , Mt "' Di " 
young Physaha the underside of F|G |2 _ COLONY OF STEPHALIA 

the float bears directly half a The swimming-belts are restricted to 
dozen Cormidia, each containing infl' circles and not strung out as 

a gastrozooid without a tentacle, in *-'''"< *** 
a dactylozoold with a long unbranched fishing-line, and a branch- 
ing blastostyle bearing small dactylozooids upon it, and also male 
and female gonophores. As the colony increases in size new indi- 
viduals are added somewhat irregularly upon the stalks of the old, 
and the simple early arrangement is lost. The colours of Physalia 
(blue, orange, etc.) are of great brilliance, and it is a well-known 
denizen of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, often occurring 
in fleets, and commonly known as "Portuguese Man-of-War." One 
of its fishing-lines reaches a greater length than all the others, at- 
taining more than a yard;a/id the stinging powers of these lines are 

extremely powerful, producing serious conditions after contact 
with them even in man. The colony is not bound to float at the 
surface; it can deflate the float and sink, reforming the gas within 
it and so rising once more, within a quarter of an hour. 

A colony quite unlike any so far described is formed by Velella. 
Here the whole organism has the aspect at first sight of a single 
flat medusa bearing a sail on its upper side and tentacles round 


From the crested float depend several Cormidia. At the left end of the colony 
is a single large gastrozooid 

its margin (fig. 14). On closer examination it is found, however, 
that the apparent tentacles are really a circle of long dactylo- 
zooids, and that the underside of the disc-like colony is covered 
by a number of curious blastostyles which, unlike an average 
blastostyle^ possess mouths. In the centre of these is a single 
large gastrozooid, the only one which the colony possesses. The 
disc-like portion of the animal to which all these polyps are 
attached is complex in structure. It is thick and contains below 
the skin-layers of its upper side an internal horny float, below 
which is a mass of soft tissue, a concentrated coenosarc. The 
float is itself flattened in shape, is subdivided into chambers, bears 
a vertical extension in the centre stiffening the "sail," and is pro- 
longed into the soft tissues as fine air-tubes. The coenosarc con- 
tains a ramifying system of endodcrmal tubules, in communica- 
tion with the cavities of the various polyps, which is probably 
both absorptive and excretory in function. The coenosarc also 
contains a massive concentration of nematocysts, doubtless a 
nursery whence they migrate when sufficiently developed into the 
parts where they can function. Very similar to Velella but with- 
out a sail, is Porpita. In these creatures we have reached a stage 
in which the colony has become so compact and the parts so 
markedly subordinated to the whole that their interrelation 
resembles rather that of organs than that of independent beings ; 
but free medusae are liberated by the colony. 

Finally it may be mentioned that there are a number of 
siphonophore colonies which differ from any so far mentioned in 
that they possess swimming-bells but no float. 

We may now summarize the state of affairs in this very curious 
group of animals. In the course of the above descriptions men- 
tion has been made of a number of structures gastrozooids, 
blastostyles, dactylozooids; swimming-bells, floats, bracts; and 
sexual medusae (fig. n). It remains to comment on the status 
of these various entities. Continuing the view which is taken 
throughout the articles on Coelenterata in this Encyclopaedia, 
most or all of these structures represent individuals, modifications 



of eitjier the polyp or the medusa form of body, or independently 
developed entities of equivalent standing. The gastrozooids and 
dactylozooids are varieties of polyp, the sexual medusae, the swim- 
ming-bells, and probably the bracts are modifications of medusae. 
The float is sometimes regarded as the invaginated upper end of 
the stem of cocnosarc, and sometimes as a modification of a 
medusa. The status of the blastostyles is uncertain; they repre- 
sent polyps in Velella, in other cases they are perhaps the present 
day substitute for bygone polyps. 

It should be mentioned in conclusion that the Siphonophore is 
regarded by Moser not as a colony of individuals but as an indi- 
vidual animal with division of labour between organs and "on the 
way to alternation of generations and to colony-formation"; and 
that the medusae of Velella are regarded by this author as free- 
swimming gonophores leading up to true sexual medusae. The 
work of Moser has thrown considerable light on the morphology 
and the development of the Siphonophora, and has made clearer 
than formerly the homologies of parts throughout the group, espe- 
cially that of the float, which may fairly be regarded as equiva- 
lent to the apical adult bell of the forms with no float. This work 
also forms a valuable contribution to the question of evolution 
within the Siphonophora, but in the view of the present writer it 
hardly establishes the claim that a siphonophore is an individual 
animal (see also the following section on Polymorphism) 


In the articles COELENTERATA and ANTHOZOA, and in accounts 
of the groups of Hydrozoa already dealt with in the present 
article, references will be found to the phenomena known as 
polymorphism and alternation of generations (metagenesis). Since 
these phenomena are aspects of one and the same thing, and are 
of general interest and importance, a summary of the subject is 
indicated. In the following remarks it is taken for granted that 
the articles above mentioned are familiar to the reader. 

Firstly it must be made clear that alternation of generations 
as found in Obelia is simply an example of polymorphism, which 
may be defined as the ability of a single species of animal to exist 
under more than one form in this instance as polyp and medusa. 
In a clear-cut case of alternation of generations one of these forms 
is sexual and succeeds the alternative non-sexual form, the two 


A sector of the disc-shaped coenosarc has been out away so as to reveal the 
internal structure 

co-existing on a single colony only for the period during which 
the medusae are developing from buds. 

The other type of polymorphism is that which is exhibited by 
such colonies as Hydractinia and in far higher degree by the 
Siphonophora, and in which there is not only the distinction of 
individuals into sexual and non-sexual forms, but the non-sexual 
polyps are themselves divided into kinds (gastrozooids, dactylo- 
zooids, etc.). This is exemplified even in Obelia by the distinction 
of the polyps into hydranths and blastostyles. In the Siphono- 
phora there is the additional development that here there exist 

non-sexual as well as sexual medusae, and probably more than 
one kind of these (swimming-bells, bracts and float). 

In other words there exists (a) a differentiation into sexual and 
non-sexual forms and (b) a division of labour between the non- 
sexual forms by virtue of which they become, for practical pur- 
poses, reduced to the condition of organs. 

It must be noted however that the sexual forms tend to lose 
their 'independence; and the separate free-swimming generation 
so obvious in Obelia and similar forms becomes at the other end 
of the series a degenerate sporosac attached to the colony as 
permanently as any non-sexual individual In fact it has become 
a sex-organ or gonad, and "alternation of generations" has been 
transformed into "division of labour " 

Interesting divergences from the ordinary kinds of polymorph- 
ism typical of the Hydroida and Siphonophora are found among 
the Trachylina, Scyphozoa, and in forms such as Millepora. In 
Millepora a polyp, be it a gastrozooid or a dactylozooid, becomes 
directly transformed under the influence of the immigrating sex- 
cells into a medusa, instead of the medusa being formed from an 
independent bud. The polyp is a changeling. In the Trachylina 
the same process takes place, but in this case it is a pelagic or 
parasitic larval polyp which turns into a jellyfish, not an adult 
member of a colony Among the Scyphozoa a unique condition 
exists; here the alternation of generations is very marked, and 
the medusa arises from the polyp direct; but in this case the polyp 
divides itself transversely into a series of superimposed saucer- 
like sections, which separate from it one by one, each becoming 
a medusa. A single polyp has therefore produced not one but 
several medusae. This is partly paralleled by a blastostyle, for if 
the latter be a polyp it produces by budding, several medusae; 
but the scyphozoan polyp achieves the same end quite differently. 

The Anthozoa are the least interesting of the Coelenterata 
from the point of view of polymorphism. They possess no medu- 
soid form and among their polyps little polymorphic variation in 
form occurs In certain colonial forms ordinary polyps and 
siphonozooids co-exist, and there is also a distinction in some 
colonies between an original axial polyp and those subsequently 
formed. In the coral Fungia part of the life-cycle in some respects 
resembles the stabilization of the Scyphozoa. 

Polymorphism is chiefly interesting as an example of the extraor- 
dinary ability of animals to produce an almost infinite number 
of variations upon a given theme. It has also been much employed 
as a subject for argument, however, and it should be mentioned 
here that the viewpoint regarding it which has been adopted in all 
the articles on Coelenterata in this Encyclopaedia is not univer- 
sally accepted. The argument here adopted has been that a 
siphonophore or a compound Hydroid is a colony and that its 
parts represent, morphologically speaking, individuals connected 
by a common intermediate tissue, the coenosarc. This view may 
appear to be far-fetched when one contemplates a sporosac, which 
is in effect a gonad, since it involves the claim that this structure 
represents not an organ but an animal. It is also true that in some 
cases, such as those of meandrine corals, it is difficult to decide 
whether a polyp with a dozen mouths represents one polyp or 
twelve. But taking the whole story, as presented to us throughout 
the Coelenterate series, as a unity, the interpretation of the sys- 
tems encountered as colonies of individuals appears to be the 
soundest working hypothesis. The alternative view, that every- 
thing which results from the development of a single egg is an 
individual animal, however much it may subdivide asexually, and 
that gastrozooids, bracts, and the rest are nothing more than the 
organs of this animal, seems relatively satisfactory when applied 
to such a form as the adult Velella. But when one applies it to a 
free-swimming medusa it becomes reduced to an absurdity is a 
jellyfish, an organism provided with mouth and stomach, canals, 
velum, tentacles and sense-organs, simply a moving organ and not 
an animal at all? Further, one may meet on many shores hosts 
of sea anemones, none of which have developed from eggs 
each is an independent organism, not part of a colony, and each 
has been produced asexually by fission. Are these anemones then 
"organs*? To reduce the term "organ" to such a level is to 
remove its actual meaning. It is interesting to note that Moser 



combines the two theories by regarding the Coelenterata other 
than Siphonophora as colonies of individuals, but the Siphono- 
phora themselves as relatively primitive organisms, individuals 
comprising organs and the fore-runners of true colonies. 

In this connection it should however be noted that in the above 
paragraphs the term "individual" has been used in a purely 
morphological sense i.e , the individuals of a Siphonophore rep- 
resent morphological individuals which have suffered a loss of 
independence similar to that ot the component cells of any multi- 
cellular animal, which latter may be regarded as having been 
derived originally from a colony of individual single-celled ani- 
mals (protozoa). In a physiological sense on the other hand the 
Siphonophore colony is a unity and may be regarded as an indi- 
vidual system. The status of such a system in relation to the wide 
general question of individuality is further discussed in the article 
on that subject 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. For general accounts see bibl. to article on COELEN- 
TERATA, and for recent lists of literature, Kukcnthal's Handbuch der 
Zoologie, vol. i. (1923-25). Freshwater forms.?. Payne, "A Study 
of the Freshwater Medusa, Craspedacusta Ryderi," Journ. Morph. 
(Boston, Mass, 1924), vol. xxxviii , p 387. Pictures of Siphonophora. 
- E. Haechel, "Challenger" Report*, Zool, vol. xxviii. (1888); of 
Hydroida, G. J. Allman, Gymnobltistic or Tubularian Hydroids (Ray 
Society, 1871). (T. A. S.) 

HYENA, the name applied to members of the family Hyaeni- 
dae, a group of Carnivora (q v.) distinguished by the four toes on 
each foot, the comparative length of the forelegs, the non-retrac- 
tile claws, and the enormous strength of the jaws and teeth, 
enabling them to crush hard bones. Three species are known, 
belonging to the genus Hyaena. 

The striped hyena (H. striata) has the widest distribution, 
being found in India, Persia, Asia Minor, North and East Africa. 
About the size of a wolf, the animal is greyish-brown in colour, 
marked with indistinct longitudinal stripes of a darker hue. There 
is a mane along the neck and back. The animal is nocturnal in 
habits and has an unearthly cry, aptly compared to demoniac 
laughter. It feeds mainly on carrion, but occasionally carries off 
sheep, goats and dogs It is a solitary and cowardly animal. 

The spotted form (//. crocuta) ranges from Abyssinia to the 
Cape, and is yellowish-brown, with darker spots. The brown 
hyena (H. brnnnea) is South African, and about the size of the 
striped species. It is ashy brown in colour, with a lighter collar, 
chest and belly. Both spotted and striped hyenas have been 
found fossilized in the Pliocene of Europe. 

HYERES, a town in the department of the Var in S.E France, 
ii m. by rail E. of Toulon. Pop. (1926) 11,697 The town of 
Hy&res was founded in the loth century, as a place of defence 
against pirates, and takes its name from the aires (hicrbo in the 
Provencal dialect), or threshing-floors for corn, which then occu- 
pied its site It passed from the possession of the viscounts of 
Marseille to Charles of Anjou, count of Provence. The chateau 
on the summit of the hill was dismantled by Henri IV., but the 
town resisted in 1707 an attack made by the duke of Savoy. 
Hyferes is celebrated (as is also its fashionable suburb, Costebelle, 
nearer the seashore) as a winter health resort. The town is situ- 
ated about 2\ m. from the seashore on the sheltered south-western 
slope of a steep hill (669 ft of the Maurettes chain) but is ex- 
posed to the Mistral. To the south-west, across a narrow valley, 
is the suburb of Costebelle. The older portion of the town is 
surrounded, on the north and east, by remnants of its mediaeval 
walls, and has steep and dirty streets. The more modern quarter 
has broad boulevards and villas, with gardens, filled with semi- 
tropical plants The parish church of St Louis was built originally 
in the i3th century by Franciscan friars, and restored in the igth 
century. The plain between the new town and the sea has large 
nurseries, an excellent jardin d'acdimatation and many market 
gardens, which supply Paris and London with early fruits and 
vegetables, especially artichokes and roses in winter 

HYGIEIA, in Greek mythology, the goddess of health. The 
oldest traces of her cult, so far as is known at present, are to be 
found at Titane in the territory of Sicyon, where she was wor- 
shipped together with Asclepius, to whom she appears completely 
assimilated, not an independent personality. Her cult was not 

introduced at Epidaurus till a late date, and therefore, when in 
420 B.C. the worship of Asclepius was introduced at Athens coupled 
with that of Hygieia, it is not to be inferred that she accom- 
panied him from Epidaurus, or that she is a Peloponnesian 
importation at all, but rather a new invention, an offshoot of 
the already existing worship of Athena Hygieia. At first no special 
relationship existed between Asclepius and Hygieia, but grad- 


ually she came to be regarded as his daughter, the place of his 
wife being already secured by Epione. Later Orphic hymns, how- 
ever, and Herodas, iv. 1-9, make her the wife of Asclepius. The 
cult of Hygieia then spread concurrently with that of Asclepius, 
and was introduced at Rome from Epidaurus in 293, when she 
was gradually identified with Salus (q.v.). While in classical time 
Asclepius and Hygieia are simply the god and goddess of health, 
in the declining years of paganism they are protecting divinities 

See H. Lechat in Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire des antiquity's, 
with full reference to authorities; and E. Thramer in Roscher's Lexikon 
der Mythologie, 

HYGIENE, the science of preserving health. The subject 
embraces all agencies affecting the physical and mental well- 
being of man, and requires acquaintance with physics, chemistry, 
geology, engineering, architecture, meteorology, epidemiology, 
bacteriology and statistics. On the personal side it involves con- 
sideration of food, water and other beverages; clothing; work, 
exercise and sleep; personal cleanliness, special habits, such as 
the use of tobacco, narcotics, etc.; and control of sexual and 
other passions. In its public aspect it deals with climate; soil; 
character, materials and arrangement of dwellings; heating and 
ventilation; removal of excreta and other waste matters; medical 
knowledge on incidence and prevention of disease ; and disposal 
of the dead. 

These topics will be found treated in such articles as ADULTERATION, 
etc. For general principles governing the sanitary well-being of the 

HYGINUS (d. c. 140), eighth pope. It was during his pon- 
tificate (c. 137-140) that the gnostic heresies began to appear in 

See Liber Pontificalis ed. Duchesrie. 


HYGINUS (surnamcd GROMATICUS, from gruma, a sur- 
veyor's measuring-rod), Latin writer on land-surveying, flour- 
ished in the reign of Trajan (A.D. 98-117). Fragments of a work 
on legal boundaries attributed to him will be found in C. F. 
Lachmann, Gromatici Veteres, i. (1848). 

A treatise on Castrametation (De Munitionibus Castrorum), also 
attributed to him, is probably of later date, about the 3rd century A,D. 
(ed. W. Gemoll, 1879; A. von Domaszewski, 1887). 

HYGINUS, GAIUS IULIUS, Latin author, a native of 
Spain (or Alexandria), was a pupil of the famous Cornelius Alex- 
ander Polyhistor and a freedman of Augustus, by whom he was 
made superintendent of the Palatine library (Suetonius, De Gram- 
maticiSy 20). His numerous works included topographical and 
biographical treatises, commentaries on Helvius Cinna and the 
poems of Virgil, and disquisitions on agriculture and bee-keeping. 
All these are lost. 

Under the name of Hyginus there are extant: (i) Fabidarum 
Liber, some 300 mythological legends and celestial genealogies, 
valuable for the use made by the author of the works of Greek 
tragedians now lost; (2) De Astronomia, usually called Poetica 
Astronomica, containing an elementary treatise on astronomy and 
the myths connected with the stars, chiefly based on Eratosthenes. 
Both are abridgments and both are by the same hand; but the 
style and the elementary mistakes (especially in the rendering of 
the Greek originals) are held to prove that they cannot have been 
the work of so distinguished a scholar as Hyginus. It is suggested 
that they are an abridgment (made in the latter half of the 2nd 
century) of the Gcnealogiae of Hyginus by an unknown gram- 
marian, who added a complete treatise on mythology. 

EDITIONS: rFabulae, by M. Schmidt (1872) ; De Astronomia, by B. 
Bunte (1875) ; see also Bunte, De C. Julii Hygin, Augusti Liberti, 
Vita et Scnptis (1826). 

HYGROMETER, an instrument for determining the humid- 
ity of the atmosphere (Gr. iryp6s, wet, utrpov, a measure), an 
instrument which determines the humidity changes only is termed 
a "hygroscope." The earlier instruments generally depended for 
their action on the alterations in the length of substances when 
exposed to varying degrees of moisture; catgut, hair, twisted 
cords and wooden laths, all of which contract with an increase in 
the humidity, being the most frequently employed. 

Many of the early forms are described in C. Hutton, Math, and 
Phil. Dictionary (1815). Modern instruments, which utilize other 
principles, are described in METEOROLOGY. 

HYKSOS or "SHEPHERD KINGS," the name of the 
earliest invaders of Egypt. Josephus (c. Apion. i. 14), who identi- 
fies the Hyksos with the Israelites, preserves an account of them 
from bk. ii. of Manetho. According to it, in the days of King 
Timaeus, Egypt was invaded from the east by a destructive band 
who elected a king named Salatis. He made all Egypt tributary 
and established garrisons and fortresses in various parts of the 
country. His successors Beon, Apachnas, Apophis, Jannas and 
Asses reigned c. 199 years, and all aimed at extirpating the Egyp- 
tians. Their race was named Hyksos, i.e., "shepherd kings," and 
some say they were Arabs (another explanation found by Josephus 
is "captive shepherds"). When their successors had held Egypt 
for 511 years, a rebellion began at Thebes. Misphragmuthosis con- 
fined the ''Shepherds" in Avaris; and his son Thutmosis, failing 
to capture the stronghold, allowed them to depart ; whereupon they 
established themselves, 240,000 in number, in Judea and built 

In Manetho's list of kings, the six above named form the isth 
dynasty, and are called "six foreign Phoenician kings." The i6th 
dynasty is made up of thirty-two "Hellenic shepherd kings," the 
1 7th is of "shepherds and Theban kings" (reigning simultane- 
ously). The lists vary greatly in different versions, but the above 
seems the most reasonable selection of readings. For "Hellenic" 
see below. In 1847 E. de Rouge proved from a papyrus of the 
British Museum, that Apopi was one of the latest of the Hyksos 
kings, corresponding to Aphobis; he was king of the "pest" and 
suppressed the worship of the Egyptian gods in favour of his god 
Setekh or Seti, 

In 1850 a record of the capture of Hawari (Avaris) from the 

Hyksos by Ahmosi, founder of the i8th dynasty, was discovered 
by the same scholar. A large class of monuments was afterwards 
attributed to the Hyksos. Some statues, found in 1861 by Mariette 
at Tanis, had peculiar "un-Egyptian" features One of these bore 
the name of Apopi engraved lightly on the shoulder, and on other 
grounds it was concluded that the features were those of the 
Hyksos In 1893 Golenischeff produced an inferior example bear- 
ing its original name, which showed that it represented Amenemhe 
III. In consequence it is now generally believed that they all 
belong to the i2th dynasty. Meanwhile a headless statue of a king 
named Khyan, found at Bubastis, was attributed to the Hyksos, 
the soundest arguments being his foreign name and the boastful 
un-Egyptian epithet "beloved of his &." His name was afterwards 
recognized on a lion found in Baghdad. Flinders Petrie then pointed 
out a group of kings named on scarabs of peculiar type, which, 
including Khyan, he attributed to the period between the Old 
Kingdom and the New, while others were in favour of assigning 
them all to the Hyksos, whose appellation seemed to be recogniz- 
able in the title Hek-khos, "ruler of the barbarians," borne by 

Besides the histories of Egypt, sec J. II. Breasted, Ancient Records 
of Egypt; Historical Documents ii. 4, 125, G Maspcro, Conies popu- 
lates, 3mc 6d.; W. M. F. Petrie, Hyksos and Israelite Cities- 

HYLAS, in Greek legend, son of Theiodamas, king of the 
Dryopians in Thessaly, the favourite of Hercules and his com- 
panion on the Argonautic expedition. Having gone ashore at 
Kios in Mysia to fetch water, he was carried off by the nymphs 
of the spring in which he dipped his pitcher Hercules sought 
him in vain; and ever afterwards, in memory of the threat of 
Hercules to ravage the land if Hylas were not found, the inhabit- 
ants of Kios every year on a stated day roamed the mountains, 
shouting aloud for Hylas (so Apollonius Rhodius 1. 1207 et 
seq., and later authors). But, although the legend is first told 
in Alexandrian times, the "cry of Hylas" occurs long before as 
the "Mysian cry" in Aeschylus (Persae, 1054); and in Aris- 
tophanes (Pint us, 1127) "to cry Hylas" is used proverbially of 
seeking something in vain 

HYLOZOISM, in philosophy, a term applied to any system 
which explains all life, whether physical or mental, as ultimately 
derived from matter ("cosmic matter," Weldstofi) (Gr. v\rj 
matter, fo>^, life.) Such a view of existence has been common 
throughout the history of thought, and especially among physi- 
cal scientists Thus the Ionian school of philosophy, which began 
with Thales, sought for the beginning of all things in various 
material substances, water, air, fire (sec IONIAN SCHOOL) These 
substances were regarded as being in some sense alive, and taking 
some active part in the development of being This primitive 
hylozoism reappeared in modified forms in mediaeval and Renais- 
sance thought, and in modern times the doctrine of materialistic 
monism is its representative. 

HYMANS, PAUL (1865- ), Belgian statesman, was 
born at Ixelles, Brussels, on March 23, 1865. He became a bar- 
rister in 1885, and from 1898 to 1914 was professor of compara- 
tive parliamentary history at Brussels university From 1900 he 
was deputy for Brussels and soon became the Liberal leader 
After a mission to President Wilson in Aug. 1914 he was pleni- 
potentiary in London, 1915-17, when he became head of the 
ministry of economic affairs. From 1918-20 and 1924-25 he was 
minister for foreign affairs. In Nov. 1918 he attended the inter- 
Allied Council at Versailles; he also represented Belgium at the 
Peace Conference in 1919 and on her behalf signed the peace 
treaty. In the same capacity he attended the conferences at San 
Remo, Boulogne, Brussels and Spa He played a leading part in the 
settlement of the Ruhr question, the Dawes Plan, the Security 
Pact and the economic union of Luxembourg with Belgium. In 
Jan. 1920 he was appointed Belgian representative on the League 
of Nations, and in the same year was made president of the first 
Assembly at Geneva. On Nov. 29, 1927 he became minister of 
foreign affairs again after the reconstruction of the Jaspar cabi- 
net. A member of the Academic Royale dc Belgique, Hymans 
continued L'histoire parlcmcntaire de la Belgique (1875, etc -^ 
and wrote Frbre-Orbon (iQOv etc ) and Portraits, cxstm et 



discours (1914) 

HYMEN or HYMENAEUS, originally the refrain of the song 
sung at marriages among the Greeks. As usual, the name gradu- 
ally produced the idea of an actual person whose adventures gave 
rise to the custom of this song He occurs often in association 
with Linus and lalemus, who represent similar personifications, 
and is generally called a son of Apollo and a Muse. As the son 
of Dionysus and Aphrodite, he was regarded as a god of fruitful- 
ness. In Attic legend he was a beautiful youth who, being in 
love with a girl, followed her in a procession to Eleusis disguised 
as a woman, and saved the whole band from pirates. As reward 
he obtained the girl in marriage, and his happy married life 
caused him ever afterwards to be invoked in marriage songs 
(Servius on Virgil, Aen i. 651). 

See J. A. Hild in Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire des antiquitis. 

HYMENOPTERA, the term used in zoological classification 
for that order of insects comprising ants, bees, wasps, and their 
allies the saw-flies, gall-wasps and ichneumon flies. These insects 
all exhibit the following characters: (i) The presence of two 
pairs of stiff membranous wings often with the venation reduced 















Thete are used principally for feeding, but in the bee the llgula is modified 
for sucking nectar 

or almost absent, the hind-wingb are smaller than the fore-pair 
and are interlocked with them by tiny booklets. (2) The mouth- 
parts have biting jaws, but the labium is usually modified into a 
kind of tongue for lapping or sucking. (3) The abdomen is 
generally constricted at the base to form a waist and its first seg- 
ment is joined up with the thorax: an ovipositor is present and 
used for sawing, piercing or stinging. (4) Metamorphosis is com- 
plete and the larvae are either caterpillars or more often vermi- 
form: the pupae are usually in cocoons and their appendages 
are free. 

Hymenoptera form one of the largest and most highly developed 
orders of insects and are of great interest, not only on account of 

the perfection of their structure but also with regard to the re- 
markable development of their instincts. In the latter respect'they 
stand at the head of all invertebrate animals and their behaviour 
has been the subject of studies by many of the most famous nat- 
uralists. About 60,000 species are known but many thousands 
more still await discovery and even in the British Isles it is only 
the ants, bees and wasps that have been adequately collected and 









The thorax Is chiefly characterized by Its fusion with the first segment of 
the abdomen. The parts of the pre- and metathorax are shaded; mesothorax 
and abdomen are plain 

studied. Although the vast number of species are solitary like 
other insects, individuals of some species have acquired the habit 
of living together in great societies as is the case in ants, and cer- 
tain bees and wasps: their social life and behaviour is fully dis- 
cussed in the article SOCIAL INSECTS. Hymenoptera are also re- 
markable for the highly evolved condition parasitism has reached 
in the order: tens of thousands of species betray this habit, and 
although they confer immense benefit to man as agents destroy- 
ing other forms of insect life, they have been relatively little 
collected, and in many parts of the world are quite unstudied. 
General Structure. Hymeneptera have acute vision, the 
compound eyes are consequently large and there are usually three 
ocelli or simple eyes. The antennae are often very different in the 
two sexes and in the bees and wasps they are generally composed 







of 13 joints in the males and 12 joints in the females. The mouth- 
parts exhibit their simplest form in saw-flies (fig. i) where they 
depart but little from the generalized, biting type. In most other 
Hymenoptera the mandibles are used for what may be termed 
industrial purposes more than for feeding, and the ligula is modi- 
fied into an organ for lapping or sucking nectar. In the higher 
types of bees this organ is elongated into a kind of tongue which, 
in some cases, exceeds in length that of the entire insect. In 
these instances the labial palpi and maxillae are also correspond- 
ingly lengthened and form with the ligula, a definite proboscis 



(fig. i). The thorax (fig. 2) is chiefly characterized by the fusion 
of its last segment with the propodeum or first segment of the 
abdomen. In the saw-flies this union is scarcely evident, but in 
all other Hymenoptera it is a pronounced feature and the second 
abdominal segment (or first apparent segment) is constricted to 
form a waist or petiole. The wings have departed very widely 
from the primitive type of venation and almost every transition 
can be found from the well developed condition seen in saw-flies 
to some of the parasitic forms where there is only a single vein 
to the fore-wings or even no veins at all. At the bases of the 
fore-wings are small scale-like plates or tegulae, which afford 
important characters used in classification. Most members of 
the order fly with the wings of a side interlocked by a row 
of booklets. In the female the abdomen bears an elaborate 
ovipositor, typically composed of three pairs of valves. The first 
pair arises from the eighth segment and forms the lancets, while 
the other pairs arise from the ninth segment and form the lancet 
sheath and the so-called sting palps respectively (fig. 3). In ad- 
dition to functioning as an egg-laying instrument the ovipositor is 
used in saw-flies for sawing niches in plants into which the eggs 
are lodged: in ichneumon flies and their allies it is often em- 
ployed in stabbing their insect hosts preparatory to laying their 
eggs within the bodies of the latter: in bees, wasps and some ants 
it is used for stinging, a habit which is found in no other insects. 
Classification. Hymenoptera are grouped into two main 
sub-orders and these, along with their chief sub-divisions, are 
enumerated below. 


Abdomen with no definite basal constriction or waist: trockan- 
ters two-jointed. Larvae generally caterpillars with a variable 
number of legs. 

Superfamily Tenthredinoidea (fig. 5). Included in this division 
are all the more primitive members of the order: they do not 
exhibit the specialized habits and instincts of the Apocrita and 
their larvae are almost entirely plant-feeders. The most important 
family is the Tenthredinidae or saw-flies (q.v.) which are distin- 
guished by two large spines or spurs to each fore tibia. Their 
larvae are caterpillars which feed upon the leaves of plants, and 
those of a number of species are injurious to cultivated plants 
and forest trees. The ovipositor is usually elaborately toothed, 










Ant* HAIL ATT, Cur. Ci*c. 
U.S. Dm. two. 

The larvae are plant feeders, those feeding openly on leaves being caterpillars, 
often with six or more pairs of feet 

and is used for sawing notches to enable the eggs to be laid in 
plant tissues. The Cephidae or stem saw-flies are a small group, 
whose larvae feed in the stems of various plants, while those of 
the Siricidac or wood-wasps bore into the wood of trees. 


Abdomen with a basal constriction or waist: trochanters /- or 
2- jointed. Larvae embryonic or vermiform without legs. 

The great group is divisible into the Parasitica which generally 
have 2-jointed trochanters and the Aculeata or stinging forms in 

which the trochanters are single jointed. The Parasitica include 
the following super-families. 

The Ichneumonoidea have the pronotum extending back to the 
tegulae, the antennae are not elbowed and the fore-wings have a 
dark mark or stigma (fig. 7). Without exception the larvae of all 
members of this group are parasites preying upon some stage in 








The sub-order Apocrita is chiefly characterized by the narrowly constricted 
waist of the adult and by the legless condition of the larvae 

the life-cycle of other insects and are consequently of great eco- 
nomic importance. (See ICHNEUMON FLY.) 

The Cynipoidea include the gall-wasps or gall-flies which differ 
from the ichneumons in the absence of a stigma to the fore-wings 
and in the trochanters being usually single-jointed, unlike other 
Parasitica. In the family Cynipidae many of the species lay their 
eggs in various plant-tissues which react in such a way that galls 
are produced wherein their development is completed. These galls 
are of characteristic form for each species, the oak apple and bede- 
guar of the rose being familiar examples. Other members of the 
family are inquilines, living within the galls and bearing a close 
resemblance to the true makers of the latter. The Figitidae are 
mostly parasites of fly larvae and of aphides. 

The Chalcidoidea or Chalcid-wasps are very small insects with 
elbowed antennae and with the pronotum not extending back to 
the tegulae. The group includes more than 16 families, most of 
the members of which are either parasites of the eggs, larvae or 
pupae of other insects or are hyperparasites. A small number arc 
plant-feeders living in seeds, in figs, or form galls on cereals and 
grasses. The fig-insects are very numerous and certain of these 
are important agents in the pollination of the flowers, and have 
been introduced for economic purposes into lands where they were 
absent. The parasitic forms are of great practical value, in that 
they destroy vast numbers of injurious insects, certain of these 
exhibit the phenomenon of polyembryony, which is dealt with in 
the article INSECTS. Chalcids often exhibit beautiful metallic 
coloration, and can be recognized by the wing-veins being reduced 
to a single stem. 

The Proctotrypoiclea resemble the Atuleatcs in that the ovi- 
positor issues from the apex of the abdomen, but the trochanters 
are 2-jointed. The first mentioned character, along with the fact 
that the pronotum reaches back to the tegulae, separates them 
from the Chalcids (fig. 5). They arc all very small or minute 
insects with greatly reduced venation and many are wingless. They 
live as parasites or hyperparasites of other insects, frequently in 
the eggs which they destroy in large numbers. The largest of the 
eight chief families are* the Platvwsteridae which mainly para- 



sitize gall midges, their larvae often living in the brain or stomach 
of their hosts. Like the Chalcids the Proctotrypids are beneficial 

The succeeding super-families form the series Aculeata or sting 
ing Hymenoptera and in these the ovipositor issues from the apex 
of the abdomen, whereas in the Parasitica it issues some distance 
in front of the extremity 

The Formicoidea or ants form a very natural assemblage which 


On the right the female is seen in the act of ovlposition in an egg (0), of a 
gall midge, on a leaf 

are easily recognized by the greatly constricted "waist" and by the 
petiole being marked by one or two nodes: the pronotum extends 
back to the tegulae in the winged forms and the antennae are 
elbowed. The females are differentiated into winged "queens" and 
wingless workers of varied forms; each species of ant leads a 
complex social life which presents many phases of surpassing inter- 
est. (See ANT and SOCIAL INSLCTS ) 

The Sphecoidea or digging wasps (fig 8) are not very sharply 
marked off from the Vespoidea, except by the fact that the pro- 
notum docs not reach back to the tegulae For the most part they 
are to be regarded as beneficial insects from the fact that they are 
predators seizing other insects, which they carry off to their cells 
as food for their larvae All are solitary insects which construct 
cells for their brood either below ground or in dry wood or stems. 
There are 12 families, the largest being the Spheddae. 

The Vespoidea include a large number of other digging wasps 
together with the social wasps. The pronotum generally reaches 
back to the tegulae but there are exceptions. Among the solitary 
species the Mutillidae arc parasites in bumble-bees' nests and their 
females are wingless. Many of the Pompilidoe provision their cells 
with spiders: they are often large insects with slender bodies and 
elongate hind-legs. The Scolildac arc robust, hairy wasps which 
often provision their cells with chafer larvae and chiefly inhabit 
warm countries The Chrysididae or ruby-tailed wasps are beau- 
tiful metallic green or green and blue or ruby insects, which lay 
their eggs in the nests of bees and wasps where their larvae either 
prey upon those of their hosts or devour their food. In this family 
only three or four abdominal segments arc visible, the remainder 
forming a retractile tube containing the ovipositor The true wasps 
have their wings folded lengthwise in repose and the fore-legs are 
of normal build not specialized for digging as in the fossorial 
groups The Vexpidae or social wasps have "queens" and "work- 
ers" as in ants, but both forms are winged, while the Ewnenidac or 
solitary true wasps have no such differentiation into castes. (For 
the habits of these two families see WASP and SOCIAL INSECTS ) 

The Apoidea include the solitary and social bees which agree 
with the Sphecoidea in the pronotum not extending back to the 
tegulae but differ from them in having the hind tarsi dilated, while 
the hairs of the head and thorax are feathery or plumose. The 
glossa or tongue is well developed and often exceedingly long and 
the food consists of nectar and pollen. The larvae are fed upon a 
similar diet, except that the nectar is regurgitated as honey before 
being served to them These substances are stored in the cells and 
I he latter are never provisioned with animal food. Most bees arc 
solitary in habit, but those of the families Bombidae and Apidae 
are social insects resembling ants and wasps in the occurrence of 
.1 worker caste (Srr BEE and SOCIAL INSFCTS ) 

Reproduction and Development. One of the most interest- 
ing facts with regard to reproduction in Hymenoptera, is the' wide 
occurrence of parthenogenesis which obtains among members of 
all the great groups. The best known instance is in the honey-bee, 
in which the unfertilized eggs produce males (drones) : in the gall- 
wasps or Cynipidae both sexes may be produced from unfertilized 
eggs and the generations which arise in this way alternate with 
those produced by the usual sexual method. In other of the gall 
wasps males are unknown . parthenogenesis is also very frequent 
in saw-flies and Chalcid wasps. 

The larvae of the Symphyta are plant-feeders : those which feed 
openly on leaves are caterpillars, often with six or more pairs of 
abdominal feet (fig. 4), but in the stem- and wood-borers these 
appendages are absent and the thoracic limbs are reduced to mere 
tubercles Among the Apocrita the larvae are usually hatched in 
immediate contact with an abundance of food: they are in conse- 
quence degenerate creatures devoid of limbs and of almost all 
traces of organs of special sense (fig. 5). In the parasitic groups 
hypermetamorphosis (see INSECTS) is very frequent, the larvae 
being hatched in forms very different from that assumed in the 
final instar. In a few cases the eggs are laid away from the hosts 
and the larvae upon hatching are active creatures of the type 
termed a planidium. The planidium seeks out its host and having 
found it, assumes the legless maggot-like form common to all 
Apocrita. Some of the parasitic species live externally on their 
hosts and feed by piercing the integument with their mouth-parts, 
but the largest number are endoparasites. In the latter case the 
female parent drives her ovipositor into the host and lays one or 
more^eggs wherever the larvae will find abundant food. Many of 
the minute Chalcidoidca and Proctotrypoidea complete their devel- 
opment within the eggs of other insects: others parasitize the 
larvae or pupae or, more rarely, adult insects, and death of the 
host finally supervenes. The digging or fossorial wasps feed their 
brood with captured insects, which are stored away in cells along 
with a single egg: the wasp larva, upon hatching, thus finds its 
life's food-supply immediately at hand. The true wasps feed their 
brood with animal food including many insects, from time to time, 
very much as a bird docs her fledglings, while bees entirely resort 
to honey and pollen. Thus, we find throughout the order a degree 
of care for the offspring, not attained in other insects, which has 
led to the development of social life in certain groups When fully 
fed most Hymenoptera pupate in cocoons : silk is commonly used 
for their construction and among the ichneumon flies and their 
allies, these cocoons are often elaborate and beautiful objects. 

Geographical Distribution Hymenoptera are found in all 
except the most inhospitable regions of the globe, but the order, 
as a whple, has not penetrated to such remote parts as have the 
Apterygota and Coleoptera. Bees, for example, are dependent upon 
the existence of flowering plants and are not found outside their 
range: some, such as the giant Xylocopa or carpenter bees arc 
nainly tropical or sub-tropical, while bumble bees are essentially 
creatures of temperate climates and are generally confined to the 
mountains in the tropics; they are absent from almost the whole 
of Africa, the plains of India and none are indigenous to Australia 
or New Zealand. The honey-bee (Apis mellifica) has been intro- 
duced into most countries of the world, and some of the injurious 
saw-flies enjoy a very wide distribution, mainly through the agency 
of commerce. Among the Chalcid wasps the family Agaonidae or 
ig-insects occurs wherever trees of the fig kind flourish, but are not 
found outside that limit: certain other Chalcids (Eucharidae) are 
nainly tropical and are confined to where their particular ant hosts 
lourish. Perhaps the most interesting fact concerning the distri- 
mtion of Hymenoptera is the great paucity of forms found in New 
Zealand, where they are represented by little more than 300 spe- 
cies, as compared with over 6,000 found in Australia. 

Geological DistributionForms ancestral to Hymenoptera 
are represented by the extinct order Protohymenoptera, whose re- 
mains occur in the Lower Permian of Kansas. The first true mem- 
bers of the order to appear in geological history are wood wasps of 
the genus Pseudosirex from the Upper Jurassic of Bavaria. In 
Tertiary times the order is represented by ants, bees and other 
forms which differ relatively little from those found living to-day. 




Natural History. Hymenoptera are mostly of small or mod- 
erate size : only a few members of the order arc very large insects, 
the giants being certain of the saw-flies and digging wasps of the 
family Pompilidae, some of the latter attaining a length of three 
inches. On the other hand, many of the parasitic forms are among 
the smallest of all insects, notably those which live as egg-para- 
sites; certain Chalcid wasps of 
familyA/ywtfnWu*' or "fairy flies" 
measure only *2imm. in length 

Hymenoptera are essentially 
terrestrial and aerial in habit. 
The only exceptions are those 
which parasitize the larvae or 
eggs of aquatic insects, the "fairy 
fly" Polynema natans swims read- 
ily beneath the water by means of 
its wings and seeks out the eggs 
of the water boatmen (Notonec- 
to) as the host for its larvae. In a 
number of species the parasitic groups greatly exceed the remain- 
der of the order. No order of terrestrial insects escapes their at- 
tacks, and even larvae deep in the soil or boring in the solid wood 
of trees are by no means immune. As a rule the length of the 
ovipositor is greatest in those parasites such as T hales w and 
Rhyssa which have to force this organ through a depth of wood, 
in order to reach their hosts (fig. 7). One of the most remarkable 
cases of parasitism is found in a prottotrypid, Ricla manticida 
which, according to L, Chopard, passes its development in the eggs 
of the praying mantis. The adult parasites, upon emergence, make 
their way to a mantis, upon whose body they settle down, in this 
situation they cast off their wings and live cctoparasitically. If the 
mantis be a female which has commenced egg-laying, the Riela 
migrates to the extremity of the body, in order to lay its eggs in 
the viscid mass of the mantis' egg-capsule as it is being formed. 
Parasites which settle upon male mantids are probably short-lived 
and perish. The digging wasps store their cells with other insects 
or spiders and as a rule they sting their prey first and reduce it to 
a condition of immobility without actually killing it: in other 
cases the prey is killed, but s'nte it retains its fresh condition up 
to several weeks, it is presumed that the injected venom exercises 
an antiseptic influence Fabre's observations upon the Sphex 
(Ammophila) , which stings its 
caterpillar prey in successive seg- 
ments of its body, have often 
been quoted. The French ob- 
server maintained that this in- 
sect (fig. 8) had a sort of intui- 
tive knowledge of the inner 
anatomy of its victim, the stings 
being administered in the gangli- 
onic nerve centres, thereby in- 
ducing paralysis, a conclusion 
which is scarcely warranted by 
the facts at his disposal. The 
number of times a prey is stung 
appears to vary from once up to 
about a dozen: in addition to 
being stung the victim is vigor- 
ously pinched by the jaws of the 
Sphex particularly when it has 

only been Stung a few times and P ry Is 
Subsequent paralysis OCCUrs in nin 

each case, The nature of the prey 8phax devours !t 
of digging wasps is often very constant for particular species. 
Thus Philanthus triangulum stores its nest with honey-bees, while 
species of Bembex prey upon large Diptera and the powerful Pep- 
sis jemoratus stores its burrows with the great Tarantula spiders. 
Among bees, wasps and some ants, the capacity for stinging is 
employed for defensive purposes and the usual glands which are 
found at the base of the ovipositor are especially large in these 
insects. Their secretions have irritating properties to which the 
stii\g is due, those of ants containing formic acid. 



The genus sphex Include* digging 
wasps, which store their cells with 
caterpillars and other Insects. The 
paralyzed by stinging and 
fresh during the time the 

The nest-building habit is another feature of Hymenoptera. 
Digging wasps make simple burrows in the ground, and many bur- 
rowing bees make branched tunnels. Other bees excavate wood or 
make their brood-chambers in hollow stems,, while the true wasps 
work up dry fragments of wood with their saliva to form a sort 
of paper with which they construct the cells of their nest. The 
social bees secrete wax from their own bodies with which they 
build up the combs of their nest There are numerous Hymenop- 
tera that are inquilines insects which construct no nests of their 
own and utilize, instead, those of other species, in some cases their 
larvae consume the food provided by the rightful owners for their 
own brood, and in others, they devour the larvae of the host thus 
becoming true parasites 

The most interesting of all features associated with Hymen- 
optera is their social life, which forms the subject of a separate 
article. (See SOCIAL INSECTS ) 

Economic Importance. The chief injurious members of the 
order belong to the Symphyta and the larvae ot a number of saw- 
flies are exceedingly destructive Thus, the turnip saw-ily Athalia 
spinarum destroys the foliage of the turnip crop in Britain and 
many parts of Europe, the pear slug saw-ily (Eriocampoides 
limacina) skeletonizes the leaves of pears in Europe, North Amer- 
ica, Australia and New Zealand and Lyqaeonemcttts erichsonii is 
destructive to larch on both sides of the Atlantic The gooseberry 
saw-fly (Ncmatits nbesii) is a well known pest ot gooseberries in 
gardens in many parts ot Europe, as well as in North America, and 
the larvae of various species of Lophynts are destructive to pines 
Wood-wasps (Siricidm') bore into timber in many parts of the 
world and the stem-borers (Cephidtw), are especially injurious to 
cereals. The Apocrita are almost wholly beneficial insects, the 
honey-bee yields bees- wax and honey, while the important role 
played by the parasitic forms in destroying injurious insects, has 
already been dilated upon. The recent introduction of the Chalcid- 
wasp Aphcltnm mail into New Zealand is an example of the prac- 
tical utilization of parasitic Hymenoptera, and the species in ques- 
tion has now largely controlled the woolly aphis of the apple in 
that territory. Among other Chalcids certain tig-insects (Blasto- 
pha%a) are employed in the pollination of the flowers of the fig, and 
have been previously mentioned. On the other hand, a small num- 
ber of Chalcids are injurious, notably those whose larvae live in 
seeds such as species of Meza^tigmus uhich attack those of coni- 
fers, while larvae of Hannolita form stem galls on cereals and 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. In an order so extensive and diverse as Hymenop- 
tera the reader will find very few comprehensive works, the literature 
mainly dealing with individual groups The European species are 
monographed by E. and E. Andre, Spews des Hymtnofiteres d* Europe 
et d'Algcrie (1879-1913) and the world's species are catalogued by 
C G de Dalla Torre, Catalog ^ Ilymcnopterorum (Leip/ig, 1892- 
1902) A usetul guide to the North American forms is provided 
by H. L. Viereck and collaborators in The Hymenoptera or Wasp- 
like Insects of Connecticut (Bull. 22 State Geol. and Nat. Hist. 
Survey: Hartford, Conn, iQib) and for their classification consult 
W H. Ashmead', Proc US <\<it \fits \\iii., 1901 For the saw-flies 
and gall-flies the accounts given m C. Schroder's fn^ekten Mittel- 
curopas, vol. iii. (Stuttgart, ioiO are concise and well illustrated, 
while the British species are described by P. Cameron, British Phyto- 
phagous Hymenoptera (London, Roy. Sot, 18X2-92), which is pro- 
vided with accurate coloured plates A usetul popular account of the 
galls produced by Cympidac is E T Connold, British Plant Galls 
(IQOQ). For the North American galls \ee M. T. Cook, Galls and 
Insect* Producing them (Ohio Nat, vols. n-iv, 1902-04), and A. 
Cosens, A Contribution to the Morphology and Biology of Insect 
Galls (Trans. Canad. Inst. vol i\., TQI?) For parasitism and the 
forms exhibiting this habit the following works are important- W H. 
Ashmcad, Classification of the Chalcid Flies (Mem. Carnegie Afus. 
t, 1004) and the same author's Monograph of the North American 
Proctotrypidae (Bull. 45, US. Nat Mus 1803), L. O Howard, The 
Biology of the Hvmenopteroui Inject* of the family Chalcididae 
(Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., MV., 1801) ; L O Howard and W. F. Fiske, 
The Importation into the United State* of the Parasites of the Gipsy 
Moth, etc. (U.S Dept. Agnc., Entom Bull. QI: 1911); other refer- 
ences arc given in the article ICHNKUMON-FLY (q.v.). 

The Aculeata have a very extensive literature and among the more 
important works are* E. Saunders, Hymenoptera Aculeata of the 
British Islands (1896); H. St J. Donisthorpe, British Ants (1927); 
W, M. Wheeler, Ants (1910) ; P. and N. Rau, Wasp Studies Afield 
(Princeton, 1018) ; G. W. and E G. Peckhara, Wasps, Social and 


Solitary (1005); for other references ice SOCIAL INSICIS 

In addition to the foregoing numerous observations on the habits and 
behaviour of Hymenoptera are given in Jf. H. Fabre, Souvenirs 
Entomolo^iques (1870-1905), many of which are translated into 
English (A. D. I.) 

HYMETTUS, a mountain in Attica, bounding the Athenian 
plain on the south-east (3,370 ft.), has always been famous for its 
honey. The spring mentioned by Ovid (Ars Amat. iii. 687) is 
probably near the monastery of Syriani or Kaesariani on the 
western slope and identical with that known as K6XXoi> II rjpa 
said to be a remedy for childlessness The marble of Hymettus, 
which often has a bluish tinge, was used for building in ancient 
Athens, and even for sculpture; although the white marble of 
Pentelicon was preferred for both purposes. 

See E. Dodwcll, Classical and Topographical Tour (1819), i. 483. 

HYMNS. The word "hymn" (VIJLVOS) was employed by the 
ancient Greeks to signify a song or poem composed in honour of 
gods, heroes or famous men, or to be recited on some joyful, 
mournful or solemn occasion. But hymns are actually much older 
than any Greece can show; the ancient Chinese "hymned" the 
Ruler of Heaven; Assyria, Egypt and India have all left us 
records of early hymns The Athenian dramatists (Euripides most 
frequently) use the word and its cognate verbs of odes in praise 
of conquerors at the public games; they also describe by them 
metrical oracles and apophthegms, martial, festal and hymeneal 
songs, dirges and lamentations or incantations of woe 

Hellenic hymns, according to this conception of them, have 
come down to us, some from a very early and others from a late 
period of Greek classical literature. 

The Romans did not adopt the word "hymn"; nor have we 
many Latin poems of the classical age to which it can properly 
be applied There are, however, a few such as the simple and 
graceful "Dianae sumus in fide" ("Dian's votaries are we") of 
Catullus, and "Dianam tencrae dicite virgines" ("Sing to Dian, 
gentle maidens") of Horace which approach much more nearly 
than anything Hellenic to the form and character of modern 

Hebrew Hymnody. For the origin and idea of Christian 
hymnody we must look, not to Gentile, but to Hebrew sources. 
St. Augustine's definition of a hymn, generally accepted by Chris- 
tian antiquity, may be summed up in the words, "praise to God 
with song" ("cum cantico"); Bede understood the "canticum" as 
properly requiring metre; though he thought that what in its 
original language was a true hymn might retain that character in 
an unmetrical translation. Modern use has enlarged the definition; 
Roman Catholic writers extend it to the praises of saints; and the 
word now comprehends rhythmical prose as well as verse, and 
prayer and spiritual meditation as well as praise 

The modern distinction between psalms and hymns is arbitrary 
(see PSALMS). 

In the New Testament we find our Lord and His apostles sing- 
ing a hymn (vnvfaavTcs QrjXOov), after the institution of the 
Lord's Supper; St. Paul and Silas doing the same (v^vovv r6v 
Q*6v) in their prison at Philippi; St. James recommending psalm- 
singing G/'aXXtro)) and St. Paul "psalms and hymns and spiritual 
songs (^aX/xots KCU ftfjLvou Kal d>5ats Tn/eu/iartKcus) St. Paul 
also, in the i4th chapter of the first epistle to the Corinthians, 
speaks of singing (^aXw) and of every man's psalm (K/caoros 
vfAwv i/'aX/zoy 2x), in a context which plainly has reference to 
the assemblies of the Corinthian Christians for common worship. 
All the words thus used were applied by the LXX. to the 
Davidical psalms; it is therefore possible that these only may be 
intended, in the different places to which we have referred. But 
there are in St Paul's epistles several passages (Eph. v. 14; 
i Tim. iii. 16; i Tim. vi. 15, 16; 2 Tim. ii. n, 12) which have 
so much of the form and character of later Oriental hymnody as 
to have been supposed by Michaelis and others to be extracts 
from original hymns of the Apostolic age. 

Eastern Church Hymnody. The hymn of our Lord, the 
precepts of the apostles, the angelic song at the nativity, and 
"Benedicite omnia opera" are referred to in a curious metrical 
prologue to the hymnary of the Mozarabic Breviary as precedents 
for the practice of the Western Church. Philo describes the 

Theraputae (q.v.) of the neighbourhood of Alexandria as com- 
posers of original hymns which were sung at their great religious 

The practice, not only of singing hymns, but of singing them 
antiphonally, appears, from the well-known letter of Pliny to 
Trajan, to have been established in the Bithynian churches at the 
beginning of the 2nd century. This agrees well, in point of time, 
with the tradition recorded by the historian Socrates, that Ignatius 
(who suffered martyrdom about A.D. 107) was led by a vision or 
dream of angels singing hymns in that manner to the Holy Trinity 
to introduce antiphonal singing into the church of Antioch, from 
which it quickly spread to other churches. 

The Greek hymnody contemporary with Ephraem followed, 
with some licence, classical models One of its favourite metres 
was the Anacreontic; but it also made use of the short anapaestic, 
Ionic, iambic and other lyrical measures, as well as the hexameter 
and pentameter. Its principal authors were Methodius, bishop of 
Olympus, who died about A.D. 311, Synesius, who became bishop 
of 'Ptolemais in Cyrenaica in 410, and Gregory Nazianzen, for a 
short time (380-381) patriarch of Constantinople. They have 
found an able English translator in the Rev. Allen Chatfield 
(Songs ami Hymns of Earliest Greek Christian Poets, 1876). 
Among the most striking of their works are M^M 60 Xptore ("Lord 
Jesus, think of me"), by Synesius; <re rov d</>0iroj> juoi/Apx*?*' 
("O Thou, the One Supreme") and rl aoi flcXets yevevOat ("0 
soul of mine, repining"), by Gregory; also &j>co0ei> irapOtvoL ("The 
Bridegroom cometh"), by Methodius. There continued to be 
Greek metrical hymn-writers, m a similar style, till a much later 
date. Sophronius, patriarch of Jerusalem in the 7th century, wrote 
seven Anacreontic hymns; and St. John Damascene, one of the 
most copious of the second school of "Melodists," was also the 
author of some long compositions in iambic trimeters. 

Period of Arian Controversy. An important development 
of hymnody at Constantinople arose out of the Arian controversy. 
Early in the 4th century Athanasius had rebuked, not only the 
doctrine of Arius, but the light character of certain hymns by 
which he endeavoured to make that doctrine popular. When, 
towards the cfose of that century (398), St. John Chrysostom was 
raised to the metropolitan see, the Arians, who were still numerous 
at Constantinople, had no places of worship within the walls ; but 
they were in the habit of coming into the city at sunset on Satur- 
days, Sundays and the greater festivals, and congregating in the 
porticoes and other places of public resort, where they sang, all 
night through, antiphonal songs, with "acroteleutia" (closing 
strains, or refrains), expressive of Arian doctrine, often accom- 
panied by taunts and insults to the orthodox. Chrysostom was 
apprehensive that this music might draw some of the simpler 
church people to the Arian side; he therefore organized, in opposi- 
tion to it, under the patronage and at the cost of Eudoxia, the 
empress of Arcadius (then his friend), a system of nightly pro- 
cessional hymn-singing, with silver crosses, wax-lights and other 
circumstances of ceremonial pomp. Riots followed, with blood- 
shed on both sides. This led to the suppression, by an imperial 
edict, of all public Arian singing. 

Melodists. The controversies and persecutions of the 8th 
and succeeding centuries turned the thoughts of the "melodists" 
of the great monasteries of the Studium at Constantinople and 
St. Saba in Palestine and their followers, and those of the adherents 
of the Greek rite in Sicily and South Italy (who suffered much 
from the Saracens and the Normans), into a less picturesque but 
more strictly theological course; and the influence of those con- 
troversies, in which the final success of the cause of "Icons" was 
largely due to the hymns, as well as to the courage and sufferings, 
of these confessors, was probably the cause of their supplanting, 
as they did, the works of the older school. 

Among the "melodists" of this latter Greek school there were 
many saints of the Greek church, several patriarchs and two em- 
perors Leo the Philosopher, and Constantine Porphyrogenitus, 
his son. Their greatest poets were Theodore and Joseph of the 
Studium, and Cosmas and John (called Damascene) of St. Saba. 
Neale translated into English verse several selected portions, or 
centoes, from the works of these and others, together with four 


selections from earlier works by Anatolius. Some of his transla- 
tions particularly "The day is past and over," from Anatolius, 
and "Christian, dost thou see them," from Andrew of Crete have 
been adopted into hymn-books used in many English churches; 
and the hymn "Art thou weary," which is rather founded upon 
than translated from one by Stephen the Sabaite, has obtained 
still more general popularity. 

Western Church Hymnody. It was not till the 4th century 
that Greek Hymnody was imitated in the West, where its intro- 
duction was due to two great lights of the Latin Church St. 
Hilary of Poitiers and St. Ambrose of Milan. 

Hilary was banished from his see of Poitiers in 356, and was 
absent from it for about four years, which he spent in Asia 
Minor, taking part during that time in one of the councils of 
the Eastern Church. He thus had full opportunity of becoming 
acquainted with the Greek church music of that day; and he 
wrote (as St. Jerome, who was thirty years old when Hilary died, 
and who was well acquainted with his acts and writings, and spent 
some time in or near his diocese, informs us) a "book of hymns," 
to one of which Jerome particularly refers, in the preface to the 
second book of his own commentary on the epistle to the 
Galatians. Isidore, archbishop of Seville, who presided over 
the fourth council of Toledo, in his book on the offices of the 
church, speaks of Hilary as the first Latin hymn-writer; that 
council itself, in its i3th canon, and the prologue to the Mozara- 
bic hymnary (which is little more than a versification of the 
canonO, associate his name, in this respect, with that of Ambrose. 

Of the part taken by Ambrose, not long after Hilary's death, 
in bringing the use of hymns into the church of Milan, we have 
a contemporary account from his convert, St. Augustine. Justina, 
mother of the emperor Valentinian, favoured the Arians, and de- 
sired to remove Ambrose from his see. The "devout people," 
of whom Augustine's mother, Monica, was one, combined to pro- 
tect him, and kept guard in the church. "Then," says Augustine, 
"it was first appointed that, after the manner of the Eastern 
churches, hymns and psalms should be sung, lest the people should 
grow weary and faint through sorrow; which custom has ever 
since been retained, and has been followed by almost all congrega- 
tions in other parts of the world " He describes himself as moved 
to tears by the sweetness of these "hymns and canticles." 

It is not, however, to be assumed that the hymnody thus 
introduced by Ambrose was from the first used according to the 
precise order and method of the later Western ritual. To bring 
it into (substantially) that order and method appears to have been 
the work of St. Benedict. W r alafrid Strabo, the earliest ecclesi- 
astical writer on this subject (who lived at the beginning of the 
9th century), says that Benedict, on the constitution of the 
religious order known by his name (about 530), appointed the 
Ambrosian hymns to be regularly sung in his offices for the 
canonical hours. Hence, probably originated the practice of the 
Italian churches, and of others which followed their example, to 
sing certain hymns (Ambrosian, or by the early successors of the 
Ambrosian school) daily throughout the week, at "Vespers," 
"Lauds" and "Nocturns," and on some days at "Compline" also 
varying them with the different ecclesiastical seasons and festivals, 
commemorations of saints and martyrs and other special offices. 
The national rituals were probably the "Ambrosian" and the 
"Mozarabic" (of Spain). 

The hymns of which the use ;was thus established and author- 
ized were those which entered into the daily and other offices of 
the church, afterwards collected in the "Breviaries"; in which the 
hymns "proper" for "the week," and for "the season," continued 
for many centuries, with very few exceptions, to be derived from 
the earliest epoch of Latin Church poetry reckoning that epoch 
as extending from Hilary and Ambrose to the end of the pon- 
tificate of Gregory the Great. The "Ambrosian" music, to which 
those hymns were generally sung down to the time of Gregory, 
was more popular and congregational than the "Gregorian," which 
then came into use, and afterwards prevailed. 

In the sth and early in the 6th century the priest Sedulius, 
whose reputation perhaps exceeded his merit; Elpis, a noble 
Roman lady (considered, by an erroneous tradition, to have been 

the wife of the philosophic statesman Boetius) ; Pope Gelasius I.; 
and Ennodius, bishop of Pavia, were hymn-writers. Sedulius and 
Elpis wrote very little from which hymns could be extracted; but 
the small number taken from their compositions obtained wide 
popularity, and have since held their ground. Gelasius was of no 
great account as a hymn-writer; and the works of Ennodius ap- 
pear <to have been known only in Italy and Spain. The latter part 
of the 6th century produced Pope Gregory the Great and Venan- 
tius Fortunatus, an Italian poet, the friend of Gregory, and the 
favourite of Radegunda, queen of the Franks, who died (609) 
bishop of Poitiers. Eleven hymns of Gregory, and twelve or 
thirteen (mostly taken from longer poems) by Fortunatus, came 
into general use in the Italian, Gallican and British churches. 
Eleven metrical hymns are attributed to Bede and there are also 
in, one of Bede's works (Collectanea et flores) two rhythmical 
hymns of considerable length on the Day of Judgment, with the 
refrains "In tremendo die" and "Attcnde homo," both irregularly 
rhymed, and, in parts, not unworthy of comparison with the "Dies 
Irae." Paulinus, patriarch of Aquileia, contemporary with Paul, 
wrote rhythmical trimeter iambics in a manner peculiar to himself. 
Theodulph, bishop of Orleans (793-835), author of the famous 
processional hymn for Palm Sunday in hexameters and penta- 
meters, "Gloria, laus, et honor tibi sit, Rex Christe Redemptor" 
("Glory and honour and praise be to Thee, King Christ the Re- 
deemer"), and Hrabanus Maurus, archbishop of Mainz, the pupil 
of Alcuin, and the most learned theologian of his day, enriched the 
church with some excellent works. 

Sequences. The invention of "sequences" by Notker (d. 912), 
may be regarded as the beginning of the later mediaeval epoch of 
Latin hymnody. In the eucharistic service, in which (as has been 
stated) hymns were not generally used, it had been the practice, 
except at certain seasons, to sing "laud," or "Alleluia," between 
the epistle and the gospel, and to fill up what would otherwise 
have been a long pause, by extending the cadence upon the two 
final vowels of the "Alleluia" into a protracted strain of music. 
It occurred to Notker that, while preserving the spirit of that 
part of the service, the monotony of the interval might be relieved 
by introducing at that point a chant of praise specially composed 
for the purpose. With that view he produced the peculiar species 
of rhythmical composition which obtained the name of "sequentia" 
(probably from following after the close of the "Alleluia"), and 
also that of "prosa," because its structure was originally irregular 
and unmetrical, resembling in this respect the Greek "troparia," 
and the "Te Deum," "Benedicite" and canticles. That it was in 
some measure suggested by the forms of the later Greek hymnody 
seems probable, both from the intercourse (at that time frequent) 
between the Eastern and Western churches, and from the applica- 
tion by Ekkehard, in his biography and elsewhere (e.g., in Lynd- 
wood's Provinciate), of some technical terms, borrowed from the 
Greek terminology* to works of Notker and his school and to 
books containing them. 

The "Golden Sequence," "Veni, sancte Spiritus" ("Holy 
Spirit, Lord of Light"), is an early example of the transition 
of sequences from a simply rhythmical to a metrical form. Arch- 
bishop Trench, who esteemed it "the loveliest of all the hymns 
in the whole circle of Latin sacred poetry," inclined to give credit 
to a tradition which ascribes its authorship to Robert II , king of 
France, son of Hugh Capet. Others have assigned to it a later 
date some attributing it to Pope Innocent III., and some to 
Stephen Langton, archbishop of Canterbury. 

Dies Irae and Stabat Mater. But the two most widely cele- 
brated of all this class of compositions works which have exer- 
cised the talents of the greatest musical composers, and of innu- 
merable translators in almost all languages are the Dies Irae 
("That day of wrath, that dreadful day"), by Thomas of Celano, 
the companion and biographer of St. Francis of Assisi, and the 
Stabat Mater dolorosa ("By the cross sad vigil keeping") of Jaco- 
pone, or Jacobus de Benedictus, a Franciscan humorist and re- 
former, who was persecuted by Pope Boniface VIII. for his 
satires on the prelacy of the time, and died in 1306. Besides these, 
the 1 3th century produced the famous sequence Lauda Sion 
salvatorem ("Sion lift thy voice and sing"), and the four other 



well-known sacramental hymns of St. Thomas Aquinas, viz. Pange 
lingua gloriosi corporis tnysterium ("Sing, my tongue, the Sav 
iour's glory"), Verbum supermini prodiens ("The Word, de 
'scending from above" not to be confounded with the Ambrosian 
hymn from which it borrowed the first line), Sacris solemniis 
June fa tint gaudia ("Let us with hearts renewed our gratefu 
homage pay"), and Adoro Te devote, lalens Deltas ("0 Godhead 
hid, devoutly I adore Thee") a group of remarkable compo- 
sitions, written by him for the then new festival of Corpus Christi, 
of which he induced Pope Urban IV. (1261-1265) to decree the 

Before the time of the Reformation, the multiplication of 
sequences (often as unedifying in matter as unpoetical in style) 
had done much to degrade the common conception of hymnody, 
In some parts of France, Portugal, Sardinia and Bohemia, their 
use in the vernacular language had been allowed. In Germany 
also there were vernacular sequences as early as the i2th cen- 
tury, specimens of which may be seen in the third chapter of C. 
Winkworth's Christian Singers of Germany. Scoffing parodies 
upon sequences are said to have been among the means used in 
Scotland to discredit the old church services After the isth cen- 
tury they were discouraged at Rome They retained for a time 
some of their old popularity among German Protestants, and were 
only gradually relinquished in France. A new "prose," in honour 
of St. Maxentia, is among the compositions of Jean Bantiste San- 
teul; and Dr. Daniel's second volume closes with one written 
in 1855 upon the dogma of the Immaculate Conception. 

German Hymnody. Luther was a proficient in and a lover 
of music. He desired (as he says in the preface to his hymn- 
book of 1545) that this "beautiful ornament" might "in a right 
manner serve the great Creator and His Christian people." The 
persecuted Bohemian or Hussite Church, then settled on the 
borders of Moravia under the name of "United Brethren," 
had sent to him, on a mission in 1522, Michael Weiss, who not 
long afterwards published a number of German translations from 
old Bohemian hymns (known as those of the "Bohemian Breth- 
ren"), with some of his own. These Luther highly approved and 
recommended. He himself, in 1522, published a small volume of 
eight hymns, which was enlarged to 63 in 1527, and to 125 in 
1545. He had formed what he called a "house choir" of musical 
friends, to select such old and popular tunes (whether secular or 
ecclesiastical) as might be found suitable, and to compose new 
melodies, for church use. His fellow labourers in this field (be- 
sides Weiss) were Justus Jonas, his own especial colleague; Paul 
Eber, the disciple and friend of Mclanchthon; John Walther, 
choirmaster successively to several German princes, and pro- 
fessor of arts, etc., at Wittenberg; Nicholas Decius, who from a 
monk became a Protestant teacher in Brunswick, and translated 
the Gloria in Excehis, etc.; and Paul Speratus, chaplain to Duke 
Albert of Prussia in 1525. Some of their works are still popular 
in Germany. Weiss's "Funeral Hymn," Nun lasst uns den Leib 
begraben ("Now lay we calmly in the grave"); Eber's Herr Jcsu 
Christ, wahr Mcnsch und Gott ("Lord Jesus Christ, true Man 
and God"), and IV e tin ivir in hochsten Not hen sein ("When in 
the hour of utmost need"); Walther's "New Heavens and new 
Earth" ("Now fain rny joyous heart would sing"); Decius's 
'To God on high be thanks and praise"; and Speratus's "Sal- 
vation now has come for all," are among those which at the time 
produced the greatest effect, and are still best remembered. 

Followers of Luther. The principal hymn-writers of the 
Lutheran school, in the latter part of the i6th century, were 
Nikolaus Selnecker, Herman and Hans Sachs, the shoemaker of 
Nuremberg, also known in other branches of literature. They 
were succeeded by men of another sort, to whom F. A. Cunz gives 
the name of "master-singers," as having raised both the poetical 
and the musical standard of German hymnody: Bartholom'aus 
Ringwaldt, Ludwig Helmbold, Johannes Pappus, Martin Schall- 
ing, Rutilius and Sigismund Weingartner. The well-known English 
hymn, "Great God, what do I see and hear," is founded upon one 
by Ringwaldt, Of a quite different character were two of great 
beauty and universal popularity, composed by Philip Nicolai, a 
Westphalian pastor, during a pestilence in 1597, and published by 

him, with fine chorales, two years afterwards. One of these (the 
"Sleepers wake! a voice is calling," of Mendelssohn's oratorio, 
St. Paul) belongs to the family of Advent or New Jerusalem 
hymns. The other, a "Song of the believing soul concerning the 
Heavenly Bridegroom" (Wie schon leucht't uns der Morgenstern 
"0 morning Star, how fair and bright"), became the favourite 
marriage hymn of Germany. 

The hymns produced during the Thirty Years' War are char- 
acteristic of that unhappy time. In point of refinement and graces 
of style, the hymn-writers of this period excelled their predeces- 
sors. Their taste was chiefly formed by the influence of Martin 
Opitz, the founder of what has been "called the "first Silesian 
school" of German poetry, who died comparatively young in 1639, 
and who, though not of any great original genius, exercised much 
power as a critic. Some of the best of these works were by men 
who wrote little. In the famous battle-song of Gustavus Adolphus, 
published (1631) after the victory of Breitenfeld, for the Ube of 
his army, Verzage nicht du Hduftein klein ("Fear not, little 
flock, the foe"), we have almost certainly a composition of the 
hero-king himself, the versification corrected by his chaplain 
Jakob Fabrkius (1593-1654) and the music composed by Michael 
Altenburg, whose name has been given to the hymn. This, with 
Luther's paraphrase of the 6;th Psalm, was sung by Gustavus 
and his soldiers before the battle of Lutzen in 1632. Two very 
fine hymns, one of prayer for deliverance and peace, the other of 
trust in God under calamities, were written about the same time 
by Matthaus Lowenstern, a saddler's son, poet, musician and 
statesman, who was ennobled after the peace by the emperor 
Ferdinand III. Martin Rinckhart, in 1636, wrote the "Chorus of 
God's faithful children" (Nun danket die Gott "Now thank we 
all our God"), introduced by Mendelssohn in his Lobgesang, 
which has been called the Te Deum of Germany, being usually 
sung on occasions of public thanksgiving. Weissel, in 1635, com- 
posed a beautiful Advent hymn ("Lift up your heads, ye mighty 
gates"), and J. M. Meyfart, professor of theology at Erfurt, in 
1642, a fine adaptation of the ancient Urbs beata ffierusalem 

The most copious, and in their day most esteemed, hymn- 
writers of the first half of the i;th century, were Johann Heer- 
mann and Johann Rist. Heermann, a pastor in Silesia, the theatre 
(in a peculiar degree) of war and persecution, experienced in his 
own person a very large share of the miseries of the time, and 
several times narrowly escaped a violent death. His Devoti 
musica cordis, published in 1630, reflects the feelings natural 
under such circumstances. Next to Heermann and Rist in fer- 
tility of production, and above them in poetical genius, was Simon 
Dach, professor of poetry at Konigsberg, who died in 1659. 

Gerhardt. The fame of all these writers was eclipsed in the 
latter part of the same century by three of the greatest hymno- 
graphers whom Germany has produced Paul Gerhardt (1604- 
1676), Johann Franck (1618-1677) and Johann Scheffler (1624- 
1677), the founder of the "second Silesian school," who assumed 
the name of "Angelus Silesius." Gerhardt is by universal consent 
the prince of Lutheran poets. One of his hymns is well known 
and highly appreciated in English through Wesley's translation, 
"Commit thou all thy ways"; and the evening and spring-tide 
hymns ("Now all the woods are sleeping" and "Go forth, my 
heart, and seek delight") show an exquisite feeling for nature; 
while nothing can be more tender and pathetic than Du bist zwar 
mem und bleibest mein ("Thou'rt mine, yes, still thou art mine 
own"), on^the death of his son. Franck, who was burgomaster 
of Guben in Lusatia, has been considered by some second only 
:o Gerhardt. It was after his conversion to Roman Catholicism 
.hat Scheffler adopted the name of "Angelus Silesius/' and pub- 
lished in 1657 his hymns, under a fantastic title, and with a still 
more fantastic preface. 

The Pietists. Towards the end of the i7th century, a new 
religious school arose, to which the name of "Pietists" was given, 
and of which Phijipp Jakob Spener was esteemed the founder. 
He and his pupils and successors, August Hermann Francke and 
Anastasius Freylinghausen, all wrote hymns. Spener's hymns 
are not remarkable, and Francke's are not numerous. 

Joachim Neander, a schoolmaster at DOsseldorf, and a friend 


of Spener and Schutz (who died before the full development of 
the "Pietistic" school), was the first man of eminence in the 
"Reformed" or Calvinistic Church who imitated Lutheran 
hymnody. The Summer Hymn ("O Thou true God alone") and 
that on the glory of God in creation ("Lo, heaven and earth and 
sea and air") are instances of his best style. 

With the "Pietists" may be classed Benjamin Schmoike and 
Dessler, representatives of the "Orthodox" division of Spener's 
school; Philipp Friedrich Hiller, their leading poet in South 
Germany; Gottfried Arnold and Gerhard Tcrsteegen, who were 
practically independent of ecclesiastical organization, though con- 
nected, one with the "Orthodox" and the other with the "Re- 
formed" churches; and Nikolaus Ludwig, Graf von Zinzendorf. 
Schmoike, a pastor in Silesia, called the Silesiao Rist (1672- 
!737)> was perhaps the most voluminous of all German hymn- 
writers. He wrote 1,188 religious poems and hymns, a large pro- 
portion of which do not rise above mediocrity. 

Gellert and Klopstock. The transition from Tersteegen and 
Zinzendorf to Gellert and Klopstock marks strongly the reaction 
against Pietism which took place towards the middle of the i8th 
century The Geistttchen Oden und Lieder of Christian F. Gellert 
were published in 1757, and are said to have been received with 
an enthusiasm almost like that which "greeted Luther's hymns on 
their first appearance." It is a proof of the moderation both of the 
author and of his times that they were largely used, not only by 
Protestant congregations, but in those German Roman Catholic 
churches in which vernacular services had been established through 
the influence of the emperor Joseph II. They became the model 
which was followed by most succeeding hymn-writers, and' ex- 
ceeded all others in popularity till the close of the century, when 
a new wave of thought was generated by the movement which 
produced the French Revolution. Klopstock, the author of the 
Messiah, cannot be considered great as a hymn-writer, though his 
"Sabbath Hymn" (of which there is a version in Hymns from the 
Land of Luther) is simple and good. Generally his hymns (ten of 
which are translated in Sheppard's Foreign Sacred Lyre) are arti- 
ficial and much too elaborate. 

The "Romantic" School. Of the "romantic" school, which 
came in with the French Revolution, the two leading writers are 
Friedrich Leopold von Hardenberg, called "Novalis," and Fried- 
rich de la Motte Fouque, the celebrated author of Undine and 
Sintram both romance-writers, as well as poets. The genius of 
Novalis was early lost to the world; he died in 1801, not thirty 
years old. Some of his hymns are very beautiful; but even in 
such works as "Though all to Thee were faithless," and "If only 
He is mine," there is a feeling of insulation and of despondency 
as to good in the actual world, which was perhaps inseparable 
from his ecclesiastical idealism. Fouque survived till 1843. 

The later German hymn-writers of the iQth century belong, 
generally, to the revived "Pietistic" school. Some of the best, 
Johann Baptist von Albertini, Friedrich Adolf Krummacher, and 
especially Karl Johann Philipp Spitta (1801-59) have produced 
works not unworthy of the fame of their nation. 

British Hymnody. After the Reformation, the develop- 
ment of hymnody was retarded, in both parts of Great Britain, 
by the example and influence of Geneva. Archbishop Cranmer 
appears at one time to have been disposed to follow Luther's 
course, and to present to the people, in an English dress, some at 
least of the hymns of the ancient church. In a letter to King 
Henry VIII (Ott 7, 1 544), among some new "processions" which 
he had himself translated into English, he mentions the Easter 
hymn, Salve, jest a dies, to to memorabilis aevo ("Hail, glad day, 
to be joyfully kept through all generations"), of Fortunatus. In 
the "Primer" of 1535 (by Marshall) and the one of 1539 (by 
Bishop Hilsey of Rochester, published by order of the vicar- 
general Cromwell) there had been several rude English hymns, 
none of them taken from ancient sources. King Henry's "Primer" 
of 1545 (commanded by his injunction of May 6, 1545 to be 
used throughout his dominions) was formed on the model of 
the daily offices of the Breviary; and it contains English metrical 
translations from some of the best-known Ambrosian and other 
early hymns. But in the succeeding reign different views prevailed. 

A new direction had been given to the taste of the "Reformed" 
congregations in France and Switzerland by the French metrical 
translation of the Old Testament Psalms, which appeared about 
1540. This was the joint work of Clement Marot, valet or groom 
of the chamber to Francis I., and Theodore Beza, then a mere 
youth, fresh from his studies at Orleans. 

The translation commonly known as the "Old Version" of the 
Psalms, was begun by Thomas Sternhokl, whose position in the 
household of Henry VIII , and afterwards of Edward VI., was 
similar to that of Marot with Francis I , and whose services to 
the former of those kings were rewarded by a substantial legacy 
under his will. Sternhold published versions of nineteen Psalms, 
with a dedication to King Edward, and died soon afterwards. A 
second edition appeared in 1551, with eighteen more Psalms added, 
of Sternhold 's translating and seven others by John Hopkins, a 
Suffolk clergyman. The work was continued during Queen Mary's 
reign by British refugees at Geneva, the chief of whom were 
William Whittingham, afterwards dean of Durham, who succeeded 
John Knox as minister of the English congregation there, and 
William Kethe or Keith, said by Strype to have been a Scotsman. 
They published at Geneva in 1556 a service-book, containing 
fifty-one English metrical psalms, which number was increased, in 
later editions, to eighty-seven. On the accession of Queen Eliza- 
beth, this Genevan Psalmody was at once brought into use in 
England first (according to a letter of Bishop Jewell to Peter 
Martyr, dated 5th March 1560) in one London church, from 
which it quickly spread to others both in London and in other 
cities. The first edition of the completed "Old Version" appeared 
in 1562. 

In this book, as published in 1562, and for many years after- 
wards, there were (besides the versified Psalms) eleven metrical 
versions of the Te Deum, canticles, Lord's Prayer (the best of 
which is that of the Benedictte)', and also Da pacem, Domine, 
a hymn suitable to the times, rendered into English from Luther; 
two original hymns of praise, to be sung before morning and 
evening prayer; two penitential hymns (one of them the "humble 
lamentation of a sinner") ; and a hymn of faith, beginning, "Lord, 
in Thee is all my trust " In these resp>ects, and also in the tunes 
which accompanied the words (stated by Dr. Charles Burncy, in 
his History of Music, to be German, and not French), there was 
a departure from the Genevan platform. 

Scottish Psalms. In Scotland, the General Assembly of the 
kirk caused to be printed at Edinburgh in 1564, and enjoined the 
use of, a book entitled The Form of Prayers and Ministry of the 
Sacraments used in the English Church at Geneva, approved and 
received by the Church of Scotland; whereto, besides that was in 
the former books, are also added sundry other prayers, with the 
whole Psalms of David in Enqlhh metre This contained, from 
the "Old Version," translations of forty Psalms by Sternhold, 
fifteen by Whittingham, twenty-six by Kethe and thirty-five by 
Hopkins. Of the remainder two were by John Pulleyn (one of the 
Genevan refugees, who became archdeacon of Colchester); six 
by Robert Pont, Knox's son-in-law, who was a minister of the 
kirk, and also a lord of session; and fourteen signed with the 
initials I.C , supposed to be John Craig; one was anonymous, eight 
were attributed to N , two to M. and one to T N respectively. 

So matters continued in both churches until the Civil War. 
During the interval, King James 1. conceived the project of 
himself making a new version of the Psalms, and appears to have 
translated thirty-one of them the correction of which, together 
with the translation of the rest, he entrusted to Sir William 
Alexander, afterwards earl of Stirling Sir William having com- 
pleted his task. King Charles I. had it examined and approved by 
several archbishops and bishops of England, Scotland and Ireland, 
and caused it to be printed in 1631 at the Oxford University 
Press, as the work of King James; and, by an order under the 
royal sign manual, recommended its use in all churches of his 
dominions. In 1634 he enjoined the Privy Council of Scotland 
not to suffer any other psalms, "of any edition whatever," to be 
printed in or imported into that kingdom. In 1636 it Was repub- 
lished, and was attached to the famous Scottish service-book, with 
which the troubles began in 1637 When the Long Parliament 



undertook in 1642, the task of choosing between the rival transla- 
tions of the Psalms by Rouse and Barton, Rouse's version was 
chosen and was received in Scotland with great favour, which it 
has ever since retained. The "New Version" of the Psalms, by 
Dr. Nicholas Brady and the poet-laureate Nahum Tate (both 
Irishmen), appeared in 1696, under the sanction of an order in 
council of William III. The relative merits of the "Old" and 
"New" versions have been very variously estimated. Competent 
judges have given the old the praise, which certainly cannot be 
accorded to the new, of fidelity to the Hebrew. 

Wither, Cosin, Milton and Taylor. Conspicuous among 
the sacred poets of the first two Stuart reigns in England was 
George Wither. His Hymnes and Songs of the Church appeared 
in 1622-1623, under a patent of King James 1 , by which they were 
declared "worthy and profitable to be inserted, in convenient man- 
ner and due place, into every English Psalm-book to metre." His 
Hallelujah (in which some of the former Hymnes and Songs were 
repeated) followed in 1641. John Cosin, afterwards bishop of 
Durham, published in 1627 a volume of "Private Devotions," for 
the canonical hours and other occasions. The hymns of Milton 
(on the Nativity, Passion, Circumcision and "at a Solemn 
Music"), written about 1629, in his early manhood, were prob- 
ably not intended for singing. During the Commonwealth, in 
1654, Jeremy Taylor published at the end of his Golden Grove, 
twenty-one hymns. 

Restoration Period. The epoch of the Restoration produced 
in 1664 Samuel Grossman's Young Man's Calling, with a few 
"Divine Meditations" in verse attached to it; in 1668 John 
Austin's Devotions in the ancient way of offices, with psalms, 
hymns and prayers for every day in the week and every holyday 
in the year; and in 1681 Richard Baxter's Poetical Fragments. 
In these books there are altogether seven or eight hymns, the 
whole or parts of which are extremely good. 

Dryden, Ken, Patrick and Addison. Dryden's transla- 
tion of "Veni Creator" a cold and laboured performance, is to be 
met with in many hymn-books. Abridgments of Ken's morning 
and evening hymns are in all. These, with the midnight hymn, 
which istnot inferior to them, first appeared in 1697, appended to 
the third edition of the author's Manual of Prayers for Winchester 
Scholars. Bishop Patrick's hymns were chiefly translations from 
the Latin, most of them from Prudentius. The best is a version 
of Alleluia dulce carmen. 

Of the five attributed to Addison, not more than three are 
adapted to public singing; one ("The spacious firmament on 
high") is a perfect and finished composition, taking rank among 
the best hymns in the English language. 

From the preface to Simon Browne's hymns, published in 1720, 
we learn that down to the time of Dr. Watts the only hymns 
known to be "in common use, either in private families or in 
Christian assemblies," were those of Barton, Mason and Shep- 
herd, together with "an attempt to turn some of George Herbert's 
poems into common metre," and a few sacramental hymns by 
authors now forgotten, named Joseph Boyse (1660-1728) and 
Joseph Stennett. Of the 1,410 authors of original British hymns 
enumerated in Daniel Sedgwick's catalogue, published in 1863, 
1,213 are of later date than 1707; and, if any correct enumeration 
could be made of the total number of hymns of all kinds pub- 
lished in Great Britain before and after that date, the proportion 
subsequent to 1707 would be very much larger. 

The English Independents, as represented by Dr. Isaac Watts, 
have a just claim to be considered the real founders of modern 
English hymnody. Watts was the first to understand the nature 
of the want, and, by the publication of his Hymns in 1707-1709, 
and Psalms (not translations, but hymns founded on psalms) in 
1 709, he led the way in providing for it. His immediate followers 
were Simon Browne and Philip Doddridge. Later in the i8th cen- 
tury, Joseph Hart, Thomas Gibbons, Miss Anne Steele, Samuel 
Medley, Samuel Stennett, John Ryland, Benjamin Beddome and 
Joseph Swain succeeded to them. 

Isaac Watts. Among these writers, most of whom produced 
some hymns of merit, and several are extremely voluminous, 
Isaac Watts and Philip Doddridge are pre-eminent. 

Of the other followers in the school of Watts, Miss Anne 
(1717-1778) is the most popular and perhaps the best. The in- 
fluence of Watts was felt in Scotland, and among the first whom 
it reached there was Ralph Erskine. This seems to have been after 
the publication of Erskine's Gospel Sonnets which appeared in 
1732, five years before he joined his brother Ebenezer in the 
Secession Church. The Gospel Sonnets became as some have said, 
a "people's classic"; but there is in them very little which belongs 
to the category of hymnody. 

Scottish Paraphrases and Methodist Hymns. Of the con- 
tributions to the authorized "Paraphrases" (with the settlement 
of which committees of the General Assembly of the Church of 
Scotland were occupied from 1745, or earlier, till 1781), the most 
noteworthy, besides the two already mentioned, were those of 
John Morrison and those claimed for Michael Bruce. The obliga- 
tions of these "Paraphrases" to English hymnody, already traced 
in some instances (to which may be added the adoption from 
Addison of three out of the five "hymns" appended to them), 
are perceptible in the vividness and force with which these writers, 
while adhering with a severe simplicity to the sense of the pas- 
sages of Scripture which they undertook to render, fulfilled the 
conception of a good original hymn. The "Methodist" movement, 
which began about 1738, afterwards ' became divided, between 
those who esteemed Arminian, under John Wesley, those who ad- 
hered to the Moravians, when the original alliance between that 
body and the founders of Methodism was dissolved, and the 
Calvinists, of whom Whitfield was the leader, and Selina, countess 
of Huntingdon, the patroness. Each of these sections had its own 
hyrnn-writers, some of whom did, and others did not, secede from 
the Church of England. The Wesleyans had Charles Wesley, Rob- 
ert Seagrave and Thomas Olivers; the Moravians, John Cennick, 
with whom, perhaps, may be classed John Byrom, who imbibed 
the mystical ideas of some of the German schools ; the Calvinists, 
Augustus Montague Toplady, John Berridge, William Williams, 
Martin Madan, Thomas Haweis, Rowland Hill, John Newton and 
William Cowper. 

Among all these writers, the palm undoubtedly belongs to 
Charles Wesley. In the first volume of hymns published by the 
two brothers are several good translations from the German, be- 
lieved to be by John Wesley, who, although he translated and 
adapted, is not supposed to have written any original hymns; and 
the influence of German hymnody, particularly of the works of 
Paul Gerhardt, Scheffler, Tersteegen and Zinzendorf, may be 
traced in a large proportion of Charles Wesley's works. 

The Moravian Methodists produced few hymns now available 
for general use. The best are Cennick's "Children of the heavenly 
King" and Hammond's "Awake and sing the song of Moses and 
the Lamb," the former of which (abridged), and the latter as 
varied by Madan, are found in many hymn-books, and are de- 
servedly esteemed. John Byrom, whose name we have thought it 
convenient to connect with these, was the author of a Christmas 
hymn ("Christians awake, salute the happy morn") which en- 
joys great popularity. 

The contributions of the Calvinistic Methodists to English 
hymnody are of greater extent and value. Few writers of hymns 
had higher gifts than Toplady, author of "Rock of ages," by some 
esteemed the finest in the English language. 

Berridge, William Williams (1717-1791) and Rowland Hill, all 
men remarkable for eccentricity, activity and the devotion of 
their lives to the special work of missionary preaching, though not 
the authors of many good hymns, composed, or adapted from 
earlier compositions, some of great merit. 

Cowper and Newton. If, however, the number as well as the 
quality of good hymns available for general use is to be regarded, 
the authors of the Olney Hymns are entitled to be placed at the 
head of all the writers of this Calvinistic school. The greater 
number of the Olney Hymns are, no doubt, homely and didactic ; 
but to the best of them, and they are no inconsiderable propor- 
tion, the tenderness of Cowper and the manliness of John Newton 
(1725-1807) give the interest of contrast, as well as that of sus- 
tained reality. The Remains of Henry Kirke White, published by 
Southey in 1807, contained f series of hymns, some of which are 


still in use ; and a few of Bishop Heber's hymns and those of Sir 
Robert Grant, which, though offending rather too much against 
John Newton's canon, are well known and popular, appeared be- 
tween 1811 and 1816, in the Christian Observer. In John Bowd- 
ler's Remains, published soon after his death in 1815, there are 
a few more of the same, perhaps too scholarlike, character. But 
the chief hymn-writers of that period were two clergymen of the 
Established Church one in Ireland, Thomas Kelly, and the other 
in England, William Hum who both became Nonconformists, 
and the Moravian poet, James Montgomery (1771-1854), a native 
of Scotland. 

Collections of Hymns. During this period, the collections of 
miscellaneous hymns for congregational use, of which the example 
was set by the Wesleys, Whitfielcl, Toplady and Lady Huntingdon, 
had greatly multiplied; and with them the practice (for which, 
indeed, too many precedents existed in the history of Latin and 
German hymnody) of every collector altering the compositions of 
other men without scruple, to suit his own doctrine or taste; with 
the effect, too generally, of patching and disfiguring, spoiling and 
emasculating the works so altered, substituting neutral tints for 
natural colouring, and a dead for a living sense. In the Church of 
England the use of these collections had become frequent in 
churches and chapels, principally in cities and towns, where the 
sentiments of the clergy approximated to those of the Noncon- 

Two publications, which appeared almost simultaneously in 1827 
Bishop Heber's Hymns, with a few added by Dean Milman, and 
John Keble's Christian Year (not a hymn-book, but one from 
which several admirable hymns have been taken, and the well- 
spring of many streams of thought and feeling by which good 
hymns have since been produced) introduced a new epoch, 
breaking down the barrier as to hymnody which had till then 
existed between the different theological schools of the Church of 
England. In this movement Richard Mant, bishop of Down, 
was also one of the first to co-operate It soon received a great 
additional impulse from the increased attention which, about the 
same time, began to be paid to ancient hymnody, and from the 
publication in 1833 f Bunscn's Gesangbuch Among its earliest 
fruits was the Lyra apostolico, containing hymns, sonnets and 
other devotional poems, most of them originally contributed by 
some of the leading authors of the Tracts for the Times to the 
British Magazine; the finest of which is the pathetic "Lead, kindly 
light, amid th' encircling gloom," by Cardinal Newman well 
known, and universally admired From that time hymns and 
hymn-writers rapidly multiplied in the Church of England, and 
in Scotland also. Nearly 600 authors whose publications were later 
than 1827 arc enumerated in Sedgwick's catalogue of 1863, and 
about half a million hymns are now in existence. Works, critical 
and historical, upon the subject of hymns, have also multiplied; 
and collections for chjurch use have become innumerable several 
of the various religious denominations, and many of the leading 
ecclesiastical and religious societies, having issued hymn-books of 
their own, in addition to those compiled for particular dioceses, 
churches and chapels, and to books (like Hymns Ancient and 
Modern, published 1861, supplemented 1889, revised edition, 
1905) which have become popular without any sanction from 
authority. Among the best known American hymn-wrilers are 
John Greenleaf Whittier, Bishop Doane, Dr. W. A. Muhlenberg 
and Thomas Hastings ; and it is difficult to praise too highly such 
works as the Christmas hymn, "It came upon the midnight clear," 
by Edmund H. Sears; the Ascension hymn, "Thou, who didst stoop 
below," by Mrs. S. E. Miles; two by Dr. Ray Palmer, "My faith 
looks up to Thcc, Thou Lamb of Calvary," and <l jesus, Thou 
joy of loving hearts," the latter of which is the best among several 
good English versions of Jesu, dutcedo, cordium; and "Lord of 
all being, throned afar," by Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

The more modern " Moody and Sankey" hymns (see MOODY, 
D. L.) popularized a new Evangelical type, and the Salvation 
Army has carried this still farther. 

The object aimed at in this article has been to trace the general 
history of the principal schools of ancient and modern hymnody, 
and especially the history of its use in the Christian church. For 

this purpose it has not been thought necessary to give any account 
of the hymns of Racine, Madame Guyon and others, who can 
hardly be classed with any school, nor of the works of Caesar 
Malan of Geneva (1787-1864) and other quite modern hymn- 
writers of the Reformed churches in Switzerland and France. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. I. Ancient. George Cassander, Hymni ecclesiastic! 
(Cologne, 1556) ; Georgius Fabnuus, Poetarum veterum ecclesiasti- 
corum (Frankfort, 1578); Cardinal J. M Thomasiub, Hymnarium in 
Opera, ii. 351 seq. (Rome, 1747); A J. Rambach, Anthologie christ- 
hcher Gesdnge (Altona, 1817) ; H. A. Daniel, Thesaurus hymnolo^icus 
(Leipzig, 5 vols , 1841-56) ; J. M Ncale, Hymm ecdesiae et sequential 
(London, 1851-52); and Hymns of the Eastern Church (1863). The 
dissertation prefixed to the second volume of the Ada samtorum of the 
Bollandists; Cardinal J. B. Pitra, Hymnographie de Vtglise grecque 
(1867), Analecta sacra (1876) ; W. Christ and M. Paranikas, Antho- 
logia Graeca carminum Christ ianorum (Leipzig, 1871) ; F. A. March, 
Latin Hymns with English Notes (New York, 187:5) ; R. C. Trench, 
Sacred Latin Poetry (London, 4th ed , 1874) ; J Pauly, Hymni bre- 
viarii Romani (Aix-la-Chapelle, 3 vols, 1868-70), Pimont, Les 
Hymnes du brMaire romain (vols. 1-3, 1874-84, unfinished) ; A. W. F. 
Fischer, Kirchenlieder-Lexicon (Gotha, 1878-70) ; J Kavscr, BeitrdKe 
zur Geschichte der dltesten Kirchenhyntnen (1881) , M. Manitius, Ge- 
schichte der christlichen lateinischen Poetic (Stuttgart, 1891) ; John 
Julian, Dictionury of Hymnology (1892, new ed 1907). For criticisms 
of metre, see also Huemer, Unierwchungen uber die alteiten Christ- 
lichen Rhythmen (1879) ; E. Bouvv, Poetei et mMode\ (Mimes, 1886) ; 
C. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzuntini \ehen Literatur (Munich, 
1897, p. 700 seq ) ; J. M. Neale, Latin dissertation prefixed to Daniel's 
Thesaurus, vol. 5; and D. J. Donahoc, Early Christian Hymns (Lon- 
don, 1909). 

II. Mediaeval. Walafrid Strabo's treatise, ch. 25, De hymnis, etc ; 
Radulph of Tongres, De psaltario obwrvando (i4th century) ; Clichta- 
vaens, Elucidatorium ecclesmsticum (Pans, 1^56) ; Faustinus Arcvalus, 
Hymnodia Htspamca (Rome, 1780) ; K. du Menl, Poesies populaires 
lattnes ant&rieures au XlII f vecle (Paris, 1843) , J Stevenson, Latin 
Hymns of the Anglo-Sawn Church (Surtecs Society, Durham, 1851) ; 
Norman, Hymnarium Sarisbunense (London, 1851) , J D. Chambers, 
Psalter, etc , according to the Sarum use (1852) , F J Mone, Latein- 
ische Hymnen des Mittekilten (Freiburg, 3 vols, 185^-55); Ph. 
Wackernagel, Das deutsche Kirchenlied von der alte\ten Zett bis zum 
An fang des 17. Jahrhunderts, vol i (Leipzig, 1864) ; E Dummler, 
Poetae latini aevi Carohni (1881-90) ; the HymnoLt&tsche Beitrage: 
Quellen und Forschungen zur Gevhnhte d<r hiteinischen Hymnen- 
dichtung, edited by C. Blumc and G M Dre\es (Leipzig, 1897) ; G. C. 
F. Mohnike, Hymnologische For\rhnngen; Klemming, Hymni et 
sequential in regno Sueciae (Stockholm, 4 vols , 1885-87) , Das katho- 
lische deutsche Kirchenlied (vol. i by K Sevenn Meister, 1862, vol. ii. 
by W. Baumker, 1883) ; the "H>mnodia Hiberica," Spamsche 'Hymnen 
des Mittelalters, vol. xvi (1894); the "Hymnodia Gptica," Moza- 
rabische Hymnen des altspanischcn Rttus, vol xxvii (1897) ; J. 
Dank6, Vetus Hymnanum ecclesia\ticae Hunganae (Budapest, 1893); 
J. H. Bernard and R. Atkinson, The Insh Liber Ilymnorum (2 vols., 
London, 1898) ; C. A. J. Chevalier, Pot tie hturgique du moyen age 
(Paris, 1893). 

III. Modern J. C. Jacobi, Puilmodia Germamca (1722-25 and 
1732, with supplement added by J Haberkorn, 1765) , I A Cun/, 
Geschichte des deutschen Ktrch'enliedes (Leipzig, 1855) ; Baron von 
Bunsen, Versuch etnes allgememui Gesang- und Gebetbuches (i8n) 
and Allgemeines evangehuhe* Gesang- und Gebetbmh (1846) ; Cath- 
erine Winkworth, Christian Singen of Germany (1869) and Lyra 
Germanica (1855); Cathcnne H Dunn, Hymm from the German 
(1857); Frances E Cox, Sacred Hymns from the German (London, 
1841) ; Massie, Lyra domestica (1860) ; Appendix on Scottish Psalm- 
ody in D. Laing's edition of Bailhe's Letters and Journals (1841-4^) ; 
J. and C. Wesley, Collection of Psalms and Hymns (i740; Josiah 
Miller, Our Hymns, their Authors and Orn>m (1866) ; John Gadsby, 
Memoirs of the Principal Hymn-writers (3rd ed , i860 ; L C. Biggs, 
Annotations to Hymns Ancient and Modern (1867) , Daniel Sedgwick, 
Comprehensive Indev of Name? of Original Authors of Hymns (2nd 
ed , 1863) ; R. E. Prothero, The Psalms in Human Ltfe (1907) ; C. J. 
Brandt and L. Helwcg, Den danske Psalmedigtmng (Copenhagen, 
1846-47); J. N. Skaar, Norsk Salmehistorie (Bergen, 1879-80); H. 
Schiick, Svensk Literatur hist oria (Stockholm, 1890) ; Rudolf Wolkan, 
Geschichte de deutschen Literatur in Bohmen, 246-256, and Das 

Kirchenlied der bohm Bruder (Prague, 1891); Zahn, Die 

geistlichen LieJcr der Bruder in Bohmen, Mahren u. Polen (Nurem- 
berg, 1875); and J Muller, "Bohemian Brethren's Hymnody," in J. 
Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology. 

For account of hymn-tunes, etc , see W. Cowan and James Love, 
Music of the Chitrch Hymnody and the Psalter in Metre (London, 
1901); and Dickinson, Music rn the History of the Western Church 
(New York, iQO2); S. Kilmmerle, Encyklopddie der evangelischen 
Kirchenmusik (4 vols., i888-<)5) ; Chr. Palmer, Evangelische Hym- 
nologie (Stuttgart, 1865) ; and P. Utto Kornmuller, Lexikon der kirch- 
lichen Tonkunst (1891); F. J. Sillman, The Story of Our Hymns 
(1921) ; H. E. Langhorne, Some Favourite Hymns (1924). 



HYNDMAN, HENRY MAYERS (1842-1921), founder 
of British Socialism, was born in London on March 7, the son of 
a wealthy man He was educated at Trinity college, Cambridge 
and travelled extensively. lie was deeply influenced by the Paris 
Commune and in 1881 joined with several extreme Radicals in 
forming the London Democratic Federation which advocated 
views which were practically Socialist. For its first conference 
(June 1881) he wrote England for All, the first Socialist book 
published in England since the collapse of Owenisrn. In this he 
expounded the views of Karl Marx, which he now finally adopted. 
But as he omitted to make what Marx felt was the necessary 
acknowledgment of his indebtedness, Marx was offended and 
Engels who disliked Hyndman deliberately widened the breach. 
The chief, and indeed only exponent of Marxism in the country 
where Marx lived was thus not on speaking terms with his leader. 
This, however, did not stop the spread of Marxist Socialism. The 
Democratic Federation in 1884 became the Social Democratic 
Federation and nearly all the prominent Socialists of the new 
generation, except J. Keir Hardic, were moulded by Hyndman. 
William Morris, John Burns, Tom Mann, 11. H. Champion, George 
Lansbury and Harry Quelch were among his colleagues and pupils. 
But it was significant of Hyndman 's failings that of these named 
above only one succeeded in working with him for any long space 
of time. Hyndman remained always an aristocrat among the 
Socialists. He was proud and dominant in his manners intellec- 
tually intolerant, and resentful of criticism or disagreement. Even 
when distributing leaflets announcing meetings he always wore 
a top hat and frock-coat, and he frequently in Trafalgar square 
or elsewhere, taunted his ragged audiences with being such fools 
as to provide the money on which such as he could dress so 
well. But the qualities of his defects were also present his indom- 
itable energy which enabled him to create a Socialist movement 
almost from the void, his self sacrifice and patience, and his up- 
rightness and hatred of compromise and of loose thinking. In the 
late J 8os the Socialist and unemployed movement blew suddenly 
up to an enormous size; the riots in Trafalgar square were suc- 
ceeded by the famous dock strike (1889); and for a short while 
public opinion, hostile or friendly, magnified the importance of 
the S D.F. and its leader, whom it credited with the control and 
inspiration of these occurrences. 

With the return of better trade in the 'QOS the explosive period 
of Ilyndman's career ended, though he incurred plenty of hostility 
by his denunciation of the Boer War. He was severely critical of 
the policy of both the Independent Labour Party and the Labour 
Party, and till 1914 was the acknowledged chief of a small, but 
hard working and influential party of doctrinaire revolutionaries. 
But on the outbreak of the World War, to the surprise of his 
followers, he became a strong nationalist, and later on equally 
vehement anti-Bolshevik. For the first time he was unable to 
carry his party with him: in 1915 the British Socialist Party (as 
it had become) ousted him and his sympathizers from control. 
They formed a small group known as the "National Socialist 
Party." He expounded his new views in The Evolution of Revolu- 
tion (1920). He died on November 22, 1921. 

See his own Record of an Adventurous Life (1911) and Further 
Reminiscences (1912) ; Mrs. R. T. Hyndman, The Last Years of H. M. 
Hyndman (1923) ; and F. J. Gould, Hyndman, Prophet of Socialism 

HYOGO, a town and district of Japan in the province of 
Settsu, on the western shore of the bay of Osaka, adjoining the 
foreign settlement of Kobe, 21 m W. of Osaka by rail. The 
growth of its prosperity has been very remarkable Its population, 
including that of Kobe, is nearly 1,000,000. Silk and cotton- 
fabrics and matches are the chief industries. 

Hyogo has se\eral temples of interest, one of which has near it 
a huge bronze statue of Buddha, while by the Minatogawa, which 
flows into the sea between Hyogo and Kobe, a temple com- 
memorates the spot where Kusunoki Masashige, the mirror, of 
Japanese loyalty, met his death in battle in 1336. The temple of 
Ikuta was erected on the site of the ancient fane built by Jingo 
on her return from Korea in the 3rd century. 

Hyogo was originally known as Bako and as early as the I2th 
century was of some maritime importance. (See KOBE.) 

HYOSCINE is the chief of the alkaloids (q.v.) of Datura 
metel, and is colourless syrup, soluble in most ordinary solvents, 
and yielding crystalline salts. (Its formula is CnftiChN.) Of 
these the hydrobromide, CnH 2 iOiN, HBr,3H 2 0, is that generally 
used in medicine. It forms colourless rhombs, which melt at 193- 
i94C. Hyoscine is optically active (see STEREOCHEMISTRY), the 
natural base being laevo-rotatory ([ a]o= 18 to 28). It is 
also known as scopolamine and atroscine. 

Laevo-hyoscine is easily racemized to atroscine (compare atro- 
pine) which can be crystallized and yields crystalline salts, usually 
melting io-i4C below the corresponding salts of the natural 
laevo-bzse. Hyoscine is a mydriatic, like atropine, but is princi- 
pally used as a sedative in acute mania, and with morphine to 
produce the so-called "twilight sleep" in maternity cases. Chem- 
ically, hyoscine is closely related to atropine. 

HYOSCYAMINE, one of the alkaloids (q v.) of belladonna 
(q.v.). It is the chief source of atropine (q.v.), to which it stands 
in the relation of laevo-rotatory optical isomer, being converted to 
atropine by racemization (see STEREOCHEMISTRY). It crystallizes, 
like atropine, in colourless prisms, has a melting point 108-5 C, a 
specific rotation [ ] 22, and the chemical formula CnHzsOaN. 
The sulphate forms needles from alcohol, has a melting point 
206 C, and is the salt generally used in medicine. 

HYPAETHRUS, an architectural term used by Vitruvius 
for an opening in the roof to admit light. Alternative forms are 
hypaethros and hypaethrum. Many students of Greek temples, 
especially James Fergusson and T. J. Hittorff, basing their con- 
clusions upon the Vitruvian reference to such an hypaethrus in 
the temple of Zeus Olympius at Athens, and upon coping tiles 
found in the temple at Aegina, have concluded that all Greek 
temples had some such method of admitting light. Moreover, late 
Greek tombs at Cyrene and Delos show raised copings in the 
centre of the roof as though for such an opening. And according 
to Strabo (c. 50 B.C.), the temple of Apollo Didymacus at Miletus 
(second half of 4th century B.C ) had its entire vast cella open 
to the sky and planted with groves of laurel. Pausanias, however, 
states that this temple was never completed; if this is so a roof 
may have been planned originally. 

The consensus of modern opinion is counter to the idea that 
the hypaethrus was a common feature. No arrangements for 
drainage have been found in connection with Greek temples, and 
the very reference of Vitruvius on which the speculations of 
Fergusson, Hittorff and others are based seems to point to the 
arrangement as exceptional enough to warrant mention, and used 
only in the largest buildings. Thus the ordinary temple would 
be lighted only by the enormous doorway; certainly light thus 
obtained would furnish a more beautiful and impressive illumina- 
tion than any direct glare from above (T. F. H.) 

HYPATIA (A.D. 37o?-4i5), Neoplatonic philosopher, born 
in Alexandria, was the daughter of Theon, author of a scholia on 
Euclid and a commentary on the Almagest, in which it is suggested 
that he was assisted by Hypatia. Lecturing in her native city, 
Hypatia ultimately became the recognized head of the Neoplatonic 
school there (c. 400). Her remarkable intellectual gifts, eloquence 
and modesty, combined with her beauty, attracted many pupils. 
Among these was Synesius, afterwards (c. 410) bishop of Ptole- 
mai's, several of whose letters to her, full of admiration and 
reverence, are extant. Shortly after the accession of Cyril to the 
patriarchate of Alexandria in 412, owing to her intimacy with 
Orestes, the pagan prefect of the city, Hypatia was barbarously 
murdered (Mar. 415) by a fanatical Christian mob. Socrates 
(Hist. Eccl. vii. 15) has related how she was torn from her chariot, 
dragged to the Caesareum (then a Christian church), stripped 
naked, done to death with oyster-shells and finally burnt. 

Hypatia, according to Suidas, wrote commentaries on the Arith- 
mctica of Diophantus of Alexandria, on the Conies of Apollonius 
of Perga and on the astronomical canon (of Ptolemy), which are 
now lost. Little is known of her philosophical opinions, but she 
appears to have embraced the intellectual rather than the mystical 
side of Neoplatonism, and to have been a follower of Plotinus 
rather than of Porphyry and lamblichus. 

See Fabriciuh, Bibliotheca Graeca (cd, Harles), ix. 187; John Toland, 



Tetradymus (1720) ; R. Hochc in Philologus (1860), xv. 435; mono- 
graphs by Stephan Wolf (Czernowitz, 1879), H. Ligier (Dijon, 1880) 
and W. A. Meyer (Heidelberg, 188$), who devotes attention to the 
relation of Hypatia to the chief representatives of Neoplatonism. The 
story of Hypatia forms the basis of the historical romance by 
Charles Kingsley (1853). 

HYPERBOLA, a geometrical curve; as first conceived, 
probably by Menaechmus (c. 350 B.C.), a section of an obtuse- 
angled circular cone made by a 
plane orthogonal to a cone-ele- 
ment. About 220 BC. Apollonius 
generalized the notion into that 
of a section of any circular cone, 
made by a plane cutting one 
element and diverging from the 
opposite at an angle greater than 
the vertical, so as to cut also 
the other nappe of the cone, the 
double section extending indefi- 
nitely both ways without meeting DIAGRAK OF HYPERBOLA 

the opposite cone-edge. This is of course indicated in the central 
rectangular equation of the hyperbola 

in which, for x (or y) real and infinite (oo ), y (or x) is also real 
and oo ; i.e , the curve has two real points at oo . This equation 
of the hyperbola is seen to differ from that of the ellipse only 
in the sign of b 2 , and accordingly the hyperbola is the counter- 
part of the ellipse, reflecting its properties, mutatis mutandis, 
although we must suppose the branches continuous through oo 
to detect any likeness in form Thus (see fig.) the ratio of the 
distances of any point of the hyperbola from either focus (F. F') 
and the corresponding directrix (DR), the polar of the pole F, 
is a constant, the eccentricity e=\f(a 2 +b 2 /a), but the changed 
sign of b 2 makes e>i Similarly, the difference (not the sum, 
as in the ellipse) of the focal distances FP, F'P of any point P 
(x y) of the hyperbola is a constant, the transverse axis is 20-', 

Either of these properties may be taken as a definition of the 
hyperbola. Again, it is the changed sign of b 2 that marks the two 
points at oo (imaginary in the ellipse) as real in the hyperbola. 
The tangent and normal still bisect the angles between the focal 
radii, r, r', to any point of the hyperbola, but they exchange 
positions, the tangent lying within, between F and F', the normal 
without. Thus, an ellipse and a hyperbola that are confocal 
intersect orthogonally, a property that extends to confocal coni- 
coids, making possible important orthogonal co-ordinate systems 
of such surfaces. The ends (a, o) of the transverse axis, A A', 
are real, but these (o, db ib) of its conjugate, BB', are imaginary 
in the hyperbola a relation exactly reversed in the conjugate 

In the ellipse, the asymptotes, or tangents at oc , are imaginary, 

* 2 /a-+;y 2 /& 2 = o, x/a=i y/b; 
but in the hyperbola both are real, 

x 2 /a 2 - y 2 /b 2 - o, x/a = y/b, 

plainly common to the hyperbola and its conjugate and forming 
the most striking feature of the curve. The analogue to the cir- 
cle * 2 +y 2 ~a 2 in relation to the ellipse, x 2 /a 2 -\~y 2 /b 2 i, is the 
rectangular (equilateral, equiaxial) hyperbola 

in relation to x 2 /a 2 ~y 2 /b 2 =i (both obtained by putting 6=a). 
Every other hyperbola is obtained from this, as every ellipse 
from the circle, by vertical compression (or expansion) in the 
ratio b/a. On taking the asymptotes, aybx**o, as coordinate 
axes, the equation of the hyperbola becomes 

a simple areal relation that makes the hyperbola the geometric 

depiction of various physical phenomena in which two magni- 
tudes vary inversely, their product being a constant, as in xy=*k 2 . 
By the general law, the equation of the tangent at any point 

hence, for y*=o, xstf/y and for jt o, y-2k z /x'i i.e., the tan- 
gent-intercept between the asymptotes is bisected at the tangent- 
point. Hence the triangle of asymptotes and tangents is constant 
in area. This tangent-intercept equals the parallel diameter con- 
jugate to the diameter through the tangent -point (P). Obviously 
the two intercepts (CA, C'/l') of any chord (being parallel to a 
tangent), between the hyperbola and its asymptotes, are equal 
(see fig.)- 

HYPERBOLE, a figure of rhetoric whereby the speaker 
expresses more than the truth, in order to produce a vivid impres- 
sion; hence, an exaggeration 

HYPERBOLOID, in geometry, either of two open centric 

surfaces of the second degree 
(comcoids, quadrics). The gen- 
eral equation of such centrics 
takes the form 

where A, B, C, may have four 
orders of signs. + + + (ellip- 
soid), and (a nowhere 
ellipsoid, with no real points) ; 
the other two, + + and + 
- , yield hyperboloids of one 
nappe or two nappes The central 
rectangular equations may be 

= r 


t 2 /*/ 2 -y 2 /b- z 2 /c 2 

FIG. i t*/ -y- zci 

Planes parallel to XV cut the hyperboloid in similar ellipses, 
x 2 /a 2 +y 2 /b z **z 2 /c 2 +i, and the hyperboloid of two nappes in 

similar hyperbolas 

likewise for sections parallel to 
the other coordinate planes. It 
is simplest to consider the limit- 
ing cases, when = & = r. Then 

is plainly the i4 revolutc" of the 
rectangular hyperbola y 2 z 2 a 2 
rotated round the Z-axis, each 
point (x, z) tracing a circle 
jc 2 +y 2 = a 2 +s 2 . For 3 = 0, x z + 
y l ' = <r becomes minimal circle. 
The general surface (tig. i) is 
found, as in the elhpsoid (q.v.), 
by compression (or expansion) 
of all y's and z's in the ratios 
b/a and c/a respectively, which 
yields x 2 /a 2 +y 2 /b 2 -z 2 /c 2 ~i. 
The "rcvolute" has as tangent 
at oc the central cone 

FIG. 2 

$ 2 = o, which remains tangential m the form x 2 /a 2 +y 2 /b 2 
o, after the affine transformation Rotating the same hyperbola 
jc 2 2 2 arrfl 2 round X yields the conoid x 2 y 2 2 2 = a 2 , whose 
asymptotic cone is x 2 y 2 2 2 = o On compression (or expansion) 
parallel to V or Z in the ratio b/a, c/a respectively, there results 
the general hyperboloid of two nappes x?/a 2 y 2 /b 2 z 2 /c 2 **i, 
with its asymptotic cone x 2 /a 2 y 2 /b 2 ~z 2 /c 2 ~Q (fig. 2). 

Surfaces of second degree are all ruled, i.e., traceable by a right 
line moving in a definite way. For, combining the two equations 
of a line and the one of such a surface, we may eliminate two 



FIG. 3 

coordinates and obtain a resultant equation in one coordinate, 
and this equation, which is of the second degree, vanishes identi- 
cally when its three coefficients reduce each to o; and since the 
equations of the line have four parameters, this reduction is possi- 
ble in an oo of ways; hence there are oo many lines lying on a 
conicoicl, like line-elements forming a cone. In the ellipsoid and 
the hypcrboloid of two nappes these lines are imaginary, but in 
the hyjH*rboloid of one nappe they are real, forming two sys- 
tems, each line of each system 
meeting all lines of the other 
system but none of its own 
(fig. 3). See MATHEMATICAL 

mythical people intimately con- 
nected with the worship of 
Apollo, especially but not exclu- 
sively that at Delos ('TTrep/^peot, 
'TTrep/^opeioi). Their names do 
not occur in Homer, but Herodo- 
tus (iv. 32) states that they were 
mentioned in ilesiod and in the 
Eptgoni, an epic of the Theban 
cycle. According to Herodotus, 
two maidens, Opis and Arge. and 
later two others, Hyperoche and Laoclicc, escorted by five men, 
called by the Dclians Perpherees, were sent by the Hyperboreans 
with certain offerings to Delos Finding that their messengers did 
not return, the Hyperboreans adopted the plan of wrapping the 
offerings in wheat-straw and requested their neighbours to hand 
them on to the next nation, and so on until they finally reached 
Delos. The likeliest explanation of their name is still that of H. L. 
Ahrens They are "those who carry over" (0op- = </>op- in Mace- 
donian and other Northern speeches, and may be thus connected 
with 0ep<o). The name then refers to the bringing of the offerings; 
virepftdptoi, and 7rep0cpcs arc probably the same It is, of course, 
likely enough that an Apollo-worshipping people or clan really 
lived in the north; the offerings must have come from somewhere. 

Under the influence of a derivation from /Sopcas, the home of 
the Hyperboreans was placed in a paradisiacal region beyond the 
north wind The duration of their life was 1,000 years, but if 
any desired to shorten it, he decked himself with garlands and 
threw himself from a rock into the sea. The close connection of 
the Hyperboreans with the cult of Apollo may be seen by com- 
paring the Hyperborean myths, the characters of which by their 
names mostly recall Apollo or Artemis (Agyieus, Opis, Hecacrgos, 
Loxo), with the ceremonial of the Apolline worship 

See O. Crusius in Roscher's Le \tkon, Schroder in Archiv fur 
PeltKionswis<;en\cha/t (1004), viii. Oo; W. Mannhardt, Wald-und 
Feldkulte (1005) ; L R. Farnell, Cw/fv of the Greek States (1907), 
iv. 100. 

HYPEREIDES (c. 390-322 BC ), one of the ten Attic ora- 
tors, was the son of Glaucippus, of the dcme of Collytus Having 
studied under Isocrates, in 360 he prosecuted Autocles, a general 
charged with treason in Thrace (frags. 55-65, lilass). At the 
time of the Social War (358-355) he accused Aristophon, then 
one of the most influential men at Athens, of malpractices (frags. 
40-44, Blass), and impeached Philocrates (343) for high treason. 
From the peace of 346 to 324 Hypereides supported Demosthenes 
in the struggle against Macedon; but in the affair of Harpalus he 
was one ot the ten public prosecutors of Demosthenes, and on 
the exile of Demosthenes he became the head of the patriotic 
party (324). He was the chief promoter of the Lamian war 
against Antipater and Craterus, and after the defeat at Crannon 
(322), Hypereides and the other orators, whose surrender was 
demanded by Antipater, were condemned to death. Hypereides 
fled to Aegina, but Antipater's emissaries dragged him from the 
temple of Aeacus, where he had taken refuge, and put him to 
death; according to others, he was taken before Antipater at 
Athens or Cleonae. His body was afterwards removed to Athens. 

Hypereides was an ardent pursuer of "the beautiful"; his 
temper was easy-going and humorous. In his development of the 

periodic sentence he followed Isocrates, but the essential tenden- 
cies of his style are those of Lysias, whom he surpassed, however, 
in the richness of his vocabulary and in the variety of his powers 
His diction was plain and forcible, and his composition simple. 
Jebb sums up the criticism of pseudo-Longinus (De sublimitate, 
34) in the phrase "Hypereides was the Sheridan of Athens," 

Most of what we possess of Hypereides's speeches was dis- 
covered in the second half of the iQth century, and edited by Sir 
Frederick Kenyon (1893) 

On Hypereides generally see pseudo-Plutarch, Decent oratorum ' 
yitae; F. Blass, Atthche Beredsamkeit, hi.; R. C. Jebb, Attic Orators, 
ii. 381. A full list of editions and articles is given in F. Blass, Hyperidis 
orationes *e\, cum ceterarum fragments (1894, Teubncr series), to 
which may be added I. Bassi, Le Qiuittro Orazioni di Iperide (introduc- 
tion and notes, 1888), and J. E. Sandys in Classical Review (Jan. 1895) 
(a review of the editions of Kenyon and Blass). For the discourse 
against Athcnogenes see H. Weil, tude*> sur Vaniiquiti grecque (1900). 

HYPERGAMY. The custom of hypergamy forbids a woman 
of a particular group to marry a man of a group lower than her 
own in social standing. When, as in India, severe social penalties 
support this rule, it produces serious effects upon the social order. 
It allows men to marry women of groups below them and therefore 
favours the men. It reinforces social distinctions and flourishes in 
societies where these are numerous, permanent and of the essence 
of the social order. It restricts the field of marriage in the case of 
the women of the highest section. It is found in its extreme devel- 
opment in India within castes which are divided into sections 
based on differences of religious purity, social eminence, political 
authority or economic superiority. To it are traced female infan- 
ticide (q.v.), the purchase of husbands, and wholesale polygamy. 

The same principle is at work in the cases where, as in Africa, a 
community has been formed by the dominance of a group of alien 
origin of different physique imbued with a strong sense of superi- 
ority. Women from the inferior conquered subordinate classes are 
accepted as mates by the ruling class, which docs not allow its 
women to mate with males of the subject people. King Cophetua 
may wed the beggar-maid, but the princess* makes a misalliance 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Census of India, vol. L, p. 254 (1911) ; Sir Herbert 
Rislcy, The People of India (ed. Wm. Crookc, igi0 ; Sir Arthur Keith, 
Nationality and Race (1919) ; John Roscoe, The Bakitara (1023) ; 
C. K. Meek, The Northern Tribes of Nigeria (1925); C. C. North, 
Social Differentiation (1926). 

HYPERION, in Greek mythology, one of the Titans, son of 
Uranus and Ge, and father of Helios, the sun-god (Hesiod, 
Theog., 134, 371). The name is often used as an epithet of Helios, 
who is himself sometimes called simply Hyperion. Its meaning 
may be 4< son of Hyperos"; ic , of him who is above (heaven). 

HYPERSTHENE, a rock-forming mineral belonging to the 
group of orthorhombic pyroxenes. It differs from the other 
members (enstatite and bronzite) of this group in containing 
a considerable amount of iron replacing magnesium; the chemical 
formula is (Mg,Fe)SiO : ,. Distinctly developed crystals are rare, 
the mineral being usually found as foliated masses embedded 
in those igneous rocks norite, hypersthene-andesite, etc. of 
which it forms an essential constituent. The coarsely grained 
labradorite-hypersthene-rock (norite) of St. Paul island, Labra- 
dor, has furnished the most typical material. The colour is 
brownish-black, and the pleochroism strong; the hardness is 6 
and specific gravity 3-4-3-5. 

HYPERTROPHY, a term in medicine implying increase in 
size of an organ or component tissue of the body, where such 
enlargement involves the natural elements of the part and is not 
the result of the presence of some extraneous morbid material. 
Thus, a lung in pneumonia, a liver full of cancer, is enlarged but 
not hypertrophied. Further, the word implies life, an uncut nail or 
excessive length of hair is not hypertrophy. The enlargement rrtay 
consist in the presence of a normal number of elements each of 
excessive size (true hypertrophy) or an excessive number of ele- 
ments, each of normal size (hyperplasia). Frequently both con- 
ditions are present. 

Hypertrophy may be physiological or pathological. Physio- 
logical hypertrophy is due either to work (e.g., the muscles of an 
athlete), or is compensatory (e.g., when one of paired organs is 
absent or removed). For hypertrophy to occur the functional 


activity demanded must be well within its powers, otherwise 
atrophy occurs. Pathological hypertrophy is seen in leucocythae- 
mia, where the spleen is enormously enlarged; lymphadenoma, 
where lymphatic glands are enlarged; acromegaly, where bone 
is affected, etc. Physiological hypertrophy occurs under patho- 
logical conditions. The hypertrophy of the left ventricle in aortic 
obstruction, of the bladder in stricture of the urethra, of the 
stomach in pyloric obstruction are examples of work hypertrophy. 

The causes of hypertrophy are largely the converse of those 
causing atrophy (q.v.), but as is shown by acromegaly, endocrine 
activity plays a part not observed in atrophy, and the growth of 
tissues in dcrmoid cysts or in monsters without brain or spinal 
cord (see MONSTERS) is clearly independent of the nervous sys- 
tem. As hypertrophy is essentially growth carried beyond normal 
limits the conditions underlying it are those underlying growth. 
These are (i) an inherent power of growth on the part of the 
cell; (2) an excessive supply of nutriment; (3) a stimulus. 

A spurious hypertrophy is observed in the rare disease pseudo- 
hypertrophic muscular paralysis, in which the calves, buttocks 
and muscles of the back are greatly enlarged but excessively 
feeble. The enlargement is due to interpolation of fatty connec- 
tive tissue between the muscular bundles which themselves are 
greatly atrophied. (W. S. L.-B.) 

HYPNOTISM, a term involving all that appertains to that 
condition of artificial sleep known as hypnosis which is allied to 
normal sleep and can be induced in many normal persons. At all 
times individuals have fallen into an abnormal state of mind 
resembling the hypnotic state, such a condition being deliberately 
induced by others, through their own eftorts, or spontaneously 
arising, generally under the influence of some special emotional 
excitement. Hypnotic phenomena were known thousands of years 
ago to the Persian magi and the Indian yogis and fakirs but scien- 
tific and medical interest in the subject was first universally 
aroused during the latter part of the i8th century by the work of 
Mesmer, a Viennese physician, who claimed to be able to cure 
many diseases by means of "animal magnetism." He enunciated 
the doctrine of a vital magnetic fluid which became stored up in 
living bodies, and by its instrumentality one individual could act 
on another. This method of mesmerism, notwithstanding much 
remedial success, was adversely reported on by several scientific 
commissions so that it fell into disuse until a generation later, 
when interest in it as a form of medical treatment was revived, 
but unfortunately mingled with much charlatanism. 

In the middle of the iQth century Braid, a Manchester surgeon, 
recognized its validity but denied any magnetic element. He 
became convinced that there was no mysterious fluid passing from 
operator to subject, that the phenomena elicited were really sub- 
jective in origin, and it was he who first used the term "hypno- 
tism" in place of mesmerism and laid the foundations for its mod- 
ern study. Before many years the method was practised by physi- 
cians in all European countries. Liebault and Bernheim, at Nancy, 
laid the foundation of the school of hypnotic suggestion which has 
since held sway. In the hands of such investigators as Pierre Janet 
much light has been thrown by hypnotic experimental work on 
the constitution of the mind. 

Methods of Induction. The usual modern procedure is 
to place the subject in an arm-chair or on a couch where there 
shall be absolute muscular relaxation and passivity of mind. The 
environment should be conducive to sleep. The physician, stand- 
ing at the side, holds up the index and middle fingers of one hand, 
a little above and away from the patient's eyes. The gaze is fixed 
on these and verbal suggestions are made to the effect that the 
eyelids are getting heavy, drowsiness is being felt, the eyes are 
closing, and sleep approaches. Light sensory stimulation by strok- 
ing the forehead gently or making downward passes over the face 
may also be carried out. In many subjects the eyelids gradually 
flicker more and more and then close as some stage of sleep super- 
venes. Self-induction of hypnosis may be possible t>y fixation of 
gaze in some people who have previously been hypnotized by 
another. Repeated hypnotic sitting commonly renders the advent 
of sleep easier. In specially susceptible patients complete hypnosis 
may supervene at once on the command to sleep either made 

orally or in writing. Terminating hypnosis is easily brought about 
by suggesting the idea of wakefulness, but if left to themselves 
patients, after a variable time, would spontaneously resume the 
normal state. 

Different stages of hypnosis have been described by different 
authorities, many of them being very artificial, but it will suffice 
if we speak of three only. In very light hypnosis there is complete 
passivity and relaxation with an inability to open the eyes or resist 
some simple commands concerning the voluntary muscles. The 
individual is quite conscious of all that goes on. In a further stage, 
further phenomena can be produced, but still there is recollection 
of the hypnotic period. The most susceptible subjects may pass 
into a deep sleep known as artificial somnambulism. Here they 
respond to all or most suggestions made by the operator, and on 
awakening are oblivious to all they have heard, said, or done while 
in that state. 

Hypnosis in some stages can be induced in a large percentage of 
normal people provided that they willingly submit to the process. 
Soldiers from active service during the World War were almost 
universally found easy subjects. For definite psychological reasons 
the insane are usually impervious to its influence. 

Signs and Symptoms Seen in Hypnosis. A peculiar rela- 
tionship exists between patient and operator in the deep stages. 
They are said to be u en rapport"; only suggestions from the latter 
are accepted. Suggestibility is much increased though there are 
limitations to what suggestions will be acted upon. As already 
stated, the memory of the sleep period in deep hypnosis is lost, 
but this so-called amnesia can be much modified by suggestions. 
During hypnosis there is a great widening of the memory so that 
impressions long since forgotten can be revived Much use of this 
phenomenon is made in treatment of various abnormalities. Sug- 
gestions made during hypnosis may be carried out subsequently 
to waking, and at a definitely named hour. This post-hypnotic 
suggestion is highly important in that it demonstrates the uncon- 
scious calculation of time and also shows that actions may be car- 
ried out without awareness of the source of the impulse. Through 
suggestion under hypnotism the voluntary muscles may be para- 
lysed or put in a state of tonic contraction, and also the action of 
involuntary muscular fibre modified so that arterial blood flow 
and bowel movement can be to some extent controlled. The spe- 
cial senses tend to be rendered more acute, feeling and pain can 
often be abolished, and positive and negative hallucinations 
brought about After repeated hypnosis many of these phenomena, 
can be elicited even in the waking state by suggestion. 

Possible Dangers. The possible dangers of hypnotism have 
been much exaggerated, and in the hands of an expert physician 
no fear need be felt. Repeated hypnosis in certain types will 
tend to increase a mental dissociation which already exists, and 
there is apt to arise a far too great dependency on the opera- 
tor Whether criminal action can be suggested is a debatable 
point, but it may be stated that there is good reason for believ- 
ing that no hypnotized subject will follow a suggestion which is 
contrary to his fundamental personal character. 

The practice of hypnotism as a method of medical treatment 
has now largely been relinquished and superseded by other forms 
of psychotherapy. It is a blind method of procedure in that the 
origin of any disorder is not thereby usually traced, and attacking 
the cause of illness and not its surface manifestation should 
always be our scientific aim. IK use has been mainly applied to 
the treatment of the so-called functional nervous diseases, and in 
these states of mental disharmony modern knowledge has placed 
physicians in a position to unravel the causation links by some 
analytical means. Nevertheless, h>pnotic suggestion in appropri- 
ate cases has its distinct sphere of usefulness. It may also be 
employed for the amelioration of pain, insomnia, stammering, sea- 
sickness, etc. 

Theories Regarding Hypnosis. Various theories of hypno- 
sis have been propounded, and it may be viewed from both a 
physiological and psychological aspect The factor of any mag- 
netic or other power on the part of the operator has been long 
discarded, and that the* phenomenon is subjective and due to sug- 
gestion is now more or less universally held. Charcot regarded 


it as a form of artificial hysteria, and there are undoubted links 
between the two conditions. Modern authorities would explain 
it in terms of mental dissociation. In ordinary sleep it is pre- 
sumed that the different nerve cells in the higher parts of the 
brain are dissociated from each other, and it, may be that in 
hypnosis there is the same relative dissociation but that through 
the presence of the operator and the special link which exists 
between him and the subject one part of the nervous system is 
kept active and awake Because the rest of the brain is quiescent, 
no contrary ideas are aroused to prevent the acceptance of sug- 
gestions which are therefore acted upon immediately. The psycho- 
analytic school would base the explanation of this artificial sleep 
and suggestibility on the idea that the operator symbolically 
represents the parent in the 1 mind of the subject and that there 
is therefore an unconscious attitude of blind belief and obedi- 
ence to the suggestions that may be made The special rapport 
existing between the two would be thus interpreted 

It must not be forgotten that experimental work in hypnotism 
has been highly fruitful in adding to our knowledge of normal 
and abnormal psychology. Through its phenomena we are enabled 
better than in any other way to demonstrate the process of un- 
conscious motivation, and to see in the mind the probability of 
a series of levels at which different mental processes take place. 

(C S. R.) 

See Moll, Hypnotism (trans New York, 1893) ; Janet, L'Auto- 
matume p^ychologique (1889) , McDougall, Abnormal Psychology. 

HYPOCAUST, in architecture, an open space below a floor 
to allow the passage of hot air and smoke, in order to heat the 
room above. This type of heating was developed to a high degree 
by the Romans who used it, not only in the warm and hot rooms 
of the baths (q v ), but also almost universally in private houses 
in the northern provinces Many examples of such hypocausts 
exist in villa and house foundations in Roman centres in Ger- 
many and England Although the usual custom was to lead the 
smoke from a hypocaust into a single vertical flue through which 
it escaped into the open air, where greater warmth was desired, 
several flues would lead up irom the hypocaust in the side walls 
of the room; at times, these wall flues consisted o* hollow oblong 
tiles, set dose together, entirely around the room The usual 
construction of a hypocaust consisted of a layer of tiles, 2 ft. 
square, laid continuously in a bed of concrete for the bottom 
surf-ace, piers approximately 8 in square and about 2 ft apart 
as the supports, and a floor above of concrete or of large square 
tiles supporting a bed of concrete, on which the finished floor 
of marble, tesserae or mosaic was laid 

HYPOCHONDRIASIS, a medical term, given by the an- 
cients and early physicians to derangements of the abdominal 
viscera It is not now used to refer to any actual disease but to a 
morbid mental symptom which consists in an undue pre-occupa- 
tion in one's own state of health with a tendency to find evidence 
of disease from insignificant signs There may arise a settled con- 
viction that disease exists even in their absence. The idea of ill- 
health, however, relates essentially to the internal organs and 
predominantly to the functioning of the heart, intestinal canal, 
or genital structures Such a symptom may occur in many forms 
of mental illness. It is not infrequently noted in hysterical 
arixiety and neurasthenic neuroses; in melancholic states, es- 
pecially those of later years; in dementia praecox; and in the 
initial stages of such organic psychoses as arterio-sclerotic 
dementia and general paresis 

In some cases hypochondriasis seems to present itself without 
any other symptom, and though examination reveals no physical 
abnormality, the assurance of that fact has usually only a tem- 
porary effect on the false belief which may lead to self-centred- 
ness, depression and insomnia 

It H probable that the hypochondriacal type has a greater 
sensitivity to sensations emanating from the internal organs, is 
therefore more easily aware of any change that may occur therein, 
and so more affected by any possible alteration in their func- 

Any treatment naturally depends on the associated disease In 
its more pure manifestation some form of psychotherapy is 

indicated, but results are often disappointing. (C. S. R.) 

HYPOSTYLE, in architecture, a term applied to halls with 
flat ceilings supported by columns, especially in Egyptian work. A 
hypostyle hall formed the largest room in every Egyptian temple. 
It was usually placed immediately behind the main court and in 
front of the small rooms that formed the sanctuary. Such halls 
were either lit by openings between the front range of columns, 
above the low screen wall built between them, as in the Ptolemaic 
temple at Edfu (237 to 57 BC ), or by having the central ranges 
of columns taller than those at the side so that a clerestorey of 
pierced stone screens was possible above the roof of the side por- 

HYPOSULPHITE OF SODA, the name originally given 
to the salt, still in general use by photographers as a fixing agent, 
known in chemistry as sodium thiosulphate, NazSgOa. One mole- 
cule of the salt crystallizes with five molecules of water. In 
systematic chemistry sodium hyposulphite is a salt of hyposulphur- 
ous acid, to which Schutzenberger gave the formula HzSOa, but 
which Bernthsen showed to be H 2 S 2 (X (See SULPHUR; and 

HYPOTHEC, in Roman law, the most advanced form of the 
contract of pledge. A specific thing may be transferred to the pos- 
session of a creditor on the condition that it is to be given back 
when the debt is paid; or the property in the thing may be as- 
signed to the creditor while the debtor is allowed to remain in 
possession, the creditor as owner being able to take possession 
if his debt is not discharged. Here we have the kind of security 
known as pledge and mortgage respectively. In the hypothec 
the property does not pass to the creditor, nor does he get pos- 
session, but he acquires a preferential right to have his debt paid 
out of the hypothecated property; that is, he can sell it and pay 
himself out of the proceeds, or in default of a purchaser he can 
become the owner himself. The name and the principle have 
passed into the law of Scotland, but the number of instances in 
which movable property may be hypothecated is restricted to a 
few cases under the heads of (i) landlord and tenant (q.v.)< 
(2) agent and client, (3) maritime hypothecs and (4) privileged 
debts. A law agent has a hypothec for his amount of expenses 
incurred in an action over his client's right contained in a furnish- 
ing of expenses due to the client from his opponent, which failing, 
over any principal sum declared for in the client's favour. In 
maritime hypothecs the ship may be hypothecated for (a) bot- 
tomry loans, (b) repairs executed abroad, (c) seamen's wages, 
and (d) collisions and salvage. A debtor's personal estate also is 
subject to hypothecs (a) in favour of the claim for unpaid taxes, 
(b) in favour of domestic and farm servants for their current 
wages and (c) where the debtor has died, in favour of his medical 
attendant for death-bed and funeral expenses, in favour of his 
widow for mournings, and in favour of his landlord for the cur- 
rent rent of his dwelling house. 

HYPOTHESIS, in ordinary language, a tentative explanation, 
supposition or assumption (from Gr. inror -tffivai, to put under; 
Lat. wppositio, from sub-ponere). Both in ordinary life and in the 
acquisition of scientific knowledge hypothesis is all-important. A 
detective's work consists largely in forming and testing hypothe- 
ses. If an astronomer is confronted by some phenomenon which 
has no obvious explanation he may suppose some set of conditions 
which might give rise to the phenomenon in question; he then 
tests his hypothesis until he discovers whether it does or does not 
conflict with the facts. An example of this process is that of the 
discovery of the planet Neptune: certain perturbations of the 
orbit of Uranus had been observed, and it was seen that these 
could be explained on the hypothesis of the existence of a then 
unknown planet, and this hypothesis was verified by actual obser- 
vation. The progress of inductive knowledge is by the formation 
of successive hypotheses, and it frequently happens that the demo- 
lition of one or even many hypotheses is the direct road to an 
accurate hypothesis, Le. t to knowledge. 

The recognition of the Importance of hypotheses has led to 
various attempts at drawing up exact rules for their formation, 
but logicians are generally agreed that only very elementary 
principles can be laid down. Thus a hypothesis must contain 


lothlng which is at variance with known facts or principles: it 
ihould not postulate conditions which cannot be verified empiri- 
ally. J. S. Mill (Logic, III. xiv. 4) laid down the principle that a 
lypothesis is not "genuinely scientific" if it is "destined always 
o remain a~ hypothesis" : it must "be of such a nature as to be 
either proved or disproved by comparison with observed facts." 
Mill's principle, though sound in the abstract, has, except in a few 
*ases, little practical value in determining the admissibility of 
ivpotheses, and in practice any rule which tends to discourage 
hypothesis is undesirable. The most satisfactory check on hypoth- 
esis is expert knowledge in the particular field of research by 
which rigorous tests may be applied. This test is roughly of two 
kinds, first by the ultimate principles or presuppositions on which 
a particular branch of knowledge rests, and second by the com- 
parison of correlative facts. Useful light is shed on this distinction 
by Lotzc, who contrasts (Logic, 273) postulates ("absolutely 
necessary assumptions without which the content of the observa- 
tion with which we are dealing would contradict the laws of our 
thought") with hypotheses, which he defines as conjectures, which 
seek "to fill up the postulate thus abstractly stated by specifying 
the concrete causes, forces or processes, out of which the given 
phenomenon really arose in this particular case, while in other 
cases maybe the same postulate is to be satisfied by utterly differ- 
ent though equivalent combinations of forces or active elements." 
Thus a hypothesis may be ruled out by principles or postulates 
without any reference to the concrete facts which belong to that 
division of the subject to explain which the hypothesis is formu- 
lated. A true hypothesis, therefore, seeks not merely to connect 
or colligate two separate facts, but to do this in the light of cer- 
tain fundamental principles. 


See Naville, La Logiqne dc I'hypothlse (1880) ; A. Wolf, Essentials 
of Scientific Method (1928). 

HYPOTRACHELIUM, in architecture, the space which lies 
between the annulets or little rings at the bottom of the echinus or 
convex portion of the Greek Doric capital, and the topmost stone 
of the column shaft proper It is thus the lowest portion of the 
stone from which the capital is carved, and contains the tops of the 
column flutes. It is frequently decorated at the bottom by a 
groove or grooves circling the circumference, which may have 
inserted mouldings of bronze. The word is also sometimes ap- 
plied in the Roman Doric order to the necking, or space between 
the bottom of the capital and the astragal, or convex moulding, 
with fillet below which marks the top of the shaft proper (sec 


HYPSOMETER, an instrument for measuring heights (Gr 
ity'os, height, fjitrpov, a measure), which employs the principles 
that the boiling-point of a liquid is lowered by diminishing the 
pressure (see HEAT) and that the barometric pressure varies with 
the height of the point of observation. (See METEOROLOGY.) The 
instrument consists of a cylindrical vessel in which the liquid, 
usually water, is boiled, surmounted by a jacketed column, in the 
outer partitions of which the vapour circulates, while in the central 
one a thermometer is placed. 

HYRACOIDEA, a group of small hoofed mammals, includ- 
ing the biblical cony. The name cony or coney originally referred 
to the rabbit but has also come to be used for the related pikas, 
and for the present quite distinct animals. There is no unambig- 
uous popular term for members of the Hyracoidea. They are 
usually called hyraxes (or hyraces). "Rock rabbits," also some- 
times used, is objectionable because they are not rabbits and 
many of them have nothing to do with rocks. In appearance the 
living hyraxes, with their plump, pointed heads, short necks, 
relatively short, slender legs, and squat, almost tailless bodies, 
look much more like rodents than ungulates. Nevertheless their 
anatomy clearly shows they are related to the hoofed mammals. 

Living hyraxes are confined to Africa south and east of the 
Sahara and extreme southwestern Asia. They may be divided 
into two groups. One, the genus Procavia, includes the ground- 
living forms, especially characteristic of deserts, hills and moun- 
tains up to about 10,000 feet, living in holes and fissures among 

the rocks. The other group is similar but is best separated as 
Dendrohyrax. These forms, confined to Africa, are almost 
entirely tree-dwelling, the only true arboreal hoofed mammals. 
They live iu holes in trees and move readily along the trunks 
and branches. Both types climb easily, clinging even to almost 
vertical surfaces by the pads on their feet 

The hyraxes have numerous structural peculiarities which sepa- 
rate them sharply from any other mammals The normal adult 

dental formula is li C pi M* The upper incisors are large, 


curved in a semicircle longitudinally, and grow continuously 
throughout life like those of rodents Canines are absent The 
premolars and molars are in pattern surprisingly like those of 
some of the typical ungulates, esj>edally the rhinoceros. The 
dorsal and lumbar vertebrae are unusually numerous (up to 30 in 
Procavia) On both front and hind feet the three middle toes are 
well-developed. In the forefeet the other two toes are also 
present, although the first is much reduced, in the hind feet the 
first toe is absent, the fifth vestigial The hoof of the inner 
(second) toe of the hind foot is claw-like, but on all the other 
toes the hooves are normal, although small The wrist-bones are 
arranged serially, the individual bones generally coming in con- 
tact with only one bone of the opposite row an arrangement 
typical of the most primitive extinct ungulates but lost in the 
more specialized modern forms The alimentary canal is unique 
in having a pair of large coeca opening into the large intestine 
some distance below the usual one at the junction of large and 
small intestines. There is a gland on the back 

The relationships of the hyraxes are doubtful There is no 
question that the numerous resemblances to the rodents are all 
superficial and that the fundamental characters indicate affinities 
with the ungulates, but these affinities must be distant so far as 
any living forms are concerned In addition to their many very 
primitive characters, the hyraxes show some special resemblance 
to primitive or extinct members of several groups, particularly 
the Proboscidea, Pcrissodactyla, some Condylarthra, (Menisco- 
thcrium), and the peculiar South American fossil ungulates This 
confusing scries of resemblances suggests that the group is an 
ancient and unprogressive offshoot derived from the ungulate 
stem at a time when the modern groups of ungulates were not 
well differentiated. 

Fossil Hyracoidea. Numerous extinct hyracoids are known 
and they indicate that the group was formerly much more diversi- 
fied than at present Ten extinct genera arc recognized, chiefly 
from the Oligoccne of Egypt (Faiyum), Miocene of east and 
southwest Africa, and Pliocene of Greece (Pikermi and Samos). 
The earliest forms are characterized generally by having a full 

complement of teeth, T- ('- P- M'-, wM the last molars rela- 

.i * 4 t 

tively larger than in recent forms In some cases, for instance 
Geniohyus from Faiyum, the skull was strikingly elongated Most 
of these extinct forms were larger than the recent hyraxes and 
some, such as species of Mc^alohyrax or Titanohyrax from 
Faiyum or Pliohyrax from Greece, were relatively gigantic. The 
largest must have been as big as a horse (Scr UXGULATA.) 

(G. G. Si.) 

HYRAX, the name given to animals of the order Hyracoidea, 
small, plump, almost tail-less beasts, having a hoof on each 
toe, superficially resembling rodents but forming an order of their 
own of doubtful affinities Here belongs the "cony" of the Bible. 
There are two genera, Proeavia, which comprises the ground-liv- 
ing forms (including the "cony"), and Dcndrohyrax, the species 
of which are arboreal. Procavia is distributed over Africa, south 
and east of the Sahara, and south-western Asia; Dendrohyrax is 
confined to Africa. All hyraxes climb well. Procavia is found in 
deserts and mountainous country, living in holes among rocks. 

HYRCANIA. (i) An ancient district of Asia, south of the 
Caspian Sea, and bounded on the east by the river Oxus, called 
Virkam, or "Wolf's Land," in Old Persian. It was a wide and in- 
definite tract. Its chief city is called Tape by Strabo, Zadracarta 
by Arrian. The latter is evidently the same as Carta, mentioned 
by Strabo as an important city. Little is known of the history of 



the country. Xenophon says it was subdued by the Assyrians; 
Curtius that 6,000 Hyrcanians were in the army of Darius III. 
(2) Two towns named Hyrcania are mentioned, one in Hyrcania, 
the other in Lydia. The latter is said to have derived its name 
from a colony of Hyrcanians, transported thither by the Persians. 

HYRCANUS ('Tp/caj>6$), a Greek surname, of unknown 
origin, borne by several Jews of the Maccabaean period 

JOHN HYRCANUS I., high priest of the Jews from 135 to 105 B.C., 
was the youngest son of Simon Maccabaeus In 137 BC he, with 
his brother Judas, commanded the iorce which repelled the in- 
vasion of Judaea led by Cendebeus, the general of Antiochus VII. 
Sidetes. On the assassination of his father and two elder brothers 
by Ptolemy, governor of Jericho, his brother-in-law, in 135, he 
succeeded to the high priesthood and the supreme authority in 
Judaea. While still engaged in the struggle with Ptolemy, he was 
attacked by Antiochus with a large army (134), and compelled 
to shut himself up in Jerusalem. Peace was secured at last on 
condition of a Jewish disarmament, and the payment of an in- 
demnity and an annual tribute. He confirmed the alliance which 
his father had made with Rome, and at the same time availed 
himself of the weakened state of the Syrian monarchy under 
Demetrius II. to overrun Samaria, and also to invade Idumaea, 
which he completely subdued. About 109 BC. his sons took Sa- 
maria, and by his orders razed it to the ground. He died in 105, 
and was succeeded by Aristobulus, the eldest of his nve sons. 
The external policy of Hyrcanus was marked by considerable 
energy and tact, and, aided by favouring circumstances, was so 
successful as to leave the Jewish nation in a position of great 
independence and influence. 

JOHN HYRCANUS II , high priest from 78 to 40 B c., was the 
eldest son of Alexander Jannaeus by his wife Alexandra, and was 
thus a grandson of the preceding. Whe/n his father died in 78, 
he was appointed high priest, and on his mother's death in 69 he 
claimed the succession to the supreme civil authority. After a 
troubled reign of three months, he was compelled to abdicate both 
dignities in favour of his more ambitious younger brother Aristo- 
bulus II. In 63 Pompey restored him to the high priesthood, 
with some semblance of supreme command. He was soon again 
deprived of his office by the arrangement of the pro-consul Ga- 
binius, according to which Palestine was in 57 BC. divided into 
five separate circles. For services to Caesar after the battle of 
Pharsalia, he was again rewarded with the sovereignty in 47 B.C., 
Antipater of Idumaea, however, being at the same time made 
procurator of Judaea. In 41 BC. he was practically superseded 
by Antony's appointment of Herod and Phasael to be tetrarchs of 
Judaea; and in the following year he was taken prisoner by the 
Parthians, deprived of his ears that he might be permanently 
disqualified for priestly office, and carried to Babylon. He was 
permitted in 33 B c. to return to Jerusalem, where on a charge 
of treasonable correspondence with Malchus, king of Arabia, he 
was put to death in 30 B c 

See Josephus (Ant. xiii 8-10, xiv. 5-13; Bell. Jud i. 2, i. 8-13). 
Also MACCABEES, History. 

HYSSOP (Hyssopus officinalis), a garden herb belonging to 
the family Labiatae, formerly cultivated for use in domestic medi- 
cine. It is a small perennial plant about 2 ft. high, with slender, 
quadrangular, woody stems; narrowly elliptical, pointed, entire, 
dotted leaves, about i in. long and J in. wide, growing in pairs on 
the stem; and long terminal, erect, half-whorled, leafy spikes 
of small violet-blue flowers, which are in blossom from June to 
September. Varieties of the plant occur in gardens with red and 
white flowers, also one having variegated leaves. The leaves have 
a warm, aromatic, bitter taste, and are believed to owe their 
properties to a volatile oil which is present in the proportion of 
^ to i%. Hyssop is a native of the south of Europe, its range 
extending eastward to central Asia, and has become naturalized in 
North America from Maine to Ontario and southward and also on 
the Pacific coast. A strong tea made of the leaves, and sweetened 
with honey, was formerly used in pulmonary and catarrhal affec- 
tions, and externally as an application to bruises and indolent 

The hedge hyssop (Gratiola officinalis) belongs to the family 

Scrophulariaceae, and is a native of marshy lands in the soUlh of 
Europe, whence it was introduced into Great Britain more than 
300 years ago. Like Hyssopus oflicinalis, it has smooth, opposite, 
entire leaves, but the stems are cylindrical, the leaves twice the 
size, and the flowers solitary in the axils of the leaves and having 
a yellowish-red veined tube and bluish-white limb, while the 
capsules are oval and many-seeded. The herb has a bitter, nauseous 
taste, but is almost odourless. In small quantities it acts as a pur- 
gative, diuretic and emetic when taken internally. It is said to 
have formed the basis of a celebrated nostrum for gout, called 
Ran medicinale, and in former times was called Gratia Dei. When 
growing in abundance, as it does in some damp pastures in Switzer- 
land, it becomes dangerous to cattle. G. peruviana is known to 
possess similar properties. 

The hyssop ('ezob) of Scripture (Exod. xii. 22; Lev. xiv. 4, 6; 
Num. xix. 6, 18; i Kings v. 13 [iv. 33]; Ps. li. 9 [7]; John xix. 
29), a wall-growing plant adapted for sprinkling purposes, has long 
been the subject of learned disputation, the only point on which 
all have agreed being that it is not to be identified with the Hys- 
sopus officinalis, which is not a native of Palestine. No fewer than 
eighteen plants have been supposed by various authors to answer 
the conditions. The most probable opinion would seem to be that 
found in Maimonides and many later writers, according to which 
the Hebrew 'ezob is to be identified with the Arabic stiatar, now 
understood to be Satureia Thymus, a plant of very frequent occur- 
rence in Syria and Palestine, with which Thymus Serpyllum, or 
wild thyme, and Satureia Thymbra are closely allied. Its smell, 
taste and medicinal properties are similar to those of //. officinalis. 
HYSTASPES (the Greek form of the Persian Vishtaspa). 
(i) A semi-legendary king (kava), praised by Zoroaster as his 
protector and a true believer, son of Aurvataspa (Lohrasp). The 
later tradition and the Shahname of Firdousi make him (in the 
modern form Kai Gushtasp) king of Iran. As Zoroaster probably 
preached his religion in eastern Iran, Vishtaspa must have been a 
dynast in Bactria or Sogdiana. The Zoroastrian religion was al- 
ready dominant in Media in the time of the Assyrian king Sargon 
(c. 715 B.C ), and had been propagated probably in much earlier 
times (cf. PERSIA); the time of Zoroaster and Vishtaspa therefore 
may be put at c. 1000 B.C. (2) A Persian, father of Darius I., 
under whose reign he was governor of Parthia, as Darius himself 
mentions in the Behistun inscription (2. 65). By Ammianus 
Marcellinus, xxiii. 6. 32, and by many modern authors he has been 
identified with the protector of Zoroaster, which is impossible for 
chronological and historical reasons, and from the evidence of the 
development of Zoroastrianism itself (see PERSIA: Ancient His- 

HYSTERESIS. If an unmagnetized iron bar be subjected 
to a gradually increasing magnetizing force, and the corre- 
sponding values of the magnetic 
induction (flux density) in the 
iron be determined, then on 
plotting the magnetizing force 
against the induction a curve 
OBC is obtained. If now the mag- 
netizing force is gradually de- 
creased to zero and the values 
of the magnetic induction deter- 
mined, it will be found that the 
curve obtained does not coincide 
with OBC but takes the form 
CD. If now the direction of the 
magnetizing force is reversed, 
DEF is obtained, and decreasing 
HYSTERESIS CURVE the magnetizing force again to 

zero, reversing, and increasing will give the curve FGC. It will be 
seen from a study of the complete curve that the magnetic induc- 
tion (flux density) lags behind the magnetizing force. It was to 
this property of magnetic materials that Ewing gave the name 

HYSTERIA^ a term applied to a mental affection which 
occurs usually in individuals of neurotic and unstable constitu- 



tions. It is manifested by an undue susceptibility to external 
impressions, emotional episodes, and marked sensory, psychic 
and motor disturbance. Though classed among so-called "nerv- 
ous" diseases, it is functional in origin, and no organic change in 
the nervous system is known to exist. Physicians of the past sup- 
posed that hysteria occurred only in women and resulted from a 
wandering of the uterus or womb ; hence its name ; but after the 
experiences of the World War it has been more and more clearly 
realized that men may be as much affected as women. 

Though heredity has a definite influence, modern knowledge has 
shown that environmental factors in early life and faulty educa- 
tion are of main importance. 

The modern period in the history of hysteria may be said to have 
begun with Charcot; since, many physiological and psychologi- 
cal theories have been put forward. The most fruitful work was 
done by Pierre Janet, who regarded it as a purely mental malady. 
He believed that the disorder lay in a poor synthesis of the per- 
sonality so that certain ideas became split off from the main por- 
tion of the personality, and in a subconscious region of the mind 
independently produced these results. Various other theories of 
such mental dissociation have been formulated and the most 
important and interpretative is that of Sigmund Freud of Vienna. 
According to this worker, the hysterical symptom is the result of a 
conflict between the personality and some "wish" which is out of 
harmony with the personal ego, and is therefore repressed. (See 
PSYCHO-ANALYSIS.) The repression, however, is not entirely suc- 
cessful, and the wish in the unconscious mind, being dynamic, 
forces its way into consciousness in a symbolic and disguised 
form. The symptom is thus a compromise between the two urges 
at play. Much of the "wish" material which is repressed Freud 
believes to be related intimately to the sexual instinct. 

The symptoms of hysteria are manifold and complex and may 
appear in many combinations. They may be physical or mental. 
Among the former we may note paralysis of limbs, spasms of 
muscles, tremors, loss of voice or speech, loss of sensation in the 
skin, blindness, vomiting, etc. The hysterical fit is a convulsive 
attack which is well known and liable to be confused with epilepsy. 
There are, however, points of differentiation which careful investi- 
gation will usually reveal. The mental symptoms can all be looked 
upon as the result of the independent functioning of a dissociated 
part of the content of the mind. The chief are memory gaps, 
sleepwalking, fugues (wandering attacks of which there is no sub- 
sequent recollection), trances, hallucinations, deliria, and dream 
states. Double personality would be explained on a similar basis. 
In such a condition the split-off mental functions are so extensive 
that a second complete personality is formed. Freud classifies hys- 
teria into two forms conversion hysteria, when the psychic exci- 
tation is converted into some bodily innervation, and anxiety 
hysteria, when the symptoms are purely mental. In the latter cate- 
gory are included those cases evidencing anxiety, depression and 
morbid fears. In the minor form of hysteria the individual tends 
to be nervous and excitable, show exaggerated emotion, lack of 
control, with a liability to phantasy, egoism, and craving for atten- 
tion and sympathy. Hysteria may be so severe as to constitute 
insanity. In many of its manifestations its diagnosis is by no 
means easy and its physical symptoms are not infrequently taken 
as evidence of bodily disease. Treatment involves the use of some 
form of psychotherapy. Drug administration is not in the main 
scientifically admissible. What method of psychotherapy should 
be applied will vary according to the type of case and other cir- 
cumstances. Suggestion, hypnotism, and persuasion are of value 
in properly selected patients. If possible, the psychic cause should 
be discovered. This may be sought through some form of psycho- 
logical analysis or through the Freudian technique of psycho-an- 
alysis. An education in mental hygiene will generally be indicated. 

See McDougall, Abnormal Psychology. (C. S. R.) 

HYTHE, a market town and watering-place, one of the Cinque 

Ports, and a municipal borough of Kent, England, 67 m. S.E. by 
E. of London on a branch of the S R. Pop. (1921) 7,767. It is 
situated near the eastern extremity of Romney marsh, about half 
a mile from the sea, and consists principally of one long street 
running parallel with the shore. On the slope of the hill above the 
town stands the church of St. Leonard, partly Late Norman, with 
an Early English chancel. The tower was rebuilt about 1750. In 
a vault under the chancel there is a collection of human skulls 
and bones supposed to be the remains of men killed in a battle 
near Hythe in 456. , Lionel Lukin (1742-1834), inventor of the 
life-boat, is buried in the churchyard. Hythe possesses a guildhall 
founded in 1794 and two hospitals, that of St. Bartholomew 
founded by Haimo, bishop of Rochester in 1336, and that of St. 
John (rebuilt in 1802), still older, founded originally for the re- 
ception of lepers. 

Lympne, now 3 m. inland, is thought to have been the original 
harbour which gave Hythe a place among the Cinque Ports, The 
sea-sand lying on the surface shows the course of the ancient 
estuary. Here are remains of a Roman fortress, and of the Portus 
Lemanis. Large portions of the fortress walls are standing. At 
the south-west corner is one of the circular towers which occurred 
along the line of wall. The site is now occupied by the old castel- 
lated mansion of Studfall castle, formerly a residence of the 
archdeacons of Canterbury. The church at Lympne is Early 
English, and has a Norman tower built by Archbishop Lanfranc, 
with some Roman material in the walls. A short distance east is 
Shipway or Shepway Cross, where some of the great assemblies 
relating to the Cinque Ports were held. A mile north from Hythe 
is Saltwood castle, of ancient origin, but rebuilt in the time of 
Richard II. The castle was granted to the see of Canterbury in 
1026, and here the murder of Thomas a Becket is said to have 
been concerted. It remained a residence of the archbishops until 
the time of Henry VIII. It was restored as a residence in 1882. 
About 2 m. N.W. of Saltwood are remains of the fortified I4th 
century manor-house of Westenhanger, quadrangular and sur- 
rounded by a moat, with three of the nine towers (alternately 
square and round) by which the walls were defended remaining. 

Hythe (Heda, Heya, Hethe, Hithe, ie. t landing-place), a port 
in Saxon times, was granted by a Saxon thegn to Christ Church, 
Canterbury. In the Domesday Survey the borough is entered 
among the archbishop's lands as appurtenant to his manor of 
Saltwood, and the bailiff of the town was appointed by the arch- 
bishop. Hythe was evidently a Cinque Port before the Conquest, 
as King John in 1 205 confirmed the liberties which the townsmen 
had under Edward the Confessor. The liberties of the Cinque 
Ports were confirmed in Magna Carta and later by Edward I. in 
a general charter, which was confirmed, often with additions by 
subsequent kings down to James II. John's charter to Hythe 
was confirmed by the Lancastrian kings. These charters were 
granted to the Cinque Ports in return for the 57 ships which they 
supplied for the royal service, of which five were contributed by 
Hythe. The ports were first represented in the parliament of 1365, 
to which they each sent four members. 

Hythe was governed by 12 jurats until 1574, when it was in- 
corporated by Elizabeth under the title of the mayor, jurats and 
commonalty of Hythe; a fair for the sale of fish, etc., was also 
granted, to be held on the feast of St. Peter and St Paul. With 
the silting up of the harbour Hythe lost its old importance. 

HYTHE, CONFERENCE OF, a meeting (May 15 to 17 
1920) between the British and French prime ministers, together 
with the chancellor of the exchequer and the French minister of 
finance, in preparation for the Conference of Spa (see SPA, 
CONFERENCE OF). A French proposal that France should be 
granted priority in reparation payments seems to have been put 
forward but not pressed, and the linking up of the reparation 
problem with the question of inter-Allied debts was proposed 
publicly for the first time in the official communiqu6. 



II This letter corresponds to Semitic ^ (yod) and 
Greek I (iota). Early Greek forms from the 
island of Thera were f and S, which obviously 
more closely resemble the Semitic than the later 
J single vertical stroke. In Attic inscriptions also 
the form $ appears, while in early Corinthian inscriptions the 
forms x , ? , \ are found. The Chalcidic alphabet had the form I 
and this was the form in all the Italic alphabets including the 
Etruscan. The Lydian alphabet besides the form I also shows a 
form Q (written from right to left). 





B.C 1.200 




z \ 



Z * 






* 1 











] AND 















The minuscule letter is merely a shortened form of the majus- 
cule. The dot first appears in mss. of about the nth century and 
was used to distinguish the letter and assist reading in words in 
which it was in close proximity to letters such as n or m (inimicis, 
for example). The dot frequently took the form of a dash, e.g., 
1. It became the custom in mediaeval mss. to distinguish an 
initial or otherwise prominent i by continuing it below the line, and 
it was from this habit that the differentiation of the letters i and ; 
arose. The initial letter, nearly always lengthened, had most fre- 
quently a consonantal force, and this led to ; representing the 
consonant, i the vowel. The two letters were not considered as 
separate until the iyth century. 

In Semitic the letter represented a spirant akin to the sound 
of English consonantal y. In Greek, Latin and the Romance 
languages it has represented a high front vowel similar to English 
long e. In Latin short i represented a considerably more open 
sound than long i, as is evidenced by the fact that in late Latin it 
ran together with long e. In modern English the sound of short 
i is almost identical with what it was in Latin (e.g., in the word 
pit). Long i has become a diphthong (a' l /Ti, e.g., in the 
words ice, hire), the sound formerly represented by long e (i.e., 
that heard in French tete) having shifted forwards and upwards 
till it has become that formerly represented by long i. 

In words such as fir the letter represents the neutral vowel, 
while in certain foreign words it retains its continental sound, 
identical with that it represented in Middle English and pre- 
viously (e.g., in the words pique, emir). (B. F. C. A.) 

IACANDONES, an Indian tribe belonging to the Maya- 
Quich6 stock. They occupy the tributary streams west of the 
Usumacintla river in Chiapas, Mexico. Their tongue is closely re- 
lated to the Maya of Yucatan. Living in scattered family groups, 
their total number to-day is only a few hundred. Formerly, how- 
ever, they were numerous and opposed the Spaniards so resolutely, 
especially during the i;th century, that they were never com- 
pletely subdued. Their culture at present is primitive but they 
show survivals of higher phases inherited from pre-Columbian 

See A. M. Tozzer, A Comparative Study of the Mayas and lacan- 
doncs (1907). 

IAMBIC, a verse or succession of verses composed wholly 
or principally of the foot called an iambus (* ). It is generally 
described by a compound name consisting of a Greek numeral 
and the word metron, signifying a group of two iambi; as, 
iambic dimeter, a line consisting of two metra or four iambi: 

w M w M. V WC 

"perunxit hoc lasonem," or "John Gil|pin was | a cit|izen." 
The commonest form, and one of the most popular of Greek 
metres, especially in drama, is the trimeter (three metra, or six 
iambi). When "pure," i.e., containing no other feet, this 

MM \J M W 

runs "suis et ipsa Roma vmbus ruit." But as a substitute for 
each of the first five iambi, under various restrictions more 
or less severe according to subject and language, the ancients 
allowed a spondee (- -), a tribrach (v w w), a dactyl (- * v), 
an anapaest (*> v -) y sometimes a proceleusmatic (w w %/ v). 

Other common lines are the tetrameter catalectic ("paratus omne 
Caesaris periculum subire") and acatalectic ("beatus ille qui 
procul negoths, ut prisca gens"), with similar substitutions al- 
lowed. These last two are common in English, as "In good | King 
Charleses goljden days, | when loy|alty | no harm | meant," and 
"But come, | thou god|dess fair | and free, | in heaven | yclept | 
Euphrojsyne," but the trimeter is almost unknown; Spenser's 
"Unhappy verse | the witness of | my unhappy state" is an ex- 
ample; the Alexandrine, as "And hope to merit Heaven | by 



making earth a hell," has a different rhythm. Its place in our 
literature is taken by the five-foot line, in couplets or "blank," 
as "A lit [tie on | ward lend j thy guijding hand." 

IAMBLICHUS (d. c. A.D. 330), the chief representative of 
Syrian Neoplatonism, was born at Chalcis in Coele-Syria of an 
illustrious family. He studied under Porphyry in Rome, and later 
taught in Syria. Although his commentaries on Plato and Aris- 
totle, and works on the Chaldaean theology and on the soul, are 
lost, fragments of them have been preserved by Stobaeus and 
others. Proclus mentions his five extant books, which are parts of a 
great work on Pythagorean philosophy, and ascribes to him the 
celebrated book On the Egyptian Mysteries, which probably only 
emanated from his school. As a philosopher, lamblichus had little 
originality. His contemporaries, like his admirers of the isth and 
i6th centuries, looked upon him with extravagant veneration, but 
Eunapius, his biographer, merely says that he was inferior to 
Porphyry only in style. The modifications of Neoplatonism intro- 
duced by lamblichus were the elaboration of its formal divisions, 
the more systematic application of the Pythagorean number-sym- 
bolism, and chiefly, under the influence of Oriental systems, a mys- 
tical colouring. Immediately after the absolute one of Plotinus (see 
NEOPLATONISM), lamblichus introduced a second superexistent 
unity as the producer of intellect, and modified the three succeed- 
ing moments of the emanation (intellect, soul and nature). He 
speaks of them as intellectual, supramundane and mundane gods. 
The first of these is again distinguished into spheres of intelligible 
gods and of intellectual gods, each subdivided into triads, the latter 
sphere being the place of ideas, the former of the archetypes of 
these ideas. He identifies the Demiurge, Zeus, or world-creating 
potency with the perfected i>oCs (intellect), the intellectual triad 
being increased to a hebdomad, probably (as Zeller supposes) 
through the subdivision of its first two members. As in Plotinus 
vovs produced nature by mediation of ^VXTJ (soul), so here the 
intelligible gods are followed by a triad of psychic gods. The first 
of these is incommunicable and supramundane, while the other two 
seem to be mundane though rational. In the third class, or mun- 
dane gods, there is a great variety of gods, angels, demons and 
heroes. The world is thus peopled by a crowd of superhuman be- 
ings influencing natural events, possessing and communicating 
knowledge of the future, and not inaccessible to prayers and offer- 
ings. Nature is bound by the indissoluble chains of necessity, but 
being the result of higher powers becoming corporeal, a continual 
stream of elevating influence flows from them, interfering with the 
necessary laws and turning to good the imperfect and evil which 
is said to have been generated accidentally. 

lamblichus retains for the soul of men the middle place between 
intellect and nature which it occupies in the universal order. It 
descends by a necessary law (not solely for trial or punishment) 
into the body, and, passing perhaps from one human body to 
another, returns again to the supersensible by its virtuous activ- 
ities. To the political, purifying, theoretical and paradigmatic 
virtues of Porphyry, lamblichus adds the priestly virtues in which 
the divinest part of the soul raises itself by insight above intellect 
to absolute being His tendency, however, was not so much to raise 
man to God as to bring the gods down to men. His ethical theory 
is strongly practical. 

The works of lamblichus are: (i) On the Pythagorean Life ed. 
T. Kiessling (1815) > A. Nauck (St. Petersburg, 1884), Eng. trans, by 
T. Taylor (1818). (a) The Exhortation to Philosophy, ed. T. Kiessling 
(1813) ; H. Piseili (1888). (3) The treatise On the General Science 
of Mathematics, ed. J, G. Friis (Copenhagen, 1790), N. Festa (Leipzig, 
1891). (4) The book On the Arithmetic of Nicomachus with frag- 
ments on fate and prayer, ed. S. Tcnnulius (1688), the Arithmetic 
by H. Pistclli (1894). (5) The Theological Principles of Arithmetic 
by F. Ant (Leipzig, 1817). The Ltltort to lamblicus the Philosopher 
bearing the name of the emperor Julian *re now considered spurious. 
The Liber de mysterns (ascribed to JambUchus but most probably by a 
pupil) was edited with Latin translation and notes, by T. Gale ((Mord, 
1678), and by 0, Parthey (Berlin, 1857): Eng. trans, by T. Taylor 
(1821). See G. E. Hebemtreit, De lambllcM, philo$ophi Syri, doctrina 
(Leipzig, 1764) ; Harless, Das Buck v. d. dwpt. My ft. (Munich, :8<;8) ; 
T. Whittaker, The Neo-Phtoni$t* (Cambridge, and ed., 1018) ; 
Eunapius, Vitae Philosophorum; Zelter. Phil. <f. uriechen; E. Vacnerot, 
ffht. de I'lcole d' Alexandria (1846) ; Uberweg, Grund. der Gesch. der 
Phil. Pt. i. (1926) with full bibliography. See Nto-PtATONWM. 

IAMBLICHUS, of Syria, the earliest of the Greek romance 
writers, flourished in the 2nd century A.D, He was the author of 
jSi/XwioKd, Ba the loves of Rhodanes and Sinonis, of which an 
epitome is preserved in Photius (cod 94). (July a few fragments 
have been preserved. According to Suidas lamblichus is said to 
have been a freedman. 

IAPETUS, in Greek mythology, son of Uranus and Ge, one 
of the Titans, father of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimethcus, and 
Menoetius (Hesiod, Theog. 507). As a punishment for having 
revolted against Zeus, he was imprisoned in Tartarus (Homer, 
Iliad, viii. 470) or underneath the island of Inarime off the coast 
of Campania (Silius Italicus xii. 148) Hyginus makes him the 
son of Tartarus and Ge, and one of the giants. The etymology 
of the name is doubtful, but it certainly has nothing to do with 
the Hebrew Japhet. 

See Preller-Robert, i. p. 47, 

IAPYDES (I-ahp'-u-das) or IAPODES, one of the three 
chief peoples of Roman Illyria They occupied the interior of the 
country on the north between the Arsia and Tedanius, which 
separated them from the Liburnians. Their territory formed part 
of the modern Croatia. A mixed race ot Celts and Illyrians, who 
used Celtic weapons and tattooed themselves, they were warlike 
and addicted to plundering expeditions. In 120 B.C. C Sempronius 
Tuditanus celebrated a triumph over them, and in 34 B.C. they 
were finally crushed by Augustus. 

See Strabo iv. 207, vii. 313-315; Dio Cassius xlix. 35; Appian, 
Illyrica, 10, 14, 16; Livy, Epit. h\. i}i, Tihullus w. i. 108; Cicero, 
Pro Balbo, 14. 

IATROCHEMISTRY (coined from Gr.tarpoy, a physician, 
and "chemistry"), a stage in the history of chemistry, during 
which the object of this science was held to be "not to make gold 
but to prepare medicines." This doctrine dominated chemical 
thought during the i6th century, its foremost supporters being 
Paracelsus, J. B. van Helmont, and F. de la Boc Sylvius. But it 
gave way to the new definition formulated by Boyle, viz., that the 
proper domain of chemistry was "to determine the composition 
of substances." (Sec ALCHEMY; CHEMISTRY.) 

IAZYGES (i-ahz'u-gas), Sarmatian tribe on the Maeotis, 
allies of Mithridates the Great (q.v.). Moving westward across 
Scythia, they were on the lower Danube by the time of Ovid, and 
about A D. 50 occupied the plains cast of the Theiss. Here, under 
the general name of Sarmatae, they were a perpetual trouble to 
Dacia (q.v.) the Roman province. They were divided into free- 
men and serfs, the latter of whom were probably an older settled 
population enslaved by nomad masters. They rose against them in 
A.D. 344, but were repressed. Nothing is heard of Tazyges or 
Sarmatae after the Hunnish invasions 

IBADAN, a town of British West Africa, in Yorubaland, 
Southern Nigeria, 123 m by rail north-east of Lapos, and about 
50 m. north-east of Abeokuta Ibadan is the largest negio city in 
Africa, having an urban population of over 175,000, and with its 
farm suburbs, 238,000 inhabitants. It occupies (he slope of a hill, 
and stretches into the valley through which the river Ona flows. It 
is enclosed by mud walls, which have a circuit of 18 m., and is 
encompassed by cultivated land 5 or 6 m in breadth. The native 
houses are low, thatched structures, enclosing a square court, 
the only break in the mud wall being the door. There are num- 
erous mosques, orishas (idol-houses) and open spaces shaded 
with trees. There arc also buildings in the European style. Most 
of the inhabitants are engaged in agriculture, but a great variety 
of handicrafts is also carried on. The administration is in the 
hands of two chiefs, a civil and a military, the bolt and the 6o/ 
ogun. There is also an iyaloda or mother of the town, to whom 
are submitted the disputes of the \\omcn The town is in the 
province of Oyo and is subject to the authority of the alafin 
(ruler) of Oyo, who is guided by tin* advice of a British resident. 
For many years the Ibadans had ihown a tendehcy to flout the 
authority of the alafin and set up a separate rule under their own 
ball. This tendency to the disintegration of Yorubaland Was 
checked, and misrule replaced bv good government through re- 
forms instituted by Sir F. D. (Lord) Lugard in 1014-18. (See 
also YORUBA.) (F, R. C ) 


IBAGUE, or SAN BONIFACIO DE IBAGUE, a city of Colombia 
and capital of the department of Tolima, about 6om. W. of 
Bogota and i8m. N.W of the Nevado de Tolima. Pop. (1900) 
est. 13,000, (iQi8) 30,255. Ibague is built on a beautiful plain 
between the Chipalo and Combeima, small affluents of the Cuello, 
a western tributary of the Magdalena. Its elevation, 4,3Ooft 
above the sea, gives it a mild, subtropical climate. The plain and 
the neighbouring valleys produce cacao, tobacco, rice and sugar- 
cane. It is an important commercial centre, being on the road 
which crosses the Quindio pass, or paramo, into the Cauca valley. 
Ibague was founded in 1550 and was the capital of the republic 
for a short time in 1854. 

IBANEZ, VICENTE BLASCO (1867-1928), Spanish 
novelist and politician, was born at Valencia He became an im- 
passioned political agitator and suffered exile, hard labour and 
frequent imprisonment for hia opinions, although he was returned 
to parliament on eight occasions by his native city. His early 
novels, such as Arroz y Tar tana. La Darraca and Canas y Barro, 
deal with life in Valencia and are remarkable for their vivid de- 
scriptions Although a republiran, Ibanez held strong anti-femi- 
nist opinions. He travelled extensively and achieved world-wide 
success as a writer for the cinematograph. Among his best-known 
novels are La Catedral (1903; Eng. trans., The Shadow of the 
Cathedral, 1909); Sangre y Arena (1908; Eng. trans., Blood a*?d 
Sandy 1913); Los cuatro Jinetes del Apocalipsis (1916; Eng 
trans., The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, 1918) and Mare 
Nostrum (1918; Eng. trans, Our Sea, 1920). He was unpopular 
in Spain, where his writings were ignored by the majority, and 
he eventually settled in Paris, becoming the centre of a group of 
politicians with anti-monarchical views. A journey to America 
led to the production of such novels as Los Argonatitas and La 
Tierra de Todos, but in these, as in other works, Ibanez failed 
to recapture the charm and realism of his regional novels. 

IBANS (SEA DAYAKS). Mostly m the south-west of 
Borneo, but scattered, on account of their migratory habits, over 
various parts, usually not far from the coast, are the Ibans, who 
may be described as a butterfly people The word Iban, or Ivan, 
meaning "wanderer," was applied to them by the Kayans and 
has only been adopted by the Ibans themselves within the last 
half century. Their skin is darker than that of the other tribes 
and their hair longer; their mouths are often shapeless and their 
teeth are filed and discoloured by the chewing of betel-nut. They 
are, however, a most likeable people and are the tribe best known 
and best liked by Europeans They are cheerful, talkative, and 
sociable, but very ready to quarrel and addicted to litigation. 
Individually they are vain and self-indulgent, and given to boast- 
ing and exaggeration These faults often lead collectively to a 
want of discipline, their individualistic bent and their cama- 
raderie being responsible for follies, and even excesses, in which 
every man follows his neighbour For this reason the chief in 
an Iban long house or village has less power and influence than is 
the case among Kayans or Kenyahs. On the other hand, when 
an Iban is given some special work by a European his vanity 
impels him to do it well, and, coupled with a natural adaptability, 
makes him a more loyal adherent of a settled government. 

As Ibans rarely remain in one village for more than three years 
at a stretch, they are not great builders, but in smaller material 
and in detail they are such skilled artists that their houses, though 
unsubstantial, are full of conveniences and amenities. Though 
they are spoken of as sea dyaks, they are not really a sea-faring 
people, they arc often content with makeshift arrangements 
as to boats, most of their canoes consisting simply of the hollowed 
out trunks of big trees In many sorts of decorative work, such 
as bead or shell-work, and various patterned articles of clothing, 
they excel. In general, their faults and their virtues alike leap 
to the eye; but their geniality and willingness, their versatility 
and humour, make for attractiveness. See BORNEO. 

See C Hose and W. McDouRall, The Pagan Tribes of Borneo (1912). 

IBARRA, a city of Ecuador and capital of the province of 
Imbabura, is situated about 50 m N N.E. of Quito in lat. 25' N. 
and long 78 ro' W., on a small fertile plain at the northern foot 
of Imbabura volcano, 7,340 ft. above sea-level Pop (1926 esti- 

mate) 10,000. It stands on the left bank of the Tahuando, a 
small stream whose waters flow north and west to the Pacific 
through the Mira, and is separated from the higher plateau of 
Quito by an elevated transverse ridge of which the Imbabura 
and Mojanda volcanoes form a part. Ibarra itself has a mild, 
humid climate, and is set in the midst of orchards and gardens. 
It is the see of a bishop and has a large number of churches and 
convents, and many substantial residences. Ibarra has manufac- 
tures of cotton and woollen fabrics, hats, sandals (alpar gates} , 
sacks and rope from cabulla fibre, laces, sugar and various kinds 
of distilled spirits and cordials made from the sugar-cane grown 
in the vicinity. The city was founded in 1597 by Alvaro de 
Ibarra, president of Quito. It has suffered from the eruptions of 
Imbabura, and more severely from earthquakes, that of 1859 
causing great damage to its public buildings, and the greater one 
of Aug. 1 6, 1868, almost completely destroyed the town and killed 
a large number of its inhabitants. The village of Carranqui, i\ 
m. from Ibarra, is the birthplace of Atahualpa, the Inca sov- 
ereign executed by Pizarro, and close by is the small lake called 
Yaguarcocha where the army of Huaynacapac, the father of Ata- 
hualpa, inflicted a bloody defeat on the Carranquis Another 
aboriginal battle-field is that of Hatuntaqui, near Ibarra, where 
Huaynacapac won a decisive victory and added the greater part 
of Ecuador to his realm. 

IBERIANS, an ancient people inhabiting parts of the 
Spanish peninsula. The name was applied by the earlier Greek 
navigators to the peoples who inhabited the eastern coast of Spain, 
originally those who dwelt by the river Iberus (mod. Ebro). The 
river's name itself may represent the Basque phrase ibay-crri, 
u thc country of the river." In older Greek usage the term Iberia 
embraced the country as far east as the Rhone and by the time of 
Strabo it was the common Greek name for the Spanish peninsula. 
Iberians thus meant sometimes the population of the peninsula in 
general and sometimes one element in that population In Spain, 
when this element first became known to the Greeks and Romans, 
there existed many separate and variously civilized tribes connect- 
ed by at least apparent identity of race, and by similarity (but not 
identity) of language, and sufficiently distinguished by their 
general characteristics from Phoenicians, Romans and Celts 

1. Numismatic. Knowledge of ancient Iberian language 
and history is mainly derived from a variety of coins, found 
widely distributed in the peninsula, and also in the neighbourhood 
of Narbonne. (For the prehistoric civilization of the peninsula as 
a whole see SPAIN.) They arc inscribed in an alphabet which has 
many points of similarity with the western Greek alphabets, and 
some with the Punic alphabet, but retains a few characters from 
an older script. The same Iberian alphabet is found also rarely in 
inscriptions. The coinage began before the Roman conquest was 
completed; the monetary system resembles that of the Roman 
republic, with values analogous to denarii and quinarii. The coin 
inscriptions usually give only the name of the town; e.g , Plplis 
(Bilbilis), Klaqriqs (Calagurris), Seqbrics (Segobriga), Tmaniav 
(Dumania). The types show late Greek and perhaps also late 
Punic influence, but approximate later to Roman models. The 
commonest reverse type, a charging horseman, reappears on the 
Roman coins of Bilbilis, Osca, Segobriga and other places. An- 
other common type is one man leading two horses or brandishing 
a sword or a bow. The obverse has usually a male head, sometimes 
inscribed with what appears to be a native name. 

2. Linguistic* The survival of the Basque language (q.v.) 
around the west Pyrenees suggested the attempt to interpret by its 
means a large class of similar-sounding place names of ancient 
Spain, some of which are authenticated by their occurrence on the 
inscribed coin?, and to link it with other traces of non-Aryan 
speech rpund the shores of the western Mediterranean and on the 
Atlantic seaboard of Europe. K. W. von Humboldt contended 
that there existed once a single great Iberian people, speaking a 
distinct language of their own; that an essentially "Iberian" 
populati6n was to be found in Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, in 
southern France, and even in the British Isles; and that the 
Basques of the present day were remnants of this race, which had 
elsewhere been expelled or absorbed. He adduced explanations 


3 1 

of a vast number of the ancient topographical names of Spain, 
and of other asserted Iberian districts, by the forms and signifi- 
cations of Basque. 

3. Anthropological. This "Iberian theory" depended partly 
on the widespread similarity of physical type among the popula- 
tion of south-western Europe. Anthropological researches have 
proved the existence in Europe, from Neolithic times, of a race, 
small of stature, with long or oval skulls, who buried their dead in 
tombs. Their remains have been found in Belgium and France, in 
Britain, Germany and Denmark, as well as in Spain; and they 
bear a close resemblance to a type common among the Basques 
and all over the Iberian peninsula. This Neolithic race has conse- 
quently been nicknamed "Iberians," and the racial characteristics 
of "Iberians," have been identified in the "small swarthy Welsh- 
man," the "small dark Highlander," and the "Black Celts to the 
west of the Shannon," as well as in the typical inhabitants of 
Aquitania and Brittany. Thus a race with fairly uniform char- 
acteristics was at one time in possession of the south of France (or 
at least of Aquitania), the whole of Spain from the Pyrenees to 
the straits, the Canary Islands (the Guanches) a part of northern 
Africa and Corsica. Whether this type is more conveniently desig- 
nated by the word Iberian, or by some other name ("Eur-African," 
"Mediterranean," etc.) is a matter of comparative indifference, 
provided that there is no misunderstanding as to the steps by 
which the term Iberian attained its meaning in modern anthro- 

1706), French-Canadian soldier and colonizer of Louisiana, was 
born in Montreal, Canada, on July 16, 1661. He was one of 
eleven sons of Charles Le Moyne, all of whom performed dis- 
tinguished service in the extension of the French empire in 
America. The elder son, Charles Le Moyne, Baron de Longueuil, 
later became governor of Canada A younger son, Jean Baptiste 
Sieur d'Bienville, became Iberville's lieutenant in founding the 
Louisiana colony, and later first governor of that province. At 
the age of 14 d'Iberville was appointed midshipman in the French 
navy and sent to France. After four years service on French ships 
he returned to Canada. In 1886 he led a detachment on the over- 
land expedition under De Troyes against the English forts on Hud- 
son bay and aided in the reduction of forts Monsipi, Rupert and 
Kitchichouame (later Fort Albany), also with the aid of his 
brothers capturing two English vessels. He was left in command 
of the forts, 1886-89, and in 1888 succeeded in taking two more 
English ships. In 1890 he was a leader of the French expedition 
against Schenectady, but before the end of the year returned to 
Hudson bay to recapture Fort Albany which had relapsed into 
English control. In 1694 he led a land expedition which captured 
Ft. Nelson, on Hudson bay. During the winter of 1896-97 he 
captured Fort Pemaquid and ravaged the English settlements on 
the coast of Newfoundland. In 1897, in command of a frigate, he 
again entered Hudson bay and defeated three superior English 
vessels in a desperate engagement. Afterwards he again took Fort 
Nelson which the English had recaptured. After the Peace of 
Ryswick d'Iberville was called to France and commissioned by 
the marine minister, Pontchartrain, to found a settlement at the 
mouth of the Mississippi. He left Brest in Oct. 1698 with four 
vessels and 200 colonists and reached Mobile bay in Jan. 1699. 
Here the colonists were left while d'Iberville and a number of 
men searched the coast for the Mississippi, which was entered at 
the delta and ascended probably to the mouth of the Red river. 
No favourable site for a colony was found along the river, and, 
it being late, d'Iberville built Ft. Maurepas on the present site of 
Biloxi, Miss., and there left his colonists. This was the first 
permanent French settlement on the Gulf coast. 

Returning the next year, d'Iberville built a post on the Missis- 
sippi river near Neyv Orleans and explored much of the lower 
valleys of the Red and Mississippi rivers. Returning a third time 
in 1701, he found his colony badly reduced by disease and trans- 
ferred most of the colonists to Mobile. He returned for addi- 
tional colonists, but France was again at war, and d'Iberville was 
retained for naval service. He was given command of the West 
Indian fleet, and in 1706 invaded the islands of Nevis and St. 




Christopher forcing them to surrender and capturing 30 ships 
and 1750 men. While outfitting at Havana for an expedition 
against the Carolinas, he fell ill with fever and died July 9, 1 706. 
D'Iberyille's journal is found in B. F. French, Historical Collections 
of Louisiana and Florida, 2nd series (1875). See also H. Gravier, 
L'Oeuvre. de d'Iberville a la Louisiane (1899) ; C. B. Reed, The First 
Great Canadian (1910). 

IBEX, the Alpine wild goat, Capra ibex. Formerly common in 
the Alps, the ibex is now confined to the Gran Paradiso range in 

the neighbourhood of Cogne, and 
to the Swiss National Park in the 
Engacline. It measures about 4^ 
ft. in length and stands about 
4oin. at the shoulder. In sum- 
mer the short fur is ashy grey, 
but in winter this is concealed by 
long yellowish-brown hairs. The 
horns are long, curved backwards 
and ridged on the front surface 
The forelegs are somewhat 
shorter than the hind-limbs The 
agility of the ibex on its native 
mountains is astounding. It in- 
habits the line of perpetual snow, 
descending at night to graze 
in the highest woods. The ibex is gregarious, living in small 
herds, but the old males are usually solitary. The female, after 
a period of gestation of 90 days, produces a single young one, 
which is at once able to follow her. The flesh resembles mutton, 
but with a flavour of game. 

The name "ibex" has been extended to include allied species 
of which the Asiatic ibex (C. sibirica), ranging over Central Asia, 
is the finest and may possess horns ooin long Other species, 
differing in the thickness of and ridges on the horns, occur in 
Arabia, Abyssinia, the Caucasus and the Pyrenees, and the name 
is also applied to the short-horned Indian Hemitragus hylocruis 
from the Nilgiris. 

IBIS, one of the sacred birds of ancient Egypt, Ibis aethiopica 
The myth of the Ibis is explained by Renouf in his Hibbcrt Lec- 
tures. The ibis inhabits the Nile basin from Dongola southward, 
as well as Kordofan and Sennar. It arrives in Egypt in summer, 
disappearing again as the Nile subsides. It is somewhat larger 
than a curlew, with a much stouter beak and legs. The plumage 
is black and white, the bare head and neck being black. The bill 

and feet are black. The birds 
nest in colonies in trees or 
bushes; two to four white eggs 
spotted with reddish-brown are 
laid. The young are hatched in 

Numerous other species occur 
in the tropics and subtropks 
throughout the world. These in- 
clude Eiidocimus rubcr, the scar- 
let ibis of America (usually sub- 
stituted for /. aethiopica by 
artists); and the glossy ibis 
(Pleqadis jalcinellus) with an 
enormous range, including all five 
continents The Ibididae are re- 
lated to the spoonbills (Platalci- 
dae) and storks (Ciconiidac). 

IBLIS, in Muslim mythology 
THE WHITE.FACED IBIS OF EGYPT thc counterpart of the Christian 
and Jewish devil. He figures oftener in the Qur'an under the 
name Shaytan, Iblis being mentioned 1 1 times, whereas Shaytan 
appears in 87 passages. Iblis rebelled against Allah and was 
expelled from Paradise but was afterwards respited till the Judg- 
ment day (Qur'&n vii. 13). The Qur'&nic story is that his fall was 
a punishment for his refusal to worship Adam. 

See IbKs (in Encyclopaedia of hlam, bibl ) ; L. Massixnon, Al- 
HaUaj, p. 869 50?. (1922) 



IBN 'ABD RABBIHI (Abu 'Urnar Ahmad ibn Mohammed 
ibn 'Abd Rabbihi) (860-940), Arabian poet, was born in Cordova. 
He enjoyed a great reputation for learning and eloquence. No 
diwan of his is extant, but many selections from his poems are 
Kiven in the Yatimat ud-Dahr, i 41,2-436 (Damascus, 1887). 
His great anthology, the 'Iqd id-Farld ("The Precious Necklace"), 
is an adab book (we ARABIA. Literature, section "Belles Lcttres") 
resembling Ibn Qutaiba's 'Uyun ul-Akhbdr, from which it borrows 
largely. It has been printed several times in Cairo (1876, 1886) 

IBN 'ARAB! [Muhyiuddln Abu 'Abdallah ibn ul-'ArabiJ 
(1165-1240), Muslim theologian and mystic, was born in Murua 
and educated in Seville. When thirty-eight he travelled in 
Egypt, Arabia, Baghdad, Mosul and Asia Minor, after which he 
lived in Damascus for the rest of his life. In law he was a 
Zahirite, in theology a mystic of the extreme order, (hough pro- 
fessing orthodox Ash'arite theology and combating in many points 
the Indo-Persian mysticism (pantheism). He claims to have had 
conversations with all the prophets past and future, and reports 
conversations with God himself. Of his numerous works about 
150 still exist. The most extensive is the twelve-volume Putuhdt 
ul'Makklydt ("Meccan Revelations"), a general encyclopaedia 
of Sufic beliefs and doctrines. 

Of some 289 works said to have been written by Ibn 'Arabl 150 
are mentioned in C. Brockelmann's Gcsch der arabuchen Litteratw , 
vol. i (Weimar, 1898), pp. 441-448. See also R. A. Nicholson, A 
Literary History of the Arabs, pp. 399-404 (1907). 

IBN ATHIR, the family name of three brothers, all famous 
in Arabian literature, born at Jazlrat ibn 'Umar in Kurdistan. 
The eldest brother, MAJD uo-DfN (1149-1210), was long in the 
service of the amir of Mosul His dictionary of traditions (Kitdb 
tm-Nihdya) was published at Cairo (1893), and his dictionary of 
family names (Kitdb ul-Mnrassa') has been edited by Seybold 
(Weimar, 1896). The youngest brother, DIYA uo-DlN (1163- 
1239), served Saladin from 1191 on, then his son, al-Malik ul- 
Afdal, and was afterwards in Egypt, Samosata, Aleppo, Mosul and 
Baghdad. He was one of the most famous aesthetic and stylistic 
critics in Arabian literature. His Kitdb ill-Mat hal, published in 
Bulaq in 1865 (cf Journal of the German Oriental Society, xxxv., 
and Goldziher's Abhandlungen, i ), contains some very independ- 
ent criticism. Some of his letters have been published by D. S. 
Margoliouth "On the Royal Correspondence of Diya cd-Din 
el-Jazari" in the Actes du dixiime. congrbs international des 
orientalist cs, sect. 3 

The brother best known by the simple name of Ibn Athir 
1234), who devoted himself to history. At the age of twenty- 
one he settled in Mosul In the service of the amir for many 
years, he visited Baghdad and Jerusalem and later Aleppo and 
Damascus. His great history, the Kamil, which extends to 1231, 
was edited by C J Tornberg, Ihn al-Athiri Chronicon quod per- 
fectissimum inscribitur (14 vols., Leiden, 1851-76), and has 
been published in 12 vols. in Cairo (1873 and 1886). The first 
part of this work up to AH 310 (A.D. 923) is an abbreviation of 
the work of Tabari (q.v ) with additions. Ibn Athir also wrote a 
history of the Atabegs of Mosul, published in the Recueil des his- 
toricns des eroitades (vol ii , Paris) ; a work (Uvd ul~Ghaba), giv- 
ing an account of 7,500 companions of Mohammed (5 vols , Cairo, 
1863), and a compendium (the Lubdb) of Sam'ani's Kitdb ul- 
Amab. (Cf F.\\ustenfeld'sSpecimenel-Lobabi,Gottingtn, 1835.) 

IBN BATUTA, i.e., Abu Abdullah Mohammed, surnamed 
Ibn Batuta (1304-1378), the greatest of Moslem travellers, was 
born at Tangier in 1304. He entered on his travels in 1325 and 
closed them in 1355 He began by traversing the Mediterranean 
coast from Tangier to Alexandria, marrying twice on the road. 
After some stay at Cairo, and an unsuccessful attempt to reach 
Mecca from Aidhab on the west coast of the Red Sea, he visited 
Palestine, Aleppo and Damascus. He then made the pilgrimage 
to Mecca and Medina, and visited the shrine of AH at Nejef 
(Mashhad-Ali), travelling to Basra, and across the mountains of 
Khuzihtan to Isfahan, thence to Shlraz and back to Kufa and 
Baghdad. After an excursion to Mosul and Diarbekr, he made the 
haj a second time, stavimr at Mecca three vear& He next sailed 

down the Red Sea to Aden (then a place of great trade), 'the 
singular position of which he describes, noticing its dependence 
for water-supply upon the great cisterns restored in modern times. 
He continued his voyage down the African coast, visiting, among 
other places, Mombasa and Quiloa (Kilwa). Returning north 
he passed by the chief cities of Oman to New Ormuz (Hurmuz), 
which about 1315 had been transferred to its famous island-site 
from the mainland (Old Ormuz). After visiting other parts of the 
gulf he crossed Arabia to Mecca, making the haj for the third 
time. Crossing the Red Sea, he made a journey to Aswan (Syene) 
and along the Nile to Cairo. After this, travelling through 
Syria, he made a circuit among the petty Turkish states. He now 
crossed the Black Sea to Kaffa, then mainly occupied by the 
Genoese, and apparently the first Christian city he bad seen, for 
he was much perturbed by the bell-ringing. He next travelled 
into Kipchak (the Mongol khanate of Russia), and joined the 
camp of the reigning khan Mohammed Uzbeg, from whom the 
Uzbeg race is perhaps named. Among other places in this empire 
he travelled to Bolghar (54 54' N.) in order to witness the 
shortness of the summer night, and desired to continue his travels 
north into the "Land of Darkness' 1 (in the extreme north of 
Russia), but was obliged to forego this. 

Returning to the khan's camp he joined the cortege of one of 
the Khatuns, who was a Greek princess and in her train travelled 
to Constantinople, where he had an interview with the emperor 
Andronikos III. the Younger (1328-1341). He tells how, as he 
passed the city gates, he heard the guards muttering Sarakinu 
Returning to the court of Uzbeg, at Sarai on the Volga, be crossed 
the steppes to Khwarizm and Bokhara; thence through Khorasan 
and Kabul, and over the Hindu Rush (to which he gives that 
name, its first occurrence). He reached the Indus in 1333. 

Sojourn in the East. From Sind, which he traversed to the 
sea and back again, he went to Multan, and eventually, on the 
invitation of Mahommed Tughlak, the reigning sovereign, to 
Delhi. He appointed the traveller to be kazi of Delhi, In the 
sultan's service Ibn Batuta remained eight years; but his good 
fortune stimulated hb natural extravagance, and his debts soon 
amounted to four or five times his salary He fell into disfavour 
and retired from court, only to be summoned again to accompany 
an embassy to the emperor of China, last of the Mongol dynasty, 
The party travelled through central India to Cambay and thence 
sailed to Calicut, classed by the traveller with the neighbouring 
Kaulam (Quilon), Alexandria, Sudak in the Crimea, and Zayton 
(Amoy harbour) in China, as one of the greatest trading havens 
in the world. The party was to embark in Chinese junks (the 
word used) and smaller vessels, but that carrying the other en- 
voys and the presents, which started before Ibn Batuta was ready 
was totally wrecked; the vessel that he had engaged went off with 
his property, and he was left at Calicut. Not daring to return to 
Delhi, he remained about Honore and other cities of the western 
coast, taking part in various adventures, among others the capture 
of Sindabur (Goa)> and visiting the Maldive islands, where he 
became kazi, and married four wives. In 1344 he left the Mal- 
dives for Ceylon; here he made the pilgrimage to the "Footmark 
of our Father Adam." Thence he went to Malabar (the Coro- 
rnandel coast), where he joined a Mussulman adventurer of 
Madura. After again visiting Malabar, Canara and the Maldives, 
he left for Bengal, a voyage of 43 days, landing at Sadkawan 
(Chittagong). In Bengal he visited the Moslem saint Shaykh 
Jalaluddin, whose shrine (Shah Jalal at Silhet) is still maintained, 
Returning to the delta, he took a junk at Sunarganw (near 
Dacca) bound for Java (i.e., Java Minor of Marco Polo, or Su- 
matra). He reached Sumatra in 40 days, and was provided with 
a junk for China by Malik al Dhahir, disciple of Islam. Calling 
(apparently) at Cambodia on his way, Ibn Batuta reached China 
at Zayton (Amoy harbour), famous from Marco Polo; he also 
visited Sin Kalan or Canton, and professes to have been in Khansa 
(Kinsay of Marco Polo, i.e., Hangchau), and Khanbalik (Cam- 
baluc or Peking). 

The Return Journey^-On Hs way home he saw the great 
bird Rukh (evidently, from bis description, an island lifted b> 
refraction): revisited Sumatra. Malabar. Oman. Persia. Baghdad 



and Crossed the great desert to Palmyra and Damascus, where he 
got his first news of home, and heard of his father's death 15 years 
before. Diverging to Hamath and Aleppo, on his return to 
Damascus, he found the Black Death raging. Revisiting Jeru- 
salem and Cairo he made the haj a fourth time, and finally re- 
appeared at Fez (visiting Sardinia en route) on Nov. 8, 1349, 
after 24 years* absence. Morocco, he felt, was, after all, the best 
of countries. "The dirhems of the West are but little; but then 
you get more for them." After going home to Tangier, Ibn 
Batuta crossed into Spain and toured Andalusia, including Gibral- 
tar, following a siege from the "Roman tyrant Adfunus" (Al- 
phonso XL of Castile, 1312-1350). In 1352 he started for 
Central Africa, passing by the/ oases of the Sahara (where the 
houses were built of rock-salt, as Herodotus tells, and roofed with 
camel skins), to Timbuktu and Gogo on the Niger, a river which 
he called the Nile, believing it to flow down into Egypt. Being 
then recalled by his own king, he returned to Fez (early in 1354) 
via Takadda> Haggar and Tuat. Thus ended his 28 years' wander- 
ings which easily exceeded 75,000 miles. By royal order he dic- 
tated his narrative to Mohammed Ibn Juzai, who concluded the 
work (1355), with the declaration: "This Shaykh is the traveller 
of our age ; and he who should call him the traveller of the whole 
body of Islam would not exceed the truth." Ibn Batuta died in 
1378, aged 73. 

Ibn Batuta's travels have only been known in Europe during the 
igth century; at first merely by Arabic abridgments in the Gotha and 
Cambridge libraries. Notices or extracts had been published by Seetzen 
(c. 1808), Kosegarten (1818), Apetz (1819) and Burckhardt (i8ig), 
when in 1829 Dr. S. Lee published for the Oriental Translation Fund a 
version from the abridged mss. at Cambridge, which attracted interest. 
The French capture of Constantina (Spain, 40 m. N. of Seville) 
afforded mss. of the complete work, one of them the autograph of Ibn 
Juzai. And from these, after versions of fragments by various French 
scholars, was derived at last (1858-59) the standard edition and 
translation of the whole by M. D6frmery and Dr. Sanguinetti, in 
4 vols. See also Sir Henry Yule, Cathay, ii. 397-526; C. Raymond 
Beazlcy, Dawn of Modern Geography, iii. 535-538; and a volume of 
Selections (Broadway Travellers series, 1927). 

IBN DURAID (Abu Bakr Mohammed ibn ul-Hasan ibn 
Duraid ul-Azdi) (837-934), Arabian poet and philologist, was 
born at Basra of south Arabian stock, but fled in 871 to Oman 
at the time Basra was attacked by the negroes, known as the 
Zanj, under Muhallabl. In 883 he went to Persia, where he 
remained until 920 when he settled in Baghdad. 

The poem Maqsura was edited by A. Haitsma (1773), E. Scheidius 
(1786) and N. Boycsen (1828). The Kitdb ul-Ishtiqdq ("Book of 
Etymology"), ed. F. Wustenfeld (Gottingen, 1854), was written in 
opposition to the anti-Arabian party to show the etymological connec- 
tion of the Arabian tribal names. The Jamhara fi-l-Lugha, a large dic- 
tionary in Persian, is not printed, See Brockelmann, Gesch. der arab. 
Lit. i. (Weimar, 1898). 


IBN FARADI (Abu-1-Walid 'Abdallah ibn ul-Faradi) (962- 
1012), Arabian historian, was born at Cordova and studied law 
and tradition. In 992 he made the pilgrimage and proceeded to 
Egypt and Kairawan. After his return in 1009 he became cadi in 
Valencia, and was killed at Cordova when the Berbers took the 

His chief work is the History of the Learned Men of Andalusia, 
edited by F. Codcra (Madrid, 1891-92). He wrote also a history of 
the poets of Andalusia'. (G. W. T.) 

IBN FARID (Abu-1-Qasim 'Umar ibn ul-Farid) (1181-1235), 
Arabian poet, was born in Cairo, lived for some time in Mecca 
and died in Cairo. His poetry is entirely Sufic, and he was es- 
teemed the greatest mystic poet of the Arabs. His diwan was 
published with commentary at Beirut, 1887, etc.; with the com- 
mentaries of Burin! (d. 1615) and 'Abdul-GhanI (d. 1730) at 
Marseilles, 1853, and at Cairo; and with the commentary of 
Rushayyid Ghalib (iQth century) at Cairo, 1893. One of the 
separate poems was edited by J. von Hammer Purgstall as Das 
arabische hohe Lied der Lieve (Vienna, 1854). 

See R. A. Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs (1907). 

(G. W. T.) 

AVENCEBROL to the Schoolmen) (c. 102 i-c. 1058-1070), Jewish 

poet and philosopher, was born at Malaga. His early years were 
spent at Saragossa, where he came under the protection of Samuel 
ha-Nagid, the well known patron of learning. At the age of 16 he 
is supposed to have written poems including the 'Anaq, a poem on 
grammar, partially extant. He first popularized the use of Arabic 
metres in Hebrew, and it is as a poet that he has been remembered 
by the Jews. To the liturgy he contributed many fine lyrical 
compositions, the best known being the philosophical Kether 
Malkuth (for the Day of Atonement) and the Azharoth, on the 
613 precepts (for Shebhu'dth). 

Ibn Gabirol's chief philosophical work, which was translated 
from Arabic into Latin by Johannes Hispalensis and Gundisalvi 
under the title, Fons Vitae, exercised a wide influence on the 
Schoolmen, though Jewish thinkers practically ignored it because 
of its non-religious attitude and its neo-Flatonic inspiration. In it, 
Ibn Gabirol speaks of God as unknowable and transcendental, 
but he tries to save Him from being impersonal by making His 
wisdom the ground of all being and by admitting the activity of 
His will in the production of the universe. His views on the Will 
are peculiar, for he regards it as an hypostasis identifiable in itself 
with the Divine nature, but distinguishable inasmuch as it is 
active. Elsewhere he says it is to the world as soul to body, hold- 
ing it together and penetrating it as a principle of movement. 
From the Will emanate the intelligences which, as creatures, must 
possess two factors, namely, universal matter and universal form. 
The former, which is the source of the potentiality and finite 
nature in spiritual beings, sustains the universal form which con- 
fers the perfecting properties. The intelligences produce the 
corporeal world in which universal matter is differentiated into 
materia universalis corporalis, materia universalis caelestis, 
materia universalis naturalis and materia particularis naturalis. 
To these types of matter there are corresponding forms. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Besides the above mentioned works, Ibn Gabirol 
wrote Isldh al-akhldq t a popular ethical work (Arabic text and Eng. 
trans, by S. S. Wise, New York, 1901) and a collection of moral max- 
ims (Eng. trans. New York, 1925, Hebrew and English edit, by 
Ascher, 1859) ; Texts of the liturgical poems are to be found in the 
prayer-books; others in Dukes and Edelmann, Treasures of Oxford 
(Oxford, 1850) ; Dukes, Shire Shelomoh (Hanover, 1858) ; S. Sachs, 
Shir ha-shirim asher li-Shelomoh (Paris, 1868, incomplete); Brody, 
Die weltlichen Gcdichte de s . . . Gabirol (Berlin, 1897, etc.). The 
Latin text of the Fons Vitae was published by C. Baeumker (Miinster, 
1892). See S. Munk, M Manges de Philos. juive eft arabe (1859) ; Witt- 
mann, Die Stellung des hi. T. von Aquin zu Avencebrol (Miinster, 
1900) and Zur Stellung Avencebrol's im Entwicklungsgang der arab- 
ischen Philosophie (Miinster, 1905) ; D. Neumark, Gesch. d. jud. Philos. 
im Mittelalt. I. (1907) and I. Husik, Hist, of Mediaeval Jewish Philo- 
sophy (1916) ; J. Guttmann, Die Philosophie des ibn Gabirol (Got- 
tingen, 1889) ; D. Kaufmann, Studien uber Sal. ibn Gabirol (Budapest, 

IBN HAU1AL, strictly Ibn Hauqal, a loth century Arabian 
geographer. Nothing is known of his life. His work on geog- 
raphy, written in 977, is only a revision and extension of the 
Masdlik id'Mamdlik of al-Istakhrl who wrote in 951. This itself 
was a revised edition of the Kitdb ul-Ashkal or $uwar ul-Aqdlim 
of Abu Zaid ul-Balkhi, who wrote about 921. Ibn Haukal's work 
was published by M. J. de Goeje (Leiden, 1873). An anonymous 
epitome of the book was written in 1233. 

See M. J. de Goeje, "Die ItahrI-Balh! Frage," in the Zeitschrift der 
deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, xxv. 42 sqq. 

IBN IJAZM (Abu Mohammed 'All ibn Ahmad ibn l?azm) 
(994-1064), Moslem theologian, was born in a suburb of Cor- 
dova. He studied history, law and theology, and became a vizier 
as his father had been before him, but was deposed for heresy, 
and spent the rest of his life quietly in the country. In legal 
matters he belonged first to the Shafttte school, but came to 
adopt the views of the Zahirites, who admitted only the external 
sense of the Koran and tradition, disallowing the use of analogy 
(Qiyds) and Taqlid (appeal to the authority of an imam), and 
objecting altogether to the use of individual opinion (Ra*y). 
Ibn Hazm extended the application of these principles from the 
study of law to that of dogmatic theology. His chief work is the 
Kitdb ul-Milal wan-Nihal t or "Book of Sects" (published in 
Cairo, 1899). 

For his teaching cf. I. Goldziher, Die Zahiriten, pp. 116-172 (Leipzig, 



1884) , and M. Schreiner in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, 
lii. 464-486. For a list of his other works see C. Brocket ma nn's 
Geschichte der arabischen Literatur, vol. i. (Weimar, 1898), p. 400. 

IBN HISHAM (Abu Mohammed 'Abdulmalik ibn Hisham 
ibn Ayyub ul-Himyari) (d. 834), Arabian biographer, studied in 
Kufa but lived afterwards in Fostat (old Cairo), where he gained 
a name as a grammarian and student of language and history. 
His chief work is his edition of Ibn Ishaq's (q.v.) Life of the 
Apostle of God, ed. by F. Wustenfeld (Gottingen, 1858-1860). 

IBN ISHAQ (Mohammed ibn Ishaq Abu 'Abdallah) (d. 768), 
Arabic historian, lived in Medina, where he interested himself 
to such an extent in the details of the Prophet's life that he was 
accused of rationalism. He consequently left Medina in 733, and 
went to Alexandria, then to Kufa and Hira, and finally to Baghdad, 
where he wrote the Life of the Apostle of God, which is now lost 
and is known to us only in the recension of Ibn Hisham (q.v.). 
The work has been attacked by Arabian writers (as in the Fihrist) 
as untrustworthy, and it seems clear that he introduced forged 
verses (cf. Journal of the German Oriental Society, xiv.). It 
remains, however, one of the most important works of the age. 

IBN JUBAIR [Abu-1 Husain Mahommed ibn Ahmad ibn 
Jubair] (1145-1217), Arabian geographer, was born in Valencia. 
At Granada he studied the Koran, tradition, law and literature, 
and later became secretary to the Mohad governor of that city. 
During this time he composed many poems. In 1183 he left 
the court and travelled to Alexandria, Jerusalem, Medina, Mecca, 
Damascus, Mosul and Baghdad, returning in 1185 by way of 

The Travels of Ibn Jubair were edited by W. Wright (Leiden, 
1852) ; and a new edition of this text, revised by M. J. de Goeje, was 
published by the Gibb Trustees (London, 1907). The part relating to 
Sicily was published, with French translation and notes, by M. Amari 
in the Journal asiatique (1845-46) and a French translation alone of 
the same part by G. Crolla in Museon, vi. 123-132. 

IBN KHALDUN (Abu Zaid ibn Mohammed ibn Mohammed 
ibn Khaldun) (1332-1406), Arabic historian, was born at Tunis. 
In 1352 he entered the service of the Marlnid sultan Abft Inan 
(Faris I.) at Fez, but in 1356, his integrity having been suspected, 
he was imprisoned for two years. Later, having offended the 
prime minister, he emigrated to Granada, where he was received 
with great cordiality by Ibn al Ahmar. This excited the jealousy 
of the vizier, and he was driven back to Africa (1364), where 
he entered the service of the sultan of Tlemc.en. A few years 
later he was taken prisoner by Abdalaziz ('Abd ul 'Aziz), who 
had seized the throne. He then entered a monastic establishment, 
until 1370 when the new sultan recalled him to Tlemgen. In 
1378 he entered the service of the sultan of his native town of 
Tunis, where he devoted himself to his studies and wrote his 
history of the Berbers. While on a pilgrimage to Mecca, he visited 
Cairo, where he was presented to the sultan, al-Malik udh-Dhahir 
Barkuk, who insisted on his remaining there, and in 1384 made 
him grand cadi of the Malikite rite for Cairo. Later he made 
the pilgrimage to Mecca, and on his return lived in retirement 
in the Fayum until 1399, when he was called to resume his func- 
tions as cadi. He was removed and reinstated in the office no 
fewer than five times. 

In 1400 he was sent to Damascus, in connection with the ex- 
pedition intended to oppose Timur or Tamerlane. When Timur 
had become master of the situation he permitted Ibn Khaldun 
to return to Egypt. Ibn Khaldun died on March 16, 1406. 

His chief work, the "Universal History," deals more particularly with 
the history of the Arabs of Spain and Africa, and includes a short 
autobiography. An edition of the Arabic text was printed at Bul&q 
(7 vols , 1867) and a part of the work has been translated by 
de Slane under the title of Histoire des Berberes (Algiers, 1852-56). 
Vol. i., the Muqaddama (preface), was published by M. Quatremere 
(3 vols., Paris, 1858), often republished in the East, French translation 
by de Slane (3 vols., Paris, 1862-68) . The parts of the history referring 
to the expeditions of the Franks into Moslem lands were edited by 
C. J. Tornberg (Upsala, 1840), and the parts treating of the Banu-1 
Afcmar kings of Granada were translated into French by M. Gaude- 
froy-Demombynes in the "Journal asiatique, ser. 9, vol. xiii. The Auto- 
biography was translated into French by de Slane in the Journal 
asiatique, ser. 4, vol. iii. See R. Flint, History of the Philosophy of 
History (Edinburgh, 1893). 

IBN KHALLIKAN [Abu-1 'Abbas Ahmad ibn Khallikan] 
(1211-1282), Arabian biographer, was born at Arbela. When 
eighteen he went to Aleppo, where he studied for six years, then 
to Damascus, and in 1238 to Alexandria and Cairo. In 1261 he 
became chief cadi of Syria in Damascus, from 1271 to 1278, he 
was professor in Cairo, and from 1281 to his death, professor in 

His Rreat work, the Kitab Wafaydt ul-A'ydn, contains in alphabetical 
order the lives of the most celebrated persons of Muslim history and 
literature, except those "of Mahomet, the four caliphs and the com- 
panions of Mahomet and their followers (the Tdbiun). It was pub- 
lished by F. Wustenfeld (Gottingen, 1835-43), in part by McG. de 
Slane (Paris, 1838-42), and also in Cairo (1859 and 1882). An English 
translation by McG. de Slane was published in 4 vols. (London, 
1842-71). Thirteen extra biographies from an Amsterdam ms. were 
published by Pijnappel (Amsterdam, 1845). The best known supple- 
ment to the book is that of Mahommed ibn Shakir (d. 1362), published 
in Cairo 1882. A collection of poems by Ibn Khallikan is also extant. 
See E. V. Lucas, A Boswell of Baghdad (I.K.) (1917). 

IBN QUTAIBA or KOTAIBA LAbu Mohammed ibn Mus- 
lim ibn Qutaiba] (828-889), Arabian writer, was born at Baghdad 
or Kufa, and was of Iranian descent. He became cadi in Dinawar 
and afterwards teacher in Baghdad, where he died. He was the 
first representative of the eclectic school of Baghdad philologists 
that succeeded the schools of Kufa and Basra. (See ARABIA : Litera- 
ture, section "Grammar.") Although engaged also in theological 
polemic (cf. I. Goldziher, Muhammedanische Studien, ii. 136, 
Halle, 1890), his chief works were directed to the training of the 
ideal secretary. Of these five form a series. The Adab ul-Kdtib 
("Training of the Secretary") contains instruction in writing and 
is a compendium of Arabic style. It has been edited by Max 
Grunert (Leyden, 1900). The Kitdb nsh-Sharab is still in ms. 
The Kitdb ul-Ma'drif has been edited by F. Wustenfeld as the 
Handbuch der Geschichte (Gottingen, 1850, summary in E. G. 
Browne, A Literary History of Persia, 1902) ; the Kitdb ush-Sli?r 
wash-Shu'ardi ("Book of Poetry and Poets") edited by M. J. de 
Goeje (Leyden, 1904). The fifth and most important is the 
'Uyun ul-Akhbdr, which deals with lordship, war, nobility, char- 
acter, science and eloquence, asceticism, friendship, requests, 
foods and women, with many illustrations from history, poetry 
and proverb (ed. C. Brockelmann, Leyden, 1900 sqq.). 

For other works see C. Brockelmann, Gesch. der arabischen Literatur, 
vol. i. (Weimar, 1898). 

IBN SA'D [Abu 'Abdallah Mohammed ibn ?a'd ibn Mani' 
uz-Zuhri, often called Katib ul-Waqidi ("secretary of Waqidi") 
of Basra] (d. 845), Arabian biographer, lived chiefly in Baghdad. 
His Kitdb ul-fabaqat ul-Kablr (15 vols.) contains the lives of 
Mahomet, his Companions and Helpers and of the following 

It has been edited under the superintendence of E. Sachau (Leiden, 
1904 sqq.) ; cf. O. Loth, Das Classenbuch des Ibn Sa'd (Leipzig, 1869) . 

MAN IBN FAISAL IBN SA'UD, was born at Riyadh, cap- 
ital of Nejd, about 1880. His father, 'AbdulRahman (d. 1928), 
was the youngest of the four sons of the Amir Faisal, Sultan of 
Nejd from 1834 to 1867. The latter's death had plunged Cen- 
tral Arabia into a state of anarchy and civil war owing to the 
contest of his two elder sons, 'Abdullah and Sa'ud, for the throne 
he had vacated. In 1875 the Turks occupied Hasa, while the rival 
dynasty of Ibn Rashid in northern Nejd gradually extended 
southwards until in 1891 the great Amir Muhammad put an end 
to the Wahhabi state by the occupation of Riyadh itself. 'Abdul 
'Aziz went into exile with his family and, after a period of resi- 
dence at Bahrain, arrived at Kuwait. Here he was influenced by 
Shaikh Mubarak ibn Sawah and to this Ibn Sa'ud owed much of 
his future greatness and his friendship for Great Britain. From his 
father he inherited steady purposef ulness. 

Though 'AbdulRahman was the cadet o the Wahhabi dynasty, 
it was he who made the first effort to recover his father's throne 
in 1900. His defeat at Sarif was followed by the formal abdica- 
tion of his rights and obligations in favour of his eldest son, 
'Abdul 'Aziz, who in 1901 launched out into the desert with a 
force of only 200 men. At some distance from the capital he 
selected 15 of these, including his cousin 'Abdullah ibn Jiluwi 



(afterwards governor of Hasa), for the final venture; entering 
Riyadh by night with his following he forced an entry into a 
house opposite the great fort where the Rashidian governor was 
lodged. A desperate struggle left Ibn Sa'ud the master of Riyadh, 
where he was at once proclaimed ruler of Nejd. 

During the next few years Ibn Sa'ud consolidated the outlying 
provinces and resisted the Turks in their support of Ibn Rashid. 
A Wahhabi victory at Bukairiya (1904) was followed by Ibn 
Rashid's death (1906) and left Ibn Sa'ud master in the house of 
his ancestors with no danger of interference from the north. 

Free now to show his capacity for administration Ibn Sa'ud 
proceeded to lay the foundations of his future greatness in a 
scheme remarkable both for boldness and ingenuity. He boldly 
seized upon the latent fanaticism of his countrymen as an instru- 
ment for the creation of a non-tribal or pan-tribal element out of 
tribal material to leaven the mass into the semblance of a homo- 
geneous nation. The first Ikhwan colony in 1912 was the first 
step of a deliberate programme aiming at the abrogation of the 
patriarchal system in Arabia in favour of nationalism. At the 
time such an ambition was beyond the bounds of practical politics, 
but circumstances combined to bring it within the focus of Ibn 
Sa'ud's clear vision. 

'Artawiya, now a flourishing town of 10,000 inhabitants, rapidly 
became the prototype of a hundred colonies which sprang up in 
various parts of Nejd during the next 15 years. Agriculture dis- 
placed pastoral activities as the binding force of the new organiza- 
tion, while the Shar* or religious law took the place of the cus- 
tomary law of Badawin society. Each colony constituted a con- 
tingent of the new Wahhabi standing army, for which circum- 
stances have provided ample work at home and abroad. It was 
first put to the test in 1913 when Ibn Sa'ud turned his attention 
to the Turks who had been in Hasa since 1875. With a mere 
handful of men he suddenly appeared before Hufuf , whose aston- 
ished garrison surrendered without a blow. The garrisons at 
'Uqair and Qatif followed suit and the Turks left Eastern Arabia. 

At the end of 1914 Captain W. H. I. Shakespear was deputed 
by Sir Percy Cox to visit Ibn Sa'ud with a view to enlisting his 
active assistance against the Turks, with whom his dynastic rival, 
Ibn Rashid, had thrown in his lot. Ibn Sa'ud immediately under- 
took military operations and in January; 1915, a battle took place 
at Jarrab. The result was indecisive but Captain Shakespear was 
killed and the British authorities were discouraged from further 
activity in Arabia. In December Ibn Sa'ud concluded a treaty of 
friendship with Great Britain but remained quiescent though he 
grew increasingly anxious as he watched King Husain in the 
Hejaz building up a strong position for himself with the help of 
Lawrence. In 1917 the Philby Mission visited him at Riyadh 
to take stock of the situation and in the autumn of 1918 Ibn 
Sa'ud resumed activities against Ibn Rashid. He reached the 
walls of Hail without being able to press home the attack, and 
the sudden termination of the Great War found him still within 
the same frontiers as at" its outbreak and with two powerful 
enemies to reckon with, Ibn Rashid and King Husain. Relations 
with the latter were already strained to breaking point. In March, 
1919, Lord Curzon on behalf of the British Government decided 
in favour of King Husain and authorised him to occupy Khurma 
which Ibn Sa'ud was warned to relinquish. The latter disregarded 
the warning and two months later the Wahhabi army surprised 
and annihilated the Hashimite forces at Turaba. Having vin- 
dicated his rights by might Ibn Sa'ud retired to Riyadh. In 1920 
a Wahhabi expedition added the highland districts of 'Asir to 
Ibn Sa'ud's dominions, and in August of the following year the 
capture of Hail placed all central Arabia under a single rule. 
Meanwhile Bisha and Tathlith in the south were occupied, as 
also Khaibar and Taima northwards, while in 1922 Jauf came 
within the Wahhabi sphere. 

The British Government made a belated effort to mediate 
at the Conference of Kuwait, convened in Nov. 1923. The dis- 
cussions ended without result in April, 1924, and in September 
the Wahhabi invasion of the Hejaz began with the sudden cap- 
ture of Taif and a massacre of its inhabitants. King Husain was 
forced to abdicate in favour of his eldest son, 'Ali, who evacuated 

Mecca which was quietly occupied by the Wahhabis in October. 
The outlying districts of the Hejaz were rapidly occupied and 
only Jedda and Medina remained in the hands of the Hashimites, 
both being subjected to a desultory siege by Ibn Sa'ud who entered 
Mecca for the first time in December, 1924. During the following 
November Sir Gilbert Clayton concluded the treaties of Bahra 
and Hadda with him, by which certain questions relating to 'Iraq 
and Trans-Jordan were satisfactorily disposed of. The following 
month Medina surrendered, while Jedda followed suit a fortnight 
later. On January 8, 1926, Ibn Sa'ud was proclaimed King of the 
Hejaz in the great mosque of Mecca; and a year later his title 
of Sultan of Nejd and its Dependencies was converted to King. 

Security has been established where it was never known before*, 
motor-transport has added enormously to the comfort of pil- 
grims; the state revenues have increased substantially; corrup- 
tion in the public service has been greatly reduced if not entirely 
eliminated. Relations with Great Britain were placed on a new 
and friendly footing by the Treaty of Jedda negotiated with Sir 
Gilbert Clayton in May, 1927. Unfortunately these relations were 
marred by a icgrettable incident in November 1927. The 'Iraq 
government in contravention of the provisions of a protocol 
signed at 'Uqair (1922), had built a fort at the desert wells of 
Busaiya near the frontier. A party of Ikhwan, visiting the spot, 
resented the innovation and slew the builders. And the spring 
months of 1928 were spent in a series of futile and unnecessary 
raids and counter-raids, to which an end was at length put by 
the agreement of Ibn Sa'ud and the British Government to meet 
in conference. In May Sir Gilbert Clayton, since nominated to 
the High Commissionership of 'Iraq, again visited Jidda and the 
discussions, interrupted by the pilgrimage, ended in August in 
failure to achieve agreement on the points at issue. Ibn Sa'ud 
maintained unswervingly his contention that the 'Iraq Govern- 
ment had been at fault in building the forts in the frontier dis- 
trict, while the British representative was unable to agree to their 

<Ibn Sa'ud has now ruled 28 years in Nejd and three years over 
the Hejaz. His eldest surviving son and heir to the throne of his 
dual monarchy is Sa'ud now about 25 years old, who occupies the 
position of Viceroy of Nejd. The second son Faisal, who has 
twice visited Europe on his father's behalf, is Viceroy of Mecca. 
Besides these two Ibn Sa'ud has n other sons ranging from the 
age of 17 down to two. For political and other reasons the 
Wahhabi king has always taken the fullest advantage of Islamic 
laxity in the matter of marriage and divorce, and he is reputed 
to have been married about 150 times in the course of his career. 
His father, who died in June 1928, lived to see him achieve a 
position, perhaps unparalleled in the annals of Arabian history 
since the immediate successors of Mohammed himself. 

(H. ST. J B. P.) 

IBN TIBBON 5 a family of Jewish translators, who flourished 
in Provence in the i2th and i3th centuries. They rendered into 
Hebrew the chief Arabic writings of the Jews in the middle ages. 
These Hebrew translations were, in their turn, rendered into Latin 
(by Buxtorf and others) and in this way were circulated in 
Europe. The chief members of the Ibn Tibbon family were (i) 
JUDAH BEN SAUL (1120-90), who was born in Spain but settled in 
Lunel. He translated the works of Bahya, Halevi, Saadiah, the 
grammatical treatises of Janah and an ethical treatise by 
Gabirol. (2) His son, SAMUEL (1150-1230), translated, among 
other things, the Guide of the Perplexed by Maimonides, his 
friend, and wrote a philosophical treatise, Ma'amar Yikkawu ha- 
Mayim (pr. Pressburg, 1837). (3) Son of Samuel, MOSES (died 
1283). He translated into Hebrew a large number of Arabic books 
(including the Arabic version of Euclid). 

See I. Husik, Hist, of Mediaeval Jewish Philosophy (1916). 

IBN TUFAIL or TOFAIL [Abu Bakr Mohammed ibn 
'Abd-ul-Malik ibn Tufail ul-Qaisi (or to the Schoolmen, Abuba- 
cer)] (d. 1185), Moslem philosopher, was born at Guadix near 
Granada. He was skilled in philosophy, mathematics and medi- 
cine, and was a friend of Averroes. He became secretary to the 
governor of Granada, and later physician and vizier to the Mohad 
caliph, Abu Ya'qub Yusuf . He died at Morocco. His chief work, 


Risdlat Hayy ibn Yaqzdn, is a philosophical romance describing 
the awakening of philosophical knowledge in the intellect of a 
child removed from society. 

See S. Munk, M Manxes (1859) ; T. J. de Boer, Gesch. der Philosophic 
im Islam (Stuttgart, 1901) ; L. Gauthier, Ibn Thojail, sa vie, ses 
oeuvres (1909); Carra de Vaux, Les Pensews de I'hlam (1923). 

IBN UL-QAsiM IBN Anl UsAiBi'A) (1203-1270), Arabian physi- 
cian, was born at Damascus, the son of an oculist, and studied 
medicine at Damascus and Cairo. In 1236 he was appointed by 
Saladin physician to a new hospital in Cairo, but resigned in 1237 
to serve the amir of Damascus in Salkhad. There he lived and 
died. He wrote "l/yun ul-Anba '/* Tabaqdt ul*Atibba" or "Lives 
of the Physicians." 

Edition by A. Miiller (Konigsberg, 1884). 

IBO. A Southern Nigerian tribe comprising 33 sub-tribes, 
inhabiting the provinces of Benin, Ogoja, Onitsha, Owerri and 
Warri, whose language is related to Ibibio The Ibo on the west 
of the Niger were long subject to the Edo: the rest lived in inde- 
pendent towns or villages under a paramount chief and a chief 
for each quarter. The extended family groups lived together in the 
same quarter. Marriage rules vary : marriage is usually prohibited 
between members of the same extended family and between near 
relations. Marriage by exchange is frequent Descent is patn- 
lineal. Age classes and secret societies flourish 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. P. Amaury Talbot, Life in Southern Nigeria: The 
Magic, Beliefs and Customs of the Ibibio Tribe (1923) ; The Peoples of 
Southern Nigeria (1926). 

IBRAHIM (d. 1536), grand vizier of Turkey, was the son 
of a sailor at Parga, was sold into slavery, and was bought by 
the sultan, Solyman II., who made him his grand vizier and 
married him to his own sister. Ibrahim, says a Venetian record, 
was "the heart and breath of the Padishah, who does nothing 
without consulting him; he is learned, fond of reading, and 
knows his law well. 1 * He was made commander-in-chief of the 
army for the invasion of Hungary, and in 1526 took Peterwardein. 
But his main functions were diplomatic With the Venetian Gritti 
he conducted the negotiations for peace between the sultan and 
the emperor Ferdinand in 1533. In the autumn of that year he 
took command in Asia against the Persians. He occupied Tabriz 
on July 13; he was then joined by Solyman, and marched against 
Baghdad. In both cases he prevented plunder. They returned 
to Constantinople on Jan. 8, 1536. He had for 14 years been 
the sultan's constant companion, even sharing his sleeping apart- 
ments. They retired as usual on March 30, and in the morning 
Ibrahim was found strangled by the sultan's orders. 

IBRAHIM AL-MAUSILI (742-804), Arabian singer, was 
born of Persian parents settled in Kufa. In his early years his 
parents died and he was trained by an uncle. Singing, not study, 
attracted him, and at the age of twenty-three he fled to Mosul, 
where he joined a band of wild youths. After a year he went to 
Rai (Rei, Rhagae), where he met an ambassador of the caliph 
Mansur, who enabled him to come to Basra and take singing 
lessons. His fame as a singer spread, and the caliph Mahdi 
brought him to the court. There he remained a favourite under 
Had!, while Harun al-Rashid kept him always with him until 
his death, when he ordered his son (Ma'mun) to say the prayer 
over his corpse. His powers of song were far beyond anything 
else known at the time. 

See the Preface to W. Ahlwardt's Abu Nowas (Greifswald, 1861), 
pp. 13-18, and the many stories of his life in the KitSb ul-Aghdni, 
v. 2-49- 

IBRAHIM PASHA (1789-1848), Egyptian general, son, or 
adopted son of Mohammed Ali, pasha of Egypt, was born at 
Kavala in Thrace During his father's struggle to establish him- 
self in Egypt, Ibrahim, then sixteen years of age, was sent as a 
hostage to the Ottoman capitan pasha (admiral), but when Mo- 
hammed Ali was recognized as pasha, he was allowed to return 
to Egypt. When Mohammed Ali went to Arabia to fight against the 
Wahhabis in 1813, Ibrahim was left in command in Upper Egypt. 
He continued the war with the broken power of the Mamelukes, 
whom he suppressed In 1816 he succeeded his brother Tusun 

in command of the Egyptian forces in Arabia. Mohammed Ali 
had already begun to introduce European discipline into his army, 
and Ibrahim had probably received some training, but his first 
campaign was conducted more in the old Asiatic style than his 
later operations. The campaign lasted two years, and the political 
power of the Wahhabis was destroyed. Ibrahim landed at Yembo, 
the port of Medina, on Sept. 30, 1816. The holy cities had been 
recovered from the Wahhabis, and Ibrahim's task was to follow 
them into the desert of Nejd and destroy their fortresses. Such 
training as the Egyptian troops had received, and their artillery, 
gave them a - marked superiority in the open field. But the diffi- 
culty of crossing the desert to the Wahhabi stronghold of Deraiya, 
some 400 m. east of Medina, and the courage of their opponents, 
made the conquest a very arduous one. Ibrahim displayed great 
energy and tenacity, sharing all the hardships of his army, and 
never allowing himself to be discouraged by failure. By the 
end of September 1818 he had forced the Wahhabi leader to sur- 
render, and had taken Deraiya, which he ruined. On Dec. n, 
1819, he made a triumphal entry into Cairo. After his return 
he supported the Frenchman, Colonel Seve (Suleiman Pasha), 
who was employed to drill the army on the European model. 
Ibrahim set an example by submitting to be drilled as a recruit. 

When in 1824 Mohammed Ali was appointed governor of the 
Morea by the sultan, who desired his help against the insurgent 
Greeks, he sent Ibrahim with a squadron and an army of 17,000 
men. The expedition sailed on July 10, 1824, but Ibrahim was 
not able to land at Modon until Feb. 26, 1825. Ibrahim easily 
defeated the Greeks in the open field, and though the siege of 
Missolonghi proved costly he captured the place on April 24, 
1826. The Greek guerrilla bands harassed his army, and in re- 
venge he desolated the country and sent thousands of the inhabi- 
tants into slavery in Egypt. These measures led first to the inter- 
vention of the English, French and Russian squadrons (see 
NAVARINO, BATTLE OF), and then to the landing of a French 
expeditionary force. By the terms of the capitulation of Oct. i, 
1828, Ibrahim evacuated the country. English officers who saw 
him at Navarino describe him as short, grossly fat and deeply 
marked with smallpox In 1831 Ibrahim was sent to conquer 
Syria. He took Acre after a severe siege on May 27, 1832, occu- 
pied Damascus, defeated a Turkish army at Horns on July 8, 
defeated another Turkish army at Beilan on July 29, invaded 
Asia Minor, and finally routed the grand vizier at Konia on Dec. 
21. The convention of Kutaiah on May 6 left Syria for a time 
in the hands of Mohammed Ali. 

After the campaign of 1832 and 1833 Ibrahim remained as 
governor in Syria. The exactions he was compelled to enforce by 
his father soon provoked revolts. In 1838 the Porte felt strong 
enough to renew the struggle, and war broke out once more. 
Ibrahim won his last victory for his father at Nezib on June 
24, 1839. But Great Britain and Austria intervened to preserve 
the integrity of Turkey. Their squadrons cut his communications 
by sea with Egypt, a general revolt isolated him in Syria, and 
he was finally compelled to evacuate the country in February 
1841. In 1846 Ibrahim paid a visit to western Europe. When 
his father became imbecile in 1848, he held the regency till his 
own death on Nov. 10, 1848. 

See Edouard Gouin, L'figypte au XIX* slide (Paris, 1847) ; Aim 
Vingtrinier, Scliman- Pasha (Colonel S&ve) (Paris, 1886) . A great deal 
of unpublished material of the highest interest with regard to Ibrahim's 
personality and his system in Syria is preserved in the British Foreign 
Office archives; for references to these see Cambridge Mod. Hist. x. 852, 
bibliography to chap. xvii. 

IBSEN, HENRIK JOHAN (1828-1906) Norwegian poet and 
dramatist, was born at Skien on March 20, 1828. His father, 
Knud Henriksen Ibsen, a merchant, was of mixed Danish, Ger- 
man and Scotch blood; his mother, Maria Cornelia Altenburg 
was a Norwegian, of German descent. When Ibsen was eight 
years old, his father failed in business, and recollections of the 
penury which followed can be found in Peer Gynt. 

Early Life and Works* At the age of 15 Ibsen was appren- 
ticed to an apothecary in Grimstad, a small town of eight hun- 
dred inhabitants; it was a business he detested, and he began to 
express himself and relieve his misery by writing poetry in 1847. 



He read widely and deeply, especially in poetry and theology, 
and in 1850 he went to Christiania as a student; this year also 
saw the publication of his first play, a blank-verse tragedy, 
Cataline, which was followed, not many months after, by The 
Viking's Barrow, which was performed at the Christiania theatre, 
but not published. For a few months he co-operated in the pro- 
duction of a^ weekly satirical newspaper; but in November 1851, 
when in September the paper's brief life of nine months had 
ended, he was appointed as "theatre-poet" to the new theatre 
at Bergen, established for the encouragement of Norwegian 
drama, by the violinist Ole Bull. This position Ibsen held until 
the summer of 1857, and this intimate connection with the 
theatre he combined the duties of producer, manager, adviser 
and designer with that of a poet confirmed him in his nascent 
desire to be a dramatist. The plays which he wrote for this the- 
atre were 5*. John's Night (1853), Lady In%er of Ostrat (1855"), 
The Feast of Solhaug (1856) and Olaf Liljckrans (1857). He 
left Bergen for Christiania in 1857; and his next two plays reflect 
the influence of his engagement and marriage to Susanna Thore- 
sen; The Vikings of Helgeland (1858) and Love's Comedy* (1862) 
are the first plays earlier signs may be found in the lyric poems 
in which the unmistakable voice of Ibsen is heard clearly. 
Both plays were misunderstood; and the fierce anti-romantic, 
idealistic satire of Love's Comedy caused a storm of indignation 
in Denmark and Norway: it is Ibsen's earliest protest on behalf 
of the inalienable rights of the individual, his first stroke in the 
life-long battle against the stupidity, the weight of the majority. 
There is in it not a little of the spirit which we find in the satiric 
poetry of Arthur Hugh Clough whose lines "0 let me love my 
love unto myself alone And know my knowledge to the world 
unknown," might well have been Henrik Ibsen's motto. He had 
accepted the position of manager of a new theatre in Christiania ; 
but he could not get The Vikings produced there, and it was not 
acted until 1861. The next year his theatre failed, and Ibsen 
became adviser in aesthetics at the opposition house. In spite 
of his disappointment and the disgust he felt at the reception of 
Love's Comedy he wrote for this theatre The Pretenders (1864), 
the best drama of his saga period It was a popular success ; but 
the managers of the Christiania theatre were shy of its strange- 
ness, and it was not until Ibsen's reputation was secure after 
the publication of Brand and Peer Gynt that it took its place 
as one of the masterpieces of the new theatre. 

Ibsen had applied to the Storthing for a poet's pension, which 
had been recently given to Bjornson; but it was refused and in 
indignation he went into exile; for his departure to Italy in 1864 
was not an ordinary tour to the sun and the south. It was under- 
taken with a deep sense of injustice, which was partly respon- 
sible for the two magnificent poetic dramas Brand (1866) and 
Peer Gynt (1867). After the issue of Brand he was granted a 
poet's pension and Ibsen had no longer to fear actual penury. 

Plays. In 1869 he wrote the earliest of his modern prose 
dramas The League of Youth, a political satire that roused as 
much animosity as did Love's Comedy; he was now settled in 
Dresden, but he returned to Norway for a short time after the 
publication of one of the most ambitious dramas ever composed 
the huge double play Emperor and Galilean (1873), an ela- 
borate historical study of the character of Julian the Apostate, 
which shows wide reading and a remarkable power of re-creating 
familiar figures of history. It is of great interest as one of the 
first attempts to free the study of Greek history from that smooth, 
neo-classical veneer by which it was falsified; it is far nearer in 
spirit to the Greece of Gilbert Murray and Jane Harrison than 
the Hellas of Winckelmann or Shelley. These years also mark 
the end of Ibsen's work as a poet; his collected lyrics were pub* 
lished in 1871, and the occasionally exalted prose of Emperor and 
Galilean does not again reappear in his work, except in brief 
snatches in some of the later prose dramas. His deep interest 
in politics was made inteaser by the growing power of Germany) 
and when the days of the Commune came in Paris he felt strong 
in him something of the hopes that bad awakened in 1848, when 
there was promise of revolution in Europe. His only persistent 
political principle, to be found in every play from The Pretenders 

to When We Dead Awaken, was the necessity of a society which 
should give the amplest possible opportunity for the free growth 
of the individual, and he was naturally and inevitably disappointed 
with all movements of reform liberal, radical, socialist as con- 
ducted. He found that they all tended in time to subordinate 
the individual to the state and to Ibsen the state, the great 
compact majority, was always the enemy. In 1877 he published 
The Pillars of Society a title which might be taken to cover all 
the social dramas which succeeded that play. 

Later Life. Ibsen's life presents few points of interest ex- 
cept the steady production of his plays ; he never had the inclina- 
tion nor the necessary social exuberance for such public and 
political appearances as were enjoyed by his rival and contem- 
porary Bjornson. From 1868 to 1891 his permanent home was 
Germany, first in Dresden, later in Munich; in 1891 he settled in 
Christiania where he lived till his death on May 28th, 1906; 
for the four years previously he had suffered from an almost 
complete physical and mental collapse, and was unaware of the 
world without. Of his marriage (1858) there was one son, Sigurd, 
to whose education Ibsen devoted no little care and thought. 
When he left his home in 1850, he ceased to communicate with 
any of his family except his sister Hedvig; and although he had 
friends in journalism and in the theatre there is little evidence 
that any one had any real or permanent influence on the develop- 
ment of his character and his genius; he was grateful to Bjornson, 
he was grateful to Brandes, for the support each gave him at 
different periods of his career, but he never showed the slightest 
inclination to accommodate his own thought to their ideas. No 
other dramatist of so immensely creative a genius has ever been 
so lonely, he did not need long or continuous intercourse with 
society. A chance word, a chance meeting, a sudden memory 
were enough to fertilize that powerful imagination which then, 
feeding on itself and nourishing the germ, gave birth, every two 
years, to a play which brought into the world entirely new char- 
acters, owing only an infinitesimal part of their life to any power 
outside the mind and spirit of the dramatist. Ibsen was first 
and last a great poet r and a great mystic one of the greatest 
poets and the greatest mystics who ever devoted himself to the 
drama; the "lyrical Pegasus" may as Brandes said, u have been 
killed under him," but his poetic inspiration burned all the more 
fiercely because of the severe limits which Ibsen forced on its 
expression, limits which are unfortunately very much exaggerated 
in the best-known English versions of his social dramas. His inter- 
est in his characters, real as they are, intense as it is, is always 
dependent on his poetic vision of life; his vision of life is never 
dependent, as was Bjornson's, Strindberg's or even Goethe's, on 
circumstances either of his own choosing or of chance. Ibsen was 
never afraid that facts, however obstinate, or persons, however 
powerful, tould detract from the truth and his grasp of it In this 
he showed signs of affinity to the theological outlook on the 
world He knew, mystically, that his conception of life and of 
mankind could explain and express all the facts with which he 
came in contact; and if ever he met apparent contradictions, he 
was ready to dismiss them as irrelevant or worthless. His con- 
summate skill as a dramatist, his influence in the making of a 
new European theatre must not allow us to forget that he was 
never of the movement which he caused, and of which he was 
acclaimed the leader. He was always in advance and always 

Main Ideas. There are two main ideas in Ibsen's work, im- 
plicit even in the early dramas, and explicit, in different degrees 
of emphasis, in his theatre from Brand to When We Dead 
Awaken. Of this continuity in his work he was himself fully 
conscious, and resented the tendency to separate his work into 
periods, and find any contradiction except a purely formal one 
between the laughing, rapid poetry of Peer Gynt and the close, 
compact prose of the social dramas. The two ideas are these. 
First, the supreme importance of individual character, of person- 
ality: in the development and enrichment of the individual he 
saw the only hope of a really cultured and enlightened society. 
Second, comes the belief that the only tragedy that can be 
suffered, the only final wrong that can be committed, is the 


denial of love. The former idea was easily grasped, and was 
proclaimed by most Ibsenites Brandes, Archer, and Shaw 
as the key to Ibsen's drama; the latter idea was excused in the 
poetic plays as a relic from an imaginary romantic phase of 
Ibsen's life, and ignored when it appeared again in the social 
dramas, especially the later ones Archer indeed was so disturbed 
at its very evident intrusion in When We Dead Awaken, that he 
suggested that the dramatist's mind was already failing; while 
he followed Shaw in his description of the climax of Peer Gynt 
as a "crowningly unreal self-realization." The reason for this 
obtuseness shared by nearly all early critics of Ibsen except 
Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch is to be found in the fact that it was 
the lot of Ibsen, a Christian mystic with no definite allegiance 
to any religious body, to be interpreted to the world by men 
who were mostly sentimental rationalists, who noticed, what was 
fully obvious, that the dramatist waged an unceasing war against 
conventional Christianity, but failed to observe that he did so, 
not under the banner of rationalism, but in the name of an in- 
tenser Christianity 

The same mistake was made, and is still made occasionally, 
by interpreters of William Blake, in whose thought may be found 
not a little which would have won Ibsen's sympathy and under- 
standing. In Brand Ibsen preached his first and most defiant 
proclamation of the need of whole-heartedne$b in the personality; 
the prophet-priest of the play with his cry of "All or nothing," 
is a projection of Ibsen's own character, with its stem refusal 
to be diverted from his work Balancing that play is Peer Gynt, 
the richest, the most imaginative and fantastic of Ibsen's works: 
as Brand stands for singleness of purpose, Peer Gynt is the 
embodiment of distraction and dreaming a parody in some 
sense of Ibsen's own gospel that facts do not matter, anticipat- 
ing the bitterer parody of The Wild Duck. 

In A Doll's House (1879) w e have the first emphatic statement 
of Ibsen's individualistic creed. It is not a feminist play. Ibsen 
was at the moment pre-occupied with the struggle between 
society and the individual, and he chose a woman as his 
protagonist because he knew that, on the whole, women were 
more likely to take a personal view of life than men Ther^ are 
two dramas in the play one consists in Nora's discovery that 
she has lived for years with a strange man; but this depends on 
the more essential drama that for Torvald a crime against society 
is more important than a sin against love. The same motive 
inspired, in a more terrible form, Ghosts (1881) ; and when Ghosts 
roused fury throughout Europe, Ibsen retorted on his critics with 
An Enemy of the People (1882) in which he attacks the stupid 
majority who prefer disease to the confession of their disgrace. 
One of the loveliest of his plays, one in which the poet breaks 
out again, is The Wild Duck (1884). It has a tenderness and a 
lyrical beauty which stand out all the more strongly beside the 
fierce satire against those who have misinterpreted him. This 
play, with its quiet charm, its ironic humour and its devastating 
satire, is the record of Ibsen's discovery that it takes two people 
to tell the truth, one to speak and one to understand what is 
bpoken the last lesson to be learned by all prophets 

Later Works. Rosmersholm (1886) written after a journey 
to Norway is a powerful study in ineffective idealism and in the 
contrast of Rebecca West and Rosmer Ibsen reached his greatest 
heights in pure tragedy. The Lady from the Sea (1888) is the 
happiest of the prose dramas; it is rather weak in construction, 
but its characterization has a cheerful, relenting quality, and Dr. 
Wangcl is one of the few men who can be put on a level with 
Ibsen's women Of all modern plays Ibsen's come nearest, in 
form and sense of necessity, to the theatre of Athens; and of 
all his plays Hedda Gabler (1890) is, with the possible exception 
of Ghosts, the nearest to the Greek If Hedda had been called 
Medea, her egotistic ferocity would not perhaps have so dis- 
tressed those critics who pitifully complained that Ibsen's women 
were not womanly. The Master Builder (1892) is a return to 
the poetic, symbolic manner; and the conflict between two genera- 
tions, Solness and Hilda, has become a classic statement of an 
age-long problem. Little Eyolf (1894) and John Gabriel Bork- 
man (1896) are variations on his old theme, the conflict between 

Jove and the claims of other desirable things. In Little Eyolf 4ove 
is threatened by the lust of the woman and by the vanity and in- 
competence of the man; the solution comes only through 
disaster ; in John Gabriel Borkman love has been killed by ambi- 
tion, and with love dead, there is nothing else; and the end of the 
play is the dramatist's consummate disclosure of the truth that 
Borkman, Ella and Gunhild were dead before the play opened, 
and that none of the other characters, except the old clerk Foldal 
(one of Ibsen's most exquisite minor characters) has ever been 
alive. Vet there is hope When We Dead Awaken (1900). This 
great final statement of the poet's invincible creed has dis- 
appointed those who had misunderstood his earlier plays, and 
attached too much importance to the incidental social teaching 
that can be extracted from them, and to their amazing stage- 
craft. Its form is less perfect, its external action fantastic; but in 
the reunion of Rubek and Irene Ibsen writes out of his very 
soul, repeating once more his persistent cry that, whether the 
world be well lost for love or no, at least that which a man thinks 
to gain by the sacrifice of love is not held at all. 

The intense reality of Ibsen's characters, while evident at a 
first reading or a first hearing of any play, can only be properly 
appreciated by continuous study of his complete theatre. It 
was his habit to make more or less complete histories of the 
lives of his people up to the moment of the opening of the first 
act; and in the drafts and first version of many plays (available 
in the volume called Ibsen's Workshop) can be seen the care with 
which he worked, the fierceness with which he sacrificed anything, 
however entertaining, that was not essential, and his amazing 
power of getting the utmost out of a character or a situation. He 
made his people work for him; and there is no dramatist in 
whose work it would be so hard to find a single speech out of 
character. He could not bear either to discuss, or to disclose, 
the idea of a new play until it was completed. He retired into 
his own world with his own people, and agonized until they be- 
came and did exactly what he knew was right. When, as in The 
Lady from the Sea, he relaxes a little, the change in atmosphere 
is startling. This severity might be lamented as a defect did we 
not know from Peer Gynt that it was a deliberate sacrifice. The 
author of that supremely diverting and supremely mobile play 
cannot be accused of any incapacity for exuberance. 

Ibsen's later abstinence from humour, from divagations and 
those extravagances which charm us in Peer Gynt was the abstin- 
ence not of impotence but a deliberately self-imposed control. 
It may be that he sometimes regretted his choice, for in 1900 
he wrote to Count Prozor (after the publication of When We 
Dead Awaken) that, if he comes back to the old battlefields, "it 
will be with new weapons and in new armour"; there was, how- 
ever, to be no reappearance, and it would indeed be ungracious 
for the world to complain of any lack of variety in the drama 
of the man who left us Brand, Peer Gynt, Emperor and Galilean, 
A Doll's House, The Wild Duck, The Master Builder and When 
We Dead Awaken. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Samlede Vaerkcr (Copenhagen, 1898-1902). Efter- 
ladte Skrtjtcr (Copenhagen, 1909). Ibsen's Liv of Vaerker; by Gerard 
Gran (Copenhagen, 1919). Collected Works ed. and trans, by Wm, 
Archer, F. Archer, C. H. Hcrford, E. Gosse and others (London, 
1906-12). Early Plays, translated by A. Orbeck (Lohdon, 1921). 
Lyrics and Brand trs. by F. E. Garrett (London, 1912). Peer Gynt, 
trs. by R. Ellis Roberts (London, 1912). Various Plays in Everyman's 
Library trs. by R. F. Sharp (London, n.d.). See also P. H. Wicksteed, 
Henrik Ibsen (1892) ; G. Brandes, Ibsen and Bjornson (London, 
1899) ; E. Gosse, Henrik Ibsen (1907) ; R. Ellis Roberts, Henrik Ibsen 
(1912); G. Bernard Shaw, The Quintessence of Ibsentsm (1891). 

(R. E. R ) 

IBYCUS, of Rhegium in Italy, Greek lyric poet, contemporary 
of Anacreon, flourished in the 6th century B.C. He lived a wan- 
dering life, and spent a considerable time at the court of Poly- 
crates, tyrant of Samos. Plutarch (De Garnditate, xiv.) preserves 
the legend of his death. Attacked by robbers, he called on a 
flock of cranes to avenge him. Later, one of the robbers, in the 
theatre at Corinth, saw the cranes, and said "Behold the aveng- 
ers of Ibycus," thus betraying himself. The "cranes of Ibycus" 
became proverbial Ibycus wrote seven books of lyrics, partly 
mythical but mainly erotic (Cicero, Tusc. Disp. iv. 33). 



The best editions of the fragments are by F. W. Schneidewin (1833) 
and Bergk, Po'ttae lyrici Graeci. 

ICA, a coast department of southern Peru, bounded on the 
north by the department of Lima, east by Huancavelica and 
Ayacucho, south by Arequipa, west by the Pacific. It includes 
the western slopes of the cordiJlera and desert coast zone, a 
barren waste except for fertile, irrigated valleys of the Chincha, 
Pisco, lea and Grande rivers. Pop. (estimate 1920), 90,962; 
area, 9,799 sq.m. 

In the Chincha valley, of which Chincha Alta (pop. 6,000) is 
the chief town, 35,000 ac. are under cultivation the cotton yield 
second only to Piura 25,000 in the Pisco valley, and 12,000 in 
valleys tributary to the Rio Grande. The Pisco valley is the 
home of Senor Fermin Tangiiis, originator of the cotton which 
bears his name, a variety which is gradually replacing the cultiva- 
tion of others in Peru. The Nazca valley, tributary to the Grande, 
has a pre-Hispanic irrigating system and is famous for its 
archaeological remains. A system of roads including the coast 
trunk-line, 25-35 m. inland, is finished, though sometimes sand- 
covered, throughout its length, 214 m. Several branches run up 
the valleys to agricultural centres, a total of 404 miles of finished 
roads (1927). A railway 46 m. long connects lea, the capital, 
with its port, Pisco. The only other port is Tambo de Mora, 16 m. 
north of Pisco, connected with Chincha Alta by rail (yi m.). 
Chief products of the' department are cotton, grapes, wines, spirits, 
honey, tropical fruits and vegetables. Lake Huacachina, near 
lea, is a famous health resort. 

ICA, a city, capital of the department of the same name, is 
46 m. by rail south-east of its port, Pisco. Pop. (estimate 1927), 
13,000, altitude 1,300 feet. It lies in an irrigated valley filled 
with vineyards and cotton fields (total producing area about 
50,000 ac.). Much of the brandy known as "Pisco" is produced 
in the lea valley. The original town (founded 1563), has been 
twice destroyed by earthquake and lootecl by a Chilean army in 
1882. In spite of repeated disaster, it has typical Spanish charm 
and considerable commercial and industrial activity. Imports 
are controlled by wholesale houses, and several Lima banks have 
agencies here. The largest industry is a cotton factory including 
gin, oil-mill and other departments. ~ (M. T. Bi.) 

ICE is the solid formed when water freezes. It is a colourless 
substance crystallizing in the hexagonal system (vide infra); the 
crystals display a marked tendency to "twinning," and this is 
what gives rise to the flower-like patterns so frequently noticed 
on windows. Hoar-frost, snow and hail result from the freezing 
of atmospheric moisture. 

The temperature of melting ice is adopted as a standard in 
thermometric scales, being zero for both the Reaumur and Centi- 
grade scales, and 32 for the Fahrenheit. 

In the act of freezing, water undergoes a remarkable expansion 
although its temperature remains unchanged; consequently, ice 
at oC. has a density only 0-9175 of that of water at the same 
temperature, and therefore floats on cold water. If the ice were 
denser than the water, it would sink and ponds would then freeze 
from the bottom upwards, thus becoming solid much more rapidly 
than they do ; this low density of ice is thus of great significance 
to pond life and therefore indirectly to all life. 

The process of freezing in a pond presents features of interest. 
If the air is at or below oC. and the temperature of the water 
is, say, ioC., the upper layers of water become colder and sink 
into the main bulk, since the cold water is denser than the rest; 
this process continues until the whole of the water is chilled to 
4C., but at this temperature it attains its maximum density (see 
WATER), and thereafter the surface layers, having a lower tem- 
perature than 4C., are relatively lighter, remain on the sur- 
face and begin to freeze. The freezing is facilitated by the stillness 
of the water, resulting from the cessation of convection currents 
below 4C. Sea water does not freeze until it is cooled to about 
2C., even in the most favourable circumstances, and the re- 
sulting ice is found to be practically free from the salt present 
in the water. 

On being cooled, ice behaves like most other solids and con- 
tracts; its specific heat is about half that of water. In order to 

melt ice at oC. into water at the same temperature, it is neces- 
sary to supply A definite quantity of heat, viz., 80 calories per 
gram; this is called the "latent heat of fusion," since its absorp- 
tion causes no rise of temperature. Conversely, the same amount 
of heat has to be dissipated during the freezing of water. In 1849 
James Thomson showed that, since water expands on freezing, 
according to the laws of thermodynamics its freezing point must 
be lowered by increase of pressure, and ht 
calculated this lowering to be 0-0075 per 
atmosphere, an estimate subsequently veri- 
fied by his brother, Lord Kelvin. When 
two blocks of ice at oC. are pressed to- 
gether, the ice melts at the point of con- 
tact, the flow of resulting water relieves 
the pressure, and the water freezes again; 
these processes continue until the blocks 
are firmly united. A similar explanation 
accounts for the movements of a glacier 
past restrictions in its course the pressure 
causes local melting and flowing, and the 
STRUCTURE OF ICE icc & raduall y adjusts itself to the constric- 
White spheres represent the lion an ^ refreezes on the farther side, 
effective volume of oxygen In India water is made to freeze on cold 
atoms; black spheres, hy- c i ea r nights by leaving it in a porous vessel 

drogen atoms , _. " _ ' <* f g , 

(Chatti), the evaporation from the pores 
absorbing sufficient heat from it. 

Ordinary block-ice is rendered opaque by minute bubbles of air 
which are produced in any but very slowly cooled water, owing 
to the decreased solubility of the air. 

By subjecting ice to enormous pressures, P. W. Bridgman and 
G. Tammann have produced four other forms of ice (five accord- 
ing to the latter) differing in crystalline form and in density, 
all being denser than water. Thus, ordinary ice (Ice-I) at ioC. 
is converted under 4,400 atmos. to I.ce-V, and at 6,300 atmos. to 
Ice-VI; similarly, at 30C. 2,200 atmos. pressure converts Ice-I 
to Ice-Ill, and 3,000 atmos. converts it to Ice-II, and higher 
pressures then produce Ice-V and Ice-VI. 

The crystal structure of ice has been investigated by several 
workers. That deduced by Sir W. H. Bragg (Proc. Physical Soc. t 
1922, 34, p. 98) is shown in the annexed diagram, from which it 
will be seen that, when the structure is extended indefinitely in all 
directions, each oxygen atom is situated at the centre of gravity 
of four equidistant oxygen atoms, from each of which it is sepa- 
rated by a hydrogen atom. Thus, each hydrogen atom touches two 
oxygen atoms and each oxygen touches four hydrogens. The 
whole structure agrees with the hexagonal habit characteristic 
of the crystals, and its open nature accounts for the low density 
of ice, which is exactly that calculated from the dimensions given. 
(For the manufacture of ice, see REFRIGERATION.) (A. D. M.) 


ICEBERG, a floating mass of ice broken from the end of a 
glacier or a polar ice-sheet. Icebergs drift according to the 
direction of the sea currents, frequently from the polar regions 
to navigable waters, and they are therefore occasionally en- 
countered far beyond the polar regions. When a glacier de- 
scends to the sea and is pushed outwards into water of 
greater depth than the thickness of the ice, the ends are broken 
off and the detached masses float away as icebergs. Only one- 
ninth of the mass of ice is seen above water. Many bergs are 
overturned, or at least tilted, as they set sail, as the result of 
the wave-cutting and melting which disturb their equilibrium. 
The disintegration of an Arctic ice-sheet is a simpler matter, 
as the ice is already floating. The ice-sheet cracks at the end, 
and masses break off, owing to the upward pressure of the 
water upon the lighter ice. This is accomplished with consider- 
able violence. Icebergs, especially those of glacier origin, carry 
a load of d6bris which they gradually strew upon the sea floor; 
glacial material found in dredgings shows that icebergs occa- 
sionally transport their load for a considerable distance. 

ICE-CREAM. A name applied to a great variety of frozen 
compounds, ranging from a cheap mixture of custard powder, 
water or milk, sugar, flavouring and colouring matter, to real 


cream compounds, souffles and parfaits, water ices and "sorbets/' 
ice-cream blocks, etc. Ice-cream making is an important branch 
of the confectionery and because of its excellent food value has 
taken an important place in the diet of some people. The neces- 
sary utensils for a small trade, or for household use, are pewter 
freezers in wooden tubs or any good ice-machine (there are many 
on the market), pewter spatulas, ice pick, ice caves for storing 
or sending out ices, and pewter moulds, which are made in many 
shapes and sizes, for ice puddings or for small ices to serve to 
one person. The common American freezers are made with metal 
caps which revolve in a wooden tub and have a paddle which re- 
volves inside the can. 

The most usual freezing mixture employed is of coarse freezing 
salt and ice, about one-third of salt to two-thirds of ice; more salt 
may be used if a very sharp frost is needed, but too much salt 
melts the ice. The ice is broken with the ice pick into pieces not 
smaller than a large walnut. The freezing mixture is used in 
layers in a tub. Care must always be taken that no salt gets into 
the mixture. The paddle or spatula is used for mixing and to 
maintain a smooth creamy mixture. 

Varieties of Ice-cream. (i). Cream ices may be flavoured 
with vanilla, chocolate, caramel, coffee, strawberry, raspberry, 
orange, or in fact any fruit. They are made from cream, fruit 
purte or flavouring which gives the name to the ice, with sugar 
and colouring. Half cream and half custard may be used, or for a 
very economical ice, custard without cream. Standard propor- 
tions: % pint fruit puree, 4 pint cream (or pint custard and J 
pint cream). Before serving moulded ices, the mould should be 
passed under cold water, so that the ice will slip out of the mould 
when it is unfastened. 

(2). Souffles, Mousses, Parfaits These are not frozen in ice- 
machines. For souffles the mixture is put into large or small 
souffle cases, for mousses into bombc moulds, and placed in an 
ice cave to become cold. When packed with the freezing mixture 
the cave should be covered with coarse house-flannel or blanket. 
Parfaits are flavoured with liqueurs and fruit purees. 

(3). Water Ices, Sorbets. There are many varieties, viz , 
lemon, orange, jam, pineapple, strawberry, or indeed any fruit, 
and tea. Sorbets are flavoured with liqueur and frozen rough. 
Standard proportions: % Ib. loaf sugar and i pint of water boiled 
for syrup, i gill fruit juice and the white of two eggs. 

Factory Ice-cream. Both in the United States and Great 
Britain ice-cream is made in great volume for popular consump- 
tion. Ice-cream, sold in large quantities, is made from a stand- 
ard mixture of milk, cream and sugar, to which flavourings and 
colouring-matters 'are added. Eggs and custards are also used in 
some of the factory sorts. 

The mixture is first sterilized in enormous vats. By means of 
large pipes this is passed through a cooling chamber into vats 
holding 100 gal. each and is kept moving until cold. It then 
rests for 24 hours, when the creamy mass is again passed through 
large pipes into vessels, whence it is easily poured as needed into 
large cylindrical pans, which are taken on trolleys into freezing 
rooms. Machinery is so arranged that hands never touch the ices. 

(E. G. C.) 

In America the mixture is first standardized in a tank and 
packed into pasteurizers where it is held 'for a period of time at 
about 148 in order to kill harmful bacteria. The mixture then 
passes through a machine known as the u homogenizer M or "viscoU 
izer," which breaks up the globules of fat and makes for a 
smoother product. The mixture is still hot and must be cooled 
and in order to do this quickly it is dropped over the outer sur- 
face of a series of pipes containing cold brine. These pipes are 
arranged one above the other so that there is a fall of about 8 ft,, 
during which the temperature is lowered about 100. It next 
passes into tanks, holding usually about 1,000 gal. each, in which 
a revolving coil operates to keep the mix in motion until ready to 
be frozen. From these holding tanks, or "agitators," the mix 
passes to the room where the ice-cream freezers are placed. 
The sugar is placed in the mix in the standardizing room and the 
flavour is added to the mix at the freezer. The freezers or con- 
tainers are placed in a hardening room, constructed of concrete 

and lined with cork. The temperature, controlled by a brine 
refrigerating system, ranges from 10 to 20 degrees below zero. 
The cans and moulds from the freezer rooms, placed in the harden- 
ing room, are shipped directly out to the retailer. There are 
two generally accepted grades of ice-cream; Philadelphia, which 
is cream, sugar and flavour; and French, which is practically the 
same formula but to which has been added a heavy custard. 

ICE HOCKEY, a game dating probably from the iSth cen- 
tury. In the mid-Victorian age the players, four or five a side, 
used curved hockey sticks and a bung. 

From stick and bung the game evolved to "bandy'* or 
hockey-stick and ball, usually the lacrosse ball of solid rubber, 
mainly through the agency of the Bury Fen team and the brothers 
Tebbutt, rivals of the famous Virginia Water club founded in 1873 
by H, Blackett. In 1891 the Bandy Association was formed and 
the game fairly established as a national pastime. International 
matches, n a side, were aho started with the Dutch in 1891, a 
Bury Fen team captained by C. G. Tebbutt defeating Haarlem by 
14 goals to i, while in 1893 the latter turned the tables by 
defeating the English 7-1. The Tebbutts introduced the game 
into Scandinavia, visiting Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Mean- 
while Switzerland was the scene of annual matches among the 
fast increasing British visitors, especially at the two oldest centres. 
Davos and St. Moritz. 

Such games were played on large grounds up to 200 x looyd. 
with any number from 7 to 1 1 players. Meanwhile the combined 
influence of the Niagara club in Westminster, of Prince's club at 
Prince's skating rink, Knightsbridge, and the Oxford Canadians 
the fickleness of the British climate, making regular bandy almost 
impossible except at the favoured Swiss resorts with the conse- 
quent multiplication of indoor rinks and finally the immense 
development of the game in Canada and America (see below) in 
preference to bandy were causing a rapid revolution in favour of 
the more popular form of the game known as ice hockey. 

The essential difference is that this game is played with a "puck" 
or flat solid circular disk of vulcanized rubber, 3in. (7-620*1.) in 
diameter by tin. (2-54011.) thick, weighing about s-6oz. (141-5- 
i7ogr.), and with no more thn six players a side. Further, the 
"field of play" is enclosed by wooden barriers, often 4oin. high 
from the ice, the "goal-cage" enclosed with netting 4ft. (1-22 
metres) in height with posts 6ft. (1-83 metres) apatt being placed 
1 4-4 A metres from the end of the ice so that it is possible to skate 
round behind the goals. The result is that in contradistinction to 
other ball games the puck is very seldom out of play, and this 
added to the lightning speed at which the game is played has given 
rise to the claim that ice hockey is the fastest of all games, as well 
as the most strenuous and exhausting. The limits of the arena are 
fixed at a maximum of 80 x 40 metres, usually 60 x 25 metres, a 
convenient size for most indoor rinks. That of the new Ice club 
in London, for instance, is 170 by 90 ft., enclosed by netting to 
protect spectators, while the Richmond Ice Rink club, opened in 
1928, with its surface of 286 x 85ft., is even larger. 

The rules of play emanated from Canada and have been drawn 
up by an International Ice Hockey League, to which the following 
16 nations belong: Great Britain, Canada, United States, Belgium, 
France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Finland, Poland, 
Hungary, Rumania, Sweden, Spain and Czechoslovakia. 

In 1927 the championship of Europe was won by Austria in 
Vienna, and the double championship of Switzerland by Davos, 
but the outstanding feature of the season was the victorious tour 
of the Victoria Ice Hockey club of Montreal, representing Canada. 
Their victories included Stockholm, Viborg, Djurgarden (cham- 
pions of Sweden), Soedertaelja, Berlin, Czechoslovakia, Vienna, 
Wiener Eislauf-Verein, Milan, Switzerland, Davos and St. Moritz, 
Cortina d'Ampezzo, without a single defeat, their goal total being 
171-10, while they concluded with a 14-1 victory in London over 
an England side drawn from the London Lions, the universities, 
Prince's and Manchester clubs- a remarkable record. 

In Feb. 1928 ice hockey tnatches were played in the Olympic 
Games at St. Moritz, with the following final placings: 
i Canada; 2 Sweden; 3 Switzerland; 4 Great Britain. 
Eleven nations entered, Canada, the winners of the previous 




1. Ice hockey match, showing action at cage. Player in striped uniform 

is attempting a shot at goal (left). Player in dark uniform is mak- 
ing a sweep chock to break up the play. Goal keeper, standing in 
front of cage, is trying to prevent the scoring of a goal. Man 
behind cage is the goat umpire 

2. Practicing ice hockey at St. Moritz, Switzerland. Player at extreme 

right is driving the puck or rubber disc, attempting to score a goaf, 
and is about to shoot the puck. Goal keeper is in defensive position. 
Sideboards of rink and construction of goal arc clearly shown 

3. Goal keeper wearing full equipment for hockey match. Layer stick 

shown is wider than that used by other players on the team. The 

protective leg pads prevent injury from the puck, which Is driven 
toward the goal with great force by players of the opposing team. 
Pneumatic or padded chest protector is used to protect the body 

4. Player illustrating left-handed pose, in position for shot at goal. The 

puck is shown at blade of stick. Leg and knee pads are worn, as well 
as padded gloves and trunks, and chest and shoulder padding 

5. Player In left-handed position to block or check opponent 

6. Player in right-handed position to play the stick and puck from right 

side of the body 

7. Player In position to pass puck to teammate on combination play 



Olympic matches at Chamonix in 1924, being required to play 
only the winners of the three groups. The Canadians who played 
magnificently, beat Sweden xi-o, Switzerland 13-0 and Great 
Britain 14-0. They subsequently on tour beat Davos 6-1, Paris 
6-0 and England 11-4. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. &# A. Tebbutt, Bandy or Hockey on the Ice 
(1896), containing history and practical hints; C. G. Tebbutt, Bandy 
in ''Badminton Library'* (1892) ; S. K. Farlow, Bandy or Ice Hockey 
"Isthmian Library" (1901) ; "Sandy Sticks " The Book of Winter 
Sports (edit. E. and M. Syers, 1908) ; T. K. Fisher, Ice Hockey, a 
manual for player and coach (1926). (C. ED.) 


Every tiny hamlet throughout the Dominion of Canada has 
its hockey rink laid out in the open air during the winter months, 
but the larger cities are equipped with substantial buildings in 
which the game may be played before large gatherings of specta- 
tors. Despite the fact that frost is almost continuous in the winter 
months in most parts of Canada, east of the Rocky mountains, 
many of the city rinks are equipped with artificial ice plants which 
guarantee an ice surface before the winter really sets in and after 
the spring has begun. 

There are six players to a team, the positions being goal, left 
defence, right defence, centre, left wing and right wing (forwards). 
The centre of the rink is marked and the teams take positions on 
either side of this centre point, nearest the goal they are defending. 
The goal-keeper takes a position directly between the posts of the 
goal net. The defence men take positions to the right and left of 
the goal net about 25 ft. towards the centre of the ice from the 
net. The forwards take positions on a line close to the centre of 
the ice. The game is started by a rfeferee dropping the puck 
between the opposing centres in centre ice. This puts the puck in 
play, and the opposing teams must keep "onside," or behind the 
puck, when pushing or passing it from one player to another in 
combination play. The passing between members of the same 
teams may be intercepted at any time by an opponent. 

There is some difference between the professional and amateur 
rules, but the usual play is for three 20 min. periods with 10 min. 
intermissions between periods. Substitutes may enter the play 
at any time, but no substitution may be made unless the player 
being replaced leaves the ice. A goal is scored by the puck being 
driven fairly into the net or across the goal line by a stick. The 
team scoring the most goals in the three periods of play is declared 
the winner. In the event of a tie when the regulation number 
of periods is completed, overtime sessions are played. The present 
professional rules call for two "sudden death" periods of 5 min. 
each. If either team scores in these overtime sessions, the game 
is immediately over, but if neither team is able to score, the con- 
test is declared a draw. Penalties are imposed by the referee for 
tripping a player, slashing with the stick, checking a player bodily 
with undue" roughness, or by unfair use of the stick. The player 
penalized is sent to the sidelines, and takes no part in the game 
for such time as the referee sees fit to penalize him. A minor 
penalty is 2 min., a major penalty is 5 minutes. The penalized 
player's team continues to play short of his services until the 
expiration of the time of his penalty. 

The National Hockey League is the major professional league. 
The teams comprising this circuit represent the following cities : 
two from New York, two from Montreal and one each from 
Toronto, Ottawa, Boston, Chicago, Detroit and Pittsburgh. The 
amount paid for admissions for the season 1927-28 at National 
Hockey League games was $1,304,683. Players are purchased by 
the teams, prices ranging from $5,000 to over $30,000. The aver- 
age salary of a major league player is approximately $4,500 per 

There re five minor professional leagues, each circuit having 
five or more teams which represent smaller cities in the United 
States and Canada. All of the Canadian universities and colleges, 
and the more important of these institutions in the United States 
have organized hockey teams, and in many of them hockey is 
ranked as a major sfrort. 

In Canada there are over 1,200 organized amateur teams. 
During the past few years hockey has spread rapidly into the 

northern sections of the United States. This has become possible 
through the more extensive use of ice in rinks prepared by arti- 
ficial means in the larger arenas and auditoriums. The game being 
played at night in the winter, it is not dependent upon weather 
conditions. Furthermore, it is played at a season of the year when 
the great outdoor sports are not engaging the attention of sport 
lovers. (J. S. HA.; F. CR.) 


Ordinary pleasure-skating, figure-skating and speed-skating 
count for little in ice hockey. The recruit must practise hours, 
days and months to master the "stop-turn-and-start." Ice-hockey 
is played in a series of short dashes, dodging, shifting, side-step* 
ping and even hurdling being parts of the puck-chaser's routine. 
The game of tag on the ice is good practice, and intensive training 
may be obtained in skating rounds of 10 or 20 yd. dashes, swing- 
ing the body into sharp left or right turns or even making a com- 
plete about-face at the end of the dash. The next point is to con- 
fine the skating-stride to as narrow a path of ice as possible. The 
professional player rushes a puck in a path as narrow as 3 ft., 
using a foot-over-foot stride and offering his opponents little in 
the way of legs, feet, stick and body to reach for. The close, 
choppy stride is the proper skating form to carry a player and 
his puck safely through an opposing team. 

Many mediocre skaters have held positions in good teams 
through their knowledge of handling a hockey stick, pushing the 
rubber puck along the ice with the 4 ft. hickory war-club, for- 
ward, sideways left to right; holding it steady with a sudden 
stopping or "feinting" motion and varying the whole routine with 
such tricky manipulations of the feet and body as completely to 
baffle opponents who attempt to steal the puck and thereby check 
the play. Years of constant practise are necessary to crown the 
efforts of the expert stick-handler. Professional players in the 
big leagues "stick-handle" the 3 in. rubber puck in a manner that 
is uncanny, pushing and tossing the small rubber pellet about 
the ice between a maze of sticks and skates with a speed and accu- 
racy too bewildering for the human eye to follow. 

Methods of rushing, or "carrying," a puck along the ice vary. 
Some push the disc ahead at stick's length when the play is open; 
others play the puck from side to side and close to their feet at all 
times. Some flip the rubber against the sideboards^ depending on 
the rebound for recovery of the disc, while others attempt to poke 
the puck between the opponents' feet and skate their man to regain 
possession of the disc while the opponents are off balance or too 
befuddled to hamper the play effectively. Stick-checking calls 
for quick thinking and clever action on the part of the checker. 
The poke, sweep and hook checks are effective means of stopping 
opposing forwards in their rush toward the goal. The body-check 
in hockey is the same exhibition of brute strength, superior weight 
and sheer roughness that is used in football and other sports. 

With skating and stick-handling perfected to a point where they 
are combined into one mechanical operation, the player can direct 
his whole attention to playing the game. A good hockey player 
never looks at his feet, stick or puck during the progress of the 
play. His eyes must be focused on his opponents at all times. 
Once he comes into possession of the puck he has three forwards, 
two defence-men and a goal-tender to beat before he can register 
a score by shooting the rubber disc into the 4 by 6 ft. goal-net 
guarded by the opposing team. 

Left wing, centre and right wing, commonly known as "the 
forward line," should practise passing the puck from one to the 
other across the ice, while skating at top speed, until their combi- 
nation-play is perfected to a point which enables them to beat 
the opposing forwards, swoop in on the opposing defence, and 
leave the odd man in position for a shot at the net. Individual 
rushes by self-styled stars seldom result in tallies being marked 
on the Scoreboard. Left and right wing players should at all times 
play their positions in their respective alleys and Ifcave the centre 
alley or mid-ice section to the centre player. Members of the 
forward-line are supposed to score goals when the opportunity 
is presented and never at the cost of allowing the opposing 
forwards to break away for a two- or three-man combination 


attack on the home team's net. 

Defence-men, working within a 2O-yd. radius of the goal-net, 
should never leave their goal-tender unguarded. The good defence 
player must hold, at all times, a position between his goal-tender 
and the opposing forwards who attempt to carry the puck close 
enough to the net for a shot that may mean a score. Defence 
players adopt various forms of checking the forward line attack. 
Some use a stick or body check or a combination of the two; 
others crowd the incoming forwards to the sideboards or sand- 
wich their man between their bodies for what is known as a 
"hoist" anything to spoil the forwards' shots, keep them out of 
shooting range of the goal-net or force them to shoot from impossi- 
ble angles 

A goal-tender has 4 by 6 ft. of open net to protect and must 
study the shots from all angles and positions on the ice He must 
cover as much of his net as possible with his body and shift his 
position between the posts continuously to hamper the vision of 
the opposing sharp-shooters. If an opposing left-winger or right- 
winger gets through the defence for a shot the net-guardian crowds 
the corner of the goal nearest to the winger, who is delivering the 
shot from the left-wing or right-wing "alley." When a forward 
skates through the defence and looms up directly in front of the 
net for a shot, there is little the goal-tender can do but attempt 
to anticipate the direction of his opponent's shot, as good for- 
wards always shoot for the top or lower corners of the net 

(J- Fi.) 

ICELAND, an island in the North Atlantic ocean (Dan. 
Island), Its extreme northerly point is touched by the Arctic 
Circle; it lies between 13 22' and 24 35' W., and between 63 
12' and 66 33' N., and has an area of 40,437 sq miles. Its length 
is 298 m. and its breadth 194 m., the shape being a rough oval, 
broken at the north-west, where a peninsula, diversified by a great 
number of fjords, projects from the main portion of the island. 
The total length of the coast-line is about 3,730 m., of which ap- 
proximately one-third belongs to the north-western peninsula. 
Iceland is a plateau or tableland, built up of volcanic rocks of 
older and younger formation, and pierced on all sides by fjords 
and valleys. Compared with the tableland, the lowlands have a 
relatively small area, namely, one-fourteenth of the whole; but 
these lowlands are almost the only parts of the island which are 
inhabited. In consequence of the rigour of its climate, the central 
tableland is absolutely uninhabitable. At the outside, not more 
than one-fourth of the area of Iceland is inhabited; the rest con- 
sists of elevated deserts, lava streams and glaciers The north- 
west peninsula is separated from the main mass of the island by 
the bays Hunafloi and Breioif joror, so that there are really two 
tablelands, a larger and a smaller. The isthmus which connects 
the two is only 4! m. across, but has an altitude of 748 feet. The 
mean elevation of the north-west peninsula is 2,000 feet. The 
fjords and glens which cut into it arc shut in by precipitous walls 
of basalt, which plainly shows that they have been formed by 
erosion through the mass of the plateau. The surface of this 
tableland is bare and desolate, being covered with gravel and 
fragments of rock. Here and there are large straggling snowfields, 
the largest being Glamu and Drangajokull, on the culminating 
points of the plateau. The only inhabited districts are the shores 
of the fjords, where grass grows capable of supporting sheep; but 
most of the population gain their livelihood by fishing. 

The other and larger tableland, which constitutes the substantial 
part of Iceland, reaches its culminating point in the south-east, 
in the gigantic snowfield of Vatnajbkull, which covers 3,300 sq. 
miles The axis of highest elevation of Iceland stretches from 
north-west to south-east, from the head of Hvammbfjorfir to 
Hornafjorftr, and from this water-parting the rivers descend on 
both sides. The crest of the water-parting is crowned by a 
chain of snow-capped mountains, separated by broad patches of 
lower ground. They are really a chain of minor plateaux, which 
rise 4,500 to 6,250 ft. above sea-level and 2,000 to 3,000 ft. above 
the tableland itself. In the extreme east is Vatnajokull, which is 
separated from Tungnafellsjokull by Vonarskard (3,300 ft.). Be- 
tween Tungnafellsjokull and Hofsjokull lies the broad depression 
of Sprengisandr (2,130 ft.). Continuing north-west, between 

Hofsjokull and the next snow-capped mountain, Langjokull, lies 
Kjolur (2,000 ft.); and between Langjokull and Eiriksjokull, 
Flosaskard (2,639 ^)- To tne nortn * ^ e fiklar last men ~ 
tioned there are a number of lakes, all well stocked with fish. 
Numerous valleys or glens penetrate into the tableland, especially 
on the north and east, and between them long mountain spurs, 
sections of the tableland which have resisted the action of erosion, 
thrust themselves towards the sea. Of these the most considerable 
is the mass crowned by Myrdalsjokull, which stretches towards 
the south. The interior of the tableland consists for the most part 
of barren, grassless deserts, the surface being covered by gravel, 
loose fragments of rock, lava, driftsand, volcanic ashes and glacial 

Save the lower parts of the larger glens, there are no lowlands 
on the north and east. The south coast is flat next the sea; but 
immediately underneath Vatnajokull there ib a strip of gravel and 
sand, brought down and deposited by the glacial streams. The 
largest low-lying plain of Iceland, lying between Myrdalsjokull 
and Reykjanes, has an area of about 1,550 sq. miles. In its lowest 
parts this plain barely keeps above sea-level, but it rises gradually 
towards the interior, terminating in a ramification of valleys. Its 
maximum altitude is attained at 381 ft. near Geysir On the west 
of Mount Hekla this plain connects by a regular slope directly 
with the tableland, to the great injury of its inhabited districts, 
which are thus exposed to the clouds of pumice dust and driftsand 
that cover large areas of the interior. Nevertheless the greater 
part of this lowland plain produces good grass, and is relatively 
well inhabited. The plain is drained by three rivers Markar- 
flj6t, Thj6rsa and Oelfusa all of large volume, and numerous 
smaller streams. Towards the west there exist a number of warm 
springs. There is another lowland plain around the head of 
Faxafloi, nearly 400 sq.m. in extent. As a rule the surface of this 
second plain is very marshy. Several dales or glens penetrate the 
central tableland; the eastern part of this lowland is called 
Borgarf jorbr, the western part Myrar. 

The great bays on the west of the island (Faxafloi and Breifti- 
f jorcSr), as well as the many bays on the north, which are separated 
from one another by rocky promontories, appear to owe their 
origin to subsidences of the surface; whereas the fjords of the 
north-west peninsula, which make excellent harbours, and those 
of the east coast seem to be the result chiefly of erosion. 

Glaciers. An area of 5,170 sq.m. or a little more than 13% 
of the total area is covered with snowfields and glaciers This 
extraordinary development of ice and snow is due to the raw, 
moist climate, the large rainfall and the low summer temperature. 
The snow-line varies greatly in different parts of the island, its 
range being from 1,300 to 4,250 feet. It is highest on the table- 
land, on the north side of Vatnajokull, and lowest on the north- 
west peninsula, to the south of North Cape. Without exception 
the great nfvis of Iceland belong to the interior tableland. They 
consist of slightly rounded domes or billowy snowfields of vast 
thickness. In external appearance they bear a closer resemblance 
to the glaciers of the Polar regions than to those of the Alps. 
The largest snowfields are Vatnajokull (3,280 sqm.), Hofsjokull 
(520), Langjokull (500) and Myrdalsjokull (390). The glaciers 
which stream off from these snowfields are often of vast extent, 
e.g., the largest glacier of Vatnajokull has an area of 150 to 200 
sq.m., but the greater number are small. Altogether, more than 
1 20 glaciers are known in Iceland. It is on the south side of 
Vatnajokull that they descend lowest; the lower end of Breida- 
merkurjokull was in the year 1894 only 30 ft. above sea-level. 
The glaciers of the north-west peninsula also descend nearly to 
sea-level. The great number of streams of large volume is due 
to the moist climate and the abundance of glaciers, and the milky 
white or yellowish-brown colour of their waters (whence the 
common name HvitA, white) is due to the glacial clays. The 
majority of them change their courses very often, and vary 
greatly in volume ; frequently they are impetuous torrents, form- 
ing numerous waterfalls. 

Iceland also possesses a great number of lakes, the largest being 
Thingvallavatn and Thorisvatn, each about 27 sq.m. in area 
Myvatn, in the north, is well known from the natural beauty of 



F J R D /? ^ Thingvell 

o/n//r tettie/nenh ami habitations 
art thown by otofc 
24' ' 22* 

its surroundings. Above its surface tower a great number of vol- 
canoes and several craters, and its waters are alive with water- 
fowl, a multitude of ducks of various species breeding on its 
islands. Myvatn fills a depression between lava streams, and has 
a depth of not more than 8 4 feet. The group of lakes called 
Fiskivb'tn (or Veidivotn), which lie in a desolate region to the 
west of Vatnajokull, consist for the most part of crater lakes. 
The groups of lakes which lie north-west from Langjokull occupy 
basins formed between ridges of glacial gravel ; and in the valleys 
numerous lakes are found at the backs of the old moiaines. 

Volcanoes. Iceland is one of the most volcanic regions of 
the earth; volcanic activity has gone on continuously from the 
formation of the island in the Tertiary period down to the present 
time. So far as is known, there have in historic times been 
eruptions from 25 volcanic vents. Altogether 107 volcanoes are 
known to exist in Iceland, with thousands of craters, great and 
small. The lava-streams which have flowed from them since the 
Glacial epoch now cover an area of 4,650 sq. miles. They are 
grouped in dense masses round the volcanoes from which they 
have flowed, the bulk of the lava dating from outbreaks which 
occurred in prehistoric times. The largest volume of lava which 
has issued at one outflow within historic times is the stream which 
came from the craters of Laki at Skapta. This belongs to the 
year 1783, and covers an area of 218 sq.m., and amounts to a vol- 
ume represented by a cube each of whose sides measures 7 J miles. 
The largest unbroken lava-field in Iceland is Odaoahraun (Lava 
of Evil Deeds), upon the tableland north from Vatnajokull (2,000 
to 4,000 ft. above sea-level). It is the accretion of countless erup- 
tions from over 20 volcanoes, and covers an area of 1,300 sqm. 
(or, including all its ramifications and minor detached streams, 
1,700 sq.m.), and its volume would fill a cube measuring 13-4 m. 
in every direction. 

As regards their superficies, the lava-streams differ greatly. 
Sometimes they are very uneven and jagged (apalhraun) , con- 
sisting of blocks of lava loosely flung together in the utmost con- 
fusion. The great lava-fields, however, are composed of vast 

sheets of lava, ruptured and riven in divers ways (helluhraun). 
The smooth surface of the viscous billowy lava is further diversi- 
fied by long twisted "ropes," curving backwards and forwards up 
and down the undulations. Moreover, there are gigantic fissures, 
running for several miles, caused by subsidences of the underlying 
sections. The best-known fissure of this character is Almannagja 
at Thingvellir. On the occasion of outbreaks ihe fine ashes are 
scattered over a large portion of the island, and sometimes carried 
far across the Atlantic. After the eruption of Katla in 1625 the 
ashes were blown as far as Bergen in Norway, and when Askja 
was in eruption in 1875 a rain of ashes fell on the west coast of 
Norway n hours 40 minutes, and at Stockholm 15 hours, after- 
wards. The volcanic ash frequently proves extremely harmful, 
destroying the pastures so that the sheep and cattle die of hunger 
and disease. The outbreak of Laki in 1783 occasioned the loss of 
11,500 cattle, 28,000 horses and 190,500 sheep that is v to say, 
53% of the cattle in the island, 77% of the horses and 82% of 
the sheep. After that the island was visited by a famine, which 
destroyed 9,500 people, or one-fifth of the total population. 

The Icelandic volcanoes may be divided into three classes: 
(i) cone-shaped, like Vesuvius, built up of alternate layers of 
ashes, scoriae and lava; (2) cupola-shaped, with an easy slope 
and a vast crater opening at the top these shield-shaped cupolas 
are composed entirely of layers of lava, and their inclination is 
seldom steeper than 7-8; (3) chains of craters running close 
alongside a fissure in the ground. For the most part the individual 
craters are low, generally not exceeding 300 to 500 feet. These 
crater chains are very common and often very long. The chain of 
Laki, which was formed in 1783, extends 20 m, and embraces 
about 100 separate craters. Sometimes, however, the lava-streams 
are vomited straight out of gigantic fissures in the earth without 
any crater being formed. Many of the Icelandic volcanoes during 
their periods of quiescence are covered with snow and ice. Then 
when an outbreak occurs the snow and ice melt, and in that way 
they sometimes give rise to serious catastrophes (jokulhlaup}, 
through large areas being suddenly inundated by great floods of 


water, which bear masses of ice floating on the surface. Katla 
caused very serious destruction in this way by converting several 
cultivated districts into barren wastes. In the same way in the year 
1362 Oeraefajokull, the loftiest mountain in Iceland (6,424 ft.), 
swept 40 farms, together with their inhabitants and live stock, 
bodily into the ocean. The best-known volcano is Hekla (5,108 
ft ), which was in eruption 18 times within the historic period 
down to 1845 Katla during the same period was active 13 times 
down to 1860. The largest volcano is Askja, situated in the middle 
of the lava-field of Odafiahraun Its crater measures 34 sqm. in 
area At Myvatn there are several volcanoes, which were par- 
ticularly active in the years 1724-30. On several occasions there 
have been volcanic outbreaks under the sea outside the penin- 
sula of Reykjanes, islands appearing and afterwards disappearing 
again. The crater chain of Laki has only been in eruption once in 
historic times, namely, the violent and disastrous outbreak of 
1783.. Iceland, however, possesses no constantly active volcano. 
There are often long intervals between the successive outbreaks, 
and many of the volcanoes (and this is especially true of the 
chains of craters) have only vented themselves in a solitary out- 

Earthquakes are frequent, especially in the districts which are 
peculiarly volcanic. Historical evidence goes to show that they 
ire closely associated with three naturally defined regions: (i) 
he region between Skjalfandi and Axarf jorftr in the north, where 
violent earth tremblings are extremely common; (2) at Faxafl6i, 
where minor vibrations are frequent; (3) the southern lowlands, 
setween Reykjanes and Myrdalsjokull, have frequently been dev- 
istatcd by violent earthquake shocks, with great loss of property 
ind life, eg, on Aug. 14-16, 1784, when 92 farmsteads were 
otally destroyed, and 372 farmsteads and n churches were seri- 
ously damaged; and again in Aug and Sept 1896, when another 
errible earthquake destroyed 161 farmsteads and damaged 155 
)thers. Hot springs are found in every part of Iceland, both singly 
md in groups; they arc particularly numerous in the western 
portion of the southern lowlands, where amongst others is the 
'amous Geyser (g.iO. Sulphur springs and boiling mud lakes 
ire also general in the volcanic districts; and in places the r c are 
;arbonic acid springs, these more especially on the peninsula of 
Snaefellsnes, north of Faxafloi. 

Geology. Iceland is built up almost entirely of volcanic rocks, 
lone of them older, however, than the middle of the Tertiary 
>eriod. The earlier flows were probably contemporaneous with 
hose of Greenland, the Faeroes, the western islands of Scotland 
ind the north-east of Ireland. The principal varieties are basalt 
tnd palagonitic breccias, the former covering two-thirds of the en- 
ire area, the latter the remaining one-third. Compared with these 
wo systems, all other formations have an insignificant develop- 
nent. The palagonitic breccias, which stretch in an irregular belt 
icross the island, are younger than the basalt In the north-west, 
lorth and east the coasts are formed of basalt, and rise in steep, 
;loomy walls of rock to altitudes of 3,000 ft and more above sea- 
evel. Deposits of clay, with remains of plants of the Tertiary 
>eriod, lignite and tree-trunks pressed flat, which the Icelanders 
all surtarbraiidur, occur in places in the heart of the basalt forma- 
ion. These fossiliferous strata are developed in greatest thick- 
icss in the north-west peninsula. Indeed, in some few places well- 
narked impressions of leaves and fruit have been discovered, 
>roving that in Tertiary times Iceland possessed extensive forests, 
ind its annual mean temperature must have been at least 48 F, 
vhereas the present mean is 35-6. The palagonitic breccias, which 
ittain their greatest development in the south of the island and 
m the tableland, consist of reddish, brown or yellowish rocks, tuffs 
ind breccias, belonging to several different groups or divisions, 
he youngest of which seems to be of a date subsequent to the 
Glacial epoch. 

All over Iceland, in both the basalt and breccia formations, 
here occur small intrusive beds and dikes of liparite, and as this 
ock is of a lighter colour than the basalt, it is visible from a dis* 
ance. In the south-east of the island, in the parish of L6n, there 
'xist a few mountains of gabbro, a rock which does not occur in 
mv other nart of Iceland. Near Husavik in the north th<w havfi 

been found marine deposits containing a number of marine shells; 
they belong to the Red Crag division of the Pliocene. In the 
middle of Iceland, where the geological foundation is tuff and 
breccias, large areas are buried under ancient outflows of lava, 
which bear evidences of glacial scratching. These lava streams, 
which arc of a doleritic character, flowed before the Glacial age, 
or during its continuance, out of lava cones with gigantic crater 
openings, such as may be seen at the present day. During the 
Glacial epoch the whole of Iceland was covered by a vast sheet 
of inland ice, except for a few small isolated peaks rising along 
its outer margins. This ice-cap had on the tableland a thickness 
of 2,300 to 2,600 feet. Rocks scored by glacial ice and showing 
plain indications of striation, together with thousands of erratic 
blocks, are found scattered all over Iceland. Signs of elevation 
subsequent to the Glacial epoch are common all round the island, 
especially on the north-west peninsula. There are found strik- 
ingly developed marine terraces of gravel, shore lines and surf 
beaches marked on the solid rock. In several places there are 
traces of shells; and sometimes skeletal remains of whales and 
walruses, as well as ancient driftwood, have been discovered at 
distances from the present coast. The ancient shore-lines occur 
at two different altitudes Along the higher, 230 to 260 ft. above 
the existing sea-level, shells have been found which are character- 
istic of high Arctic latitudes and no longer exist in Iceland; 
whereas on the lower shore-line, 100 to 130 ft., the shells belong 
to species which occur amongst the coast fauna of the present 

The geysers antf other hot springs are due to the same causes 
as the active volcanoes, and the earthquakes are probably mani- 
festations of the same forces. A feature of special interest to 
geologists in the present conditions of the island is the great power 
of the wind both as a transporting and denuding agent. The rock 
sculpture is often very similar to that of a tropical desert. (See 
Th. Thoroddsen, "Explorations in Iceland during the years 1881- 
1898," Geographical Journal, vol. xiii. [1899], pp. 251-274, 480- 
513, with map.) 

Climate. Considering its high latitude and situation, Iceland 
has a relatively mild climate. The meteorological conditions vary 
greatly, however, in different parts of the island In the south and 
east the weather is generally changeable, stormy and moist; 
whilst on the north the rainfall is less. The climate of the interior 
tableland approximates to the Continental type and is often ex- 
tremely cold. The mean annual temperature is 37-2 F in Stykkis- 
holmr. The range is great not only from year to year, but also 
from month to month. For instance, at Stykkisholmr the highest 
annual mean for March was 39-7, and the lowest 8, during a 
period of 38 years. Iceland lies contiguous to that part of the 
north Atlantic in which the shifting areas of low pressure prevail, 
so that storms are frequent and the barometer is seldom firm. 
The barometric pressure at sea-level in the south-west of Iceland 
during the period 1878-1900 varied between 30-8 and 27-1 inches. 

The climate of the coasts is relatively mild in summer, but cold 
in winter. The winter means of the north and east coasts average 
31-7 and 31-3 F respectively; the summer means, 42-8 and 
44-6; and the means of the year, 33-1 and 35-6. The winter 
means of the south and west coasts average 32 and 31-7 respec- 
tively; the summer means, 48-2 and 50 ; the annual means, 37-4 
and 39-2. The rainfall on the south and east coasts is consider- 
able, e ., at Vestmannaeyjar, 49-4 in. in the year. On the west 
coast it is less, e.g., 24-3 in. at Stykkish61mr; but least of all on 
the north coast, being only 14-6 in. on the island of Grimsey, 
which lies off that coast. Mist is commonly prevalent on the east 
coast; at Berufjorftr there is mist on no fewer than 212 days in 
the year. The south and west coasts are washed by the Gulf 
stream, and the north coast by an Arctic current, which frequently 
brings with it a quantity of drift-ice, and thus exercises a con- 
siderable effect upon the climate of the island; sometimes it 
blocks the north coast in the summer months. On the whole, 
during the igth century, the north coast was free from ice on an 
average of one year in every four or five. The clearness of the 
atmosphere has been frequently remarked. Thunderstorms occur 

in winter 



Floja. The vegetation presents the characteristics of an Arctic 
European type, and is tolerably uniform throughout the island, 
the differences even on the tableland being slight. At present 435 
species of phanerogams and vascular cryptogams are known ; the 
lower orders have been little investigated. The grasses are of the 
greatest importance to the inhabitants, for upon them they are 
dependent for the keep of their live stock, Heather covers large 
tracts, and also affords pasture for sheep, The development of 
forest trees is insignificant. Birch woods exist in a good many 
places, especially in the warmer valleys; but the trees are very 
short, scarcely attaining more than 3 to 10 ft. in height. In a few 
places, however, they reach 13 to 20 ft. and occasionally more. 
A few mountain ash or rowan trees (Sorbus aucuparia) are found 
singly here and there, and attain to 30 ft. in height. Willows are 
also pretty general, the highest in growth being Salix phyllicifolia, 
7 to 10 feet. The wild flora of Iceland is small and delicate, with 
bright bloom, the heaths being especially admired. Wild crow- 
berries and bilberries are the only fruit found in the island. 

Fauna. The Icelandic fauna is of a sub-Arctic type. But 
while the species are few, the individuals are often numerous. The 
land mammals are very poorly represented; and it is doubtful 
whether any species is indigenous. The polar bear is an occasional 
visitant, being brought to the coast by the Greenland drift-ice. 
Foxes are common, both the white and the blue occurring; mice 
and the brown rat have been introduced, though one variety of 
mouse is possibly indigenous. Reindeer were introduced in 1770, 
and without the aid of these strong, heavily built animals, many 
portions of the country could scarcely be permanently inhabited ; 
these reindeer can maintain a speed of nine to ten miles an hour 
for long periods at a time, and draw a weight of over 200 Ibs. 

The marine mammalia arc numerous. The walrus is now seldom 
seen, although in prehistoric times it was common. There are 
numerous species of seals; and the seas abound in whales. Of 
birds there are over 100 species, more than one-half being aquatic. 
In the interior the whistling swan is common, and numerous 
varieties of ducks are found in the lakes The eider duck, which 
breeds on the islands of Breioif jorflr, is a source of livelihood to 
the inhabitants, as are also the many kinds of sea-fowl which 
breed on the sea-cliffs. Iceland possesses neither reptiles nor 
batrachians The fish fauna is abundant in individuals, some 68 
species being found off the coasts. The cod fisheries are amongst 
the most important in the world. Large quantities of herring, 
plaice and halibut are also taken Many of the rivers abound in 
salmon, and trout are plentiful in the lakes and streams. 

Population and Towns. With a population of about 100,000 
(in 1925) Iceland is the most sparsely populated country in 
Europe. Remembering that almost four-fifths of the island are 
uninhabited and almost uninhabitable, the distribution of popula- 
tion gives an average of something less than one per square 
kilometre. In the earlier days of its settlement Iceland suffered 
from disasters and visitation of plagues, which greatly decreased 
the number of its population. The Black Death, which ravaged 
the country from 1402-04, is supposed to have killed off no less 
than two-thirds of the inhabitants. The increase of population 
during the igth century was counterbalanced by the number of 
Icelanders who emigrated to America, chiefly to Manitoba and 
Saskatchewan. The highest figures of emigration were reached in 
1887 when about 2,000 persons emigrated. In the present century 
an average of about 200 per year emigrated until 1915, when 
emigration practically stopped. The population of Iceland con- 
sists almost exclusively of Icelanders. The census of 1920 shows 
only 0-7% were born out of Iceland. The largest town is Reyk- 
javik, on the Faxafloi, with about 22,000 inhabitants, the capital 
of the island and the seat of Government. Here also are the Ice- 
landic university and many of the principal schools of the country, 
together with the cathedral, whose marble font was made by 
Albert Thorvaldsen, whose father was an Icelander. Other towns 
include, Akureyi (pop, 2,906), Vestmannaeyjar (pop. 2,841), 
Hafnarfjb'rSur (2,692), Isafjordur (2,158). 

Industries. The classification of the population according to 
occupations is shown in the following summary based upon the 
census of 1920: 

Public service, art and science 


3-6% ' 

Farming . .... 


4 2 '9% 

Fisheries . ... 



Haruiicraf t and industry 



Commerce and communications 




6,43 6< 


Pensioners and " retired" men. 



Receiving poor relief 



Profession not stated 




1 00'00% 

Though farming is still the chief occupation of the population 
yet formerly it was so in a much higher degree. In 1880 73-2% 
were engaged in farming compared with 42-9% in 1920, while 
there has been a material rise in the numbers engaged in fisheries, 
industry, handicraft, communications and commerce. Farmers 
are largely occupied with cattle-breeding, and more particularly 
sheep-breeding. Grain is not cultivated in Iceland, all bread- 
stuffs being imported. An attempt to grow barley proved to be 
an economic failure. Considerable progress has been made in 
modern times in the cultivation of turnips and potatoes. While 
fruit trees do not thrive, black and red currants and rhubarb 
grow excellently. In nearly every district a small agricultural 
association is found; there are also four agricultural schools and 
one agricultural society in Iceland. 

Fisheries now furnish employment to about one-fifth of the 
population. There has been a marked development of the fishing 
fleet during the last 25 years, due solely to the increased em- 
ployment of trawlers and large and small motor boats. In 1922 
the trawler fleet consisted of 31 ships, with an average measure- 
ment of some 300 gross reg. tons each, while the whole motor 
ship fleet had a total of 3,938 tons (gross reg.). 

This development of the fisheries has greatly influenced the 
distribution of the population, and has been the cause of the 
migration of people from rural to coastal districts. Practically 
the whole fishing fleet is employed in fishing cod and cod-like 
species, and the winter fishing season (the first four to five 
months of the year) off the south coast of Iceland yields about 
three-fifths of the total catch of the year. In summer the waters 
are visited by a great number of fishing-boats from French ports, 
the Faeroes and Norway, and by steam-trawlers from Britain. 
Inspection of fishing grounds is at present carried out by Danish 
patrol boats, and the maritime jurisdiction of Iceland, as far as 
the fisheries are concerned, is fixed by a trecty made between 
Denmark and Great Britain on March 28, 1903 Many public 
measures have been taken for the encouragement of salt-water 
fisheries, the chief being an annual grant f rom the budget, the 
Fishing Fund, which grants loans for the purchase of vessels 
and fishing gear and which derives its increased capital from the 
fines for illegal fishing and the sale of forfeited gear, and the 
Sea-territorial Fund, which derives its capital from the same 
source and is concerned with the provision of protective patrol 
boats. The Icelandic Association for the Promotion of the Fish- 
ing Trade was established in 1911, has 41 local branches and 
a membership of T,^OO in 1924; it issues a monthly and gives 
short courses in navigation and in motor repairs. On the initia- 
tive of the State there is now a marine mutual insurance company 
and two special schools for sailors and fishermen, one for marine 
engineers and one in navigation The total export of fish in 
1923 was 59,464 tons, to the value of 37-2 million kroner. 

Commerce. In 1902 imports were valued at 596,193 and 
exports at 511,083. In 1923 imports were valued at 2,794,151 
and exports at 3,194,283. Trade is almost entirely with Den- 
mark, the United Kingdom, and Norway and Sweden, in this 
order according to value. The principal native products ex- 
ported are live sheep, horses, salt meat, wool and hides, to which 
must be added the fish products cod, train-oil, herring and sal- 
mon eiderdown and woollen wares The spinning, weaving and 
knitting of wool is a widespread industry, and the native tweed 
(vaomal} is the principal material for the clothing of the inhabi- 
tants. The imports consist principally of cereals and flour, coffee, 
sugar, ale, wines and spirits, tobacco, manufactured wares, iron 
and metal wares, timber, salt, coal, etc. The money, weights 

4 6 


and measures in use are the same as in Denmark. The Islands 
Bank in Reykjavik (1904) is authorized to issue bank-notes up to 
^133,900 in total value. This was greatly increased during the 
World War, and a special committee has now been appointed to 
make proposals regarding the definite fixing of the note issue. 

Communications. All land journeys are made on horse- 
back, and in the remoter parts all goods have to be transported 
by the same means. Throughout the greater part of the island 
there exist no proper roads, even in the inhabited districts, but 
only bridle-paths, and in the uninhabited districts not even these. 
Nevertheless, under the Roads Act, much has been done to im- 
prove such paths as there arc, and several miles of driving roads 
have been made, more particularly in the south. Since 1888 
many bridges have been built; previous to that year there were 
none. The larger rivers have been spanned by iron swing-bridges, 
and the Blanda is crossed by a fixed iron bridge. Postal connec- 
tion is maintained with Denmark by steamers, which sail from 
Copenhagen and call at Leith. Besides, steamers go round the 
island, touching at nearly every port. Since motor cars were in- 
troduced in 1913 their number has increased until, in 1925, 400 
had been registered. No railways exist, but a preliminary survey 
has been made for a line from Reykjavik to the southern low- 
lands. A wireless telegraph station was opened in 1917. Iceland 
controls its own steamship company with six mail steamers. 

Religion. The Icelanders are Lutherans. The island forms 
one bishopric, with its sec at Reykjavik, and there are two vice- 
bishops, one for each of the two dioceses into which the island 
was formerly divided There are 20 deaneries, each with a dis- 
trict council, and 142 parishes administered by a parish council. 
Candidates for the priesthood must now, as a rule, have taken 
a theological degree at the University of Iceland, and clergymen 
are chosen by a secret voting on the part of such of the parish- 
ioners who are of full age (21 years) and of blameless reputation. 

The Icelandic Church has always been liberal in her views, 
and many adherents to the new theology and the doctrines of 
spiritualism are found among the younger clergy. 

Health. In 1923 the birth rate was 26-5 per 1,000, and the 
death rate was 12-5 per 1,000, the latter showing a marked im- 
provement on pre-war figures. This improvement is due to 
greater cleanliness, better housing and nourishment, and the in- 
crease in the number of doctors. There is a modern asylum for 
leprosy near Reykjavik, and the building of a large State hospital 
at Reykjavik was commenced in 1925. There is also a mental 
hospital and a sanatorium, as well as a number of minor in- 
firmaries The chief surgeon (national physician), who resides 
at Reykjavik, is in charge of the general sanitary affairs of the 
island, and has superintendence over the doctors and the medical 

Government. According to the Constitution granted to Ice- 
land in 1874, and amended by the Icelandic Parliament Act of 
1903 and 1918, the king of Denmark shares the legislative power 
with the Althing, an assembly of 42 popularly elected members, 
36 of whom are elected by the constituencies for a period of four 
years. Six members are chosen by the whole electorate, accord- 
ing to proportional representation, for a period of eight years. 
These last six form the upper house and the remainder the lower 
house, but upon occasions the two houses work together in a 
united Althing. 

The Althing meets every other year, and as it has the right to 
vote its own supplies, the budget is passed for two years at once. 

Iceland has its own prime minister, who must be an Icelander 
and reside in Reykjavik. He is responsible to the king and to 
the Althing, and is aided in the work of administration by a 
secretary of State and three chiefs of departmental bureaus. For 
convenience he has a sub-office in Copenhagen, for the purpose of 
laying the measures approved by the Althing before the king, for 
his sanction and signature. 

The island is divided into 16 districts (s^slur) each of which 
is administered by a district magistrate (syslumenn), and seven 
towns administered by town magistrates. These magistrates act 
as tax-gatherers, notaries public and judges of first instance. The 
counties are divided into 169 hreppur (rapes) poor-law districts, 

and in each hreppur the magistrate has an assistant, called 

From the magistrates 1 courts appeals lie to the superior court 
at Reykjavik, consisting of three judges, and appeals may further 
be taken in all criminal and in most civil cases to the supreme 
court at Copenhagen. 

In Feb. 1928 the Althing agreed that it was desirable to cancel 
the present treaty of personal unity with Denmark, thereby obtain- 
ing complete independence. 

Education. There is compulsory elementary education be- 
tween the ages of 10 and 14 years. In towns, trading stations 
and some rural districts children receive instruction at "station- 
ary" schools for six months of the year; where this is impossible, 
"movable" schools have been provided, in which each child 
receives instruction for at least two months of the year. In vari- 
ous parts of the country there are "schools for youths" providing 
courses of instruction of secondary school nature. In Reykjavik 
there is a "Mentaskdli" (State school) and the final examina- 
tion here entitles those who pass it to matriculation at the uni- 
versity. There are also a number of technical schools, most of 
which provide a general, as well as a professional education, such 
as training college for elementary teachers, theological school, 
nautical school, agricultural schools, schools for marine engi- 
neers, and evening technical schools for apprentices in various 
towns. There is a national library at the capital containing some 
116,000 printed volumes and 7,500 mss., and almost every dis- 
trict has a public library. 

There is a daily newspaper, several weeklies and a number of 
periodical publications (monthlies and quarterlies). Among the 
learned societies are the Icelandic Literary Society, the Society 
of the Friends of the People and the Archaeological Society of 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Among numerous works of Dr. Thorvald Thorodd- 
sen, see Geschichte dcr Islands Geographic (Leipzig, 1898) ; and the 
following articles in Geografisk Tidskrift (Copenhagen) "Om Islands 
geografcke og geologiske Undersogelse" (1893) ; "Islandske Fjorde og 
Bugter" (1901) ; "Geog. og gcol. Undets. ved den sydlige Del af 
Faxafloi paa Island" (1903) ; "Lavaorkener og Vulkaner paa Islands 
Ho'jland" (1905). See also C. S. Forbes, Iceland (London, 1860); S. 
Baring-Gould, Iceland, Us Scenes and Sagas (London, 1863) ; Sir R. F. 
Burton, Ultima Thulc (Edinburgh. 1875) ; W. T McCormirk, A Ride 
across Iceland (London, 1892) ; J. Coles, Summer Travelling in Ice- 
land (London, 1882) ; H. J. Johnston Lavis, "Notes on the Geography, 
Geology, Agriculture and Economics of Iceland," Scott. Geog. Mag., 
xi, (1895) ; W. Bicker, Across Iceland (London, 1902) ; J. Harm, "Die 
Anomalien dcr Witterung auf Island in dem Zeitraume 1851-1900, 
etc.," Sitzungsberichte, Vienna Acad. Set. (1904) ; P. Hermann, Island 
in Vergangenheit and Gegenwart (Leipzig, 1907). Also Geografisk 
Tidskrift, and the Geographical Journal (London), passim,; Valtijr 
Gudmundsson, Island am Beginn des 20 Jahrhunderts (1904); De 
Danske Atlanterhaver i Island (1907) ; Daniel Bruun, Routes over 
the Highlands (1907) ; P. Herman, Island, das Land und das Volk 
(1914), Starfskrd Islands (1917) and Dansk-Islandsk Forbundslov 
(1918) ; Stjdrnarskrd Konungsrikisins Island (1920) ; Daniel Bruun, 
Hagskyrsluv Islands (Stathtique de I'lslande), Nos. 1-44 (1914-25); 
Danish State Papers; F. Nansen, In Northern Mists (1911); K. 
Gjerset, A History of Iceland (1924); J6nsson, Snaebjorn; Icelandic 
Year Book (1926) 


The discovery of Iceland by the Scandinavians, c. 850 (it had 
long been inhabited by a small colony of Irish Culdees), led in 
sixty years, to the establishment of some 4,000 homesteads. In 
this immigration three distinct streams can be traced, (i) About 
870-890 four great noblemen from Norway, settled with their 
dependants in the south-west. (2) In 890-900 there came from 
the Western islands Queen Aud, widow of Olaf the White, king of 
Dublin, preceded and followed by a number of her kinsmen and 
relations (many like herself being Christians), who settled the 
best land in the west, north-west and north, and founded families 
who long swayed its destinies. There also came from the Western 
islands a fellowship of vikings seeking a free home in the north. 
They had fled from Harald Haarfager's rule and colonized the 
west in the viking times. (3) In 900-930 a few more incomers 
direct from Norway completed the settlement of the south, north- 
east and south-east. Among the immigrants there was no small 
proportion of Irish blood. In noo there were 4,500 franklins, 



i.e., about 50,000 souls. 

The unit of Icelandic politics was the homestead with its frank- 
lin-owner (buendi), its primal organization the hundred-moot 
(thing), its tie the go5or8 (godar) or chieftainship. The chief 
who had led a band of kinsmen and dependants to the new land, 
naturally became their leader, presiding as priest at the feasts 
and sacrifices, acting as speaker of their moot, and as their repre- 
sentative towards the neighbouring chiefs. He was not a feudal 
lord, for any franklin could change his goSorft when he would, 
and the rights of "judgment by peers" were in full use ; moreover, 
the office could be bequeathed, sold, divided or pledged by the 
possessor; still the go$i had considerable power as long as the 
commonwealth lasted. 

Disputes and uncertainty about the law, brought about the 
Constitution of Ulfliot (c. 930), which appointed a central moot 
for the whole island, the Althing; the Reforms of Thord Gellir 
(964), settling a fixed number of moots and chieftaincies, divid- 
ing the island into four quarters, to each of which a head-court, 
the "quarter-court," was assigned; and the Innovations of Skapti 
(ascribed in the saga to Nial) the Law-Speaker (d 1030), who 
set up a "fifth court" as the ultimate tribunal in criminal matters. 
But here constitutional growth ceased the law-making body made 
few and unimportant modifications of custom; the courts were 
too weak for the chiefs, who defied them; the speaker's power was 
not sufficiently supported; even the ecclesiastical innovations, 
while they secured peace for a time, provoked in the end the 
struggles which put an end to the commonwealth. 

Union with Norway. Christianity was introduced c. 1000 
from Norway. Tithes were established in 1096, and an ecclesi- 
astical code made c. 1125. The first disputes about the jurisdic- 
tion of the clergy were moved by Gudmund in the i3th century, 
bringing on a civil war, while the questions of patronage and 
rights over glebe and mortmainland occupied Bishop Arni and 
his adversaries fifty years afterwards, when the land was under 
Norwegian viceroys and Norwegian law. For the civil wars broke 
down the great houses who had monopolized the chieftaincies; 
and after violent struggles the submission of the island to Norway 
quarter after quarter took place in 1262-64, under Gizur's aus- 
pices', and the old Common Law was replaced by the New Norse 
Code "Ironside" in 1271. 

The political life and law of the old days is abundantly illus- 
trated in the sagas (especially Eyrbyggia, Hensa-Thori, Reykdaela, 
Hrafnkell and Niala), the two collections of law-scrolls (Codex 
Regius, c. 1235, and Stadarhol's Book, c. 1271), the Libellus, the 
Liberfragments and the Landnamabok of Ari and the Diplo- 
matarium. (See K. Maurer Beitrdge zur Rechtsgeschichte des 
Germanischen Nor dens [Munich 1852]; Island von seiner erst en 
Entdeckung bis zum Untergang des Freistaats [Munich 1874].) 

The mediaeval Icelandic church had two bishoprics, Skalholt 
(1056) and Holar (1106), and about 175 parishes. They belonged 
lo the metropolitan see of Bremen, then to Lund, lastly to Nidaros, 
1237. There were several religious foundations, Benedictine and 
Augustinian, dating from the i2th to isth centuries. The bishops, 
elected by the people at the Althing till 1237, enjoyed considerable 
power; two, Thorlak of Skalholt and John of Holar, were publicly 
voted saints at the Althing. For ecclesiastical history see "Bis- 
kupasogur" in Origines Islandicae Bk. i (ed. and trans. G. Vig- 
fusson and F. York Powell 1905). 

Iceland was pastoral, depending upon herds for subsistence, for, 
though rye and other grain would grow in favoured localities, the 
hay, self -sown, was the only regular crop. In some districts the 
fisheries and fowling were also of importance. Outdoor occupa- 
tions fishing, shepherding, fowling, hay-making and fuel-gather- 
ing occupied the summer; while indoor business weaving, 
tool-making, etc. filled up the long winter. The year was broken 
by the spring feasts and moots, the great Althing meeting at 
midsummer, the marriage and arval gatherings after the summer, 
and the long yule feasts at midwinter. There were but two degrees 
of men, free and unfree, though only the franklins had any polit- 
ical power; and, from the nature of the life, social intercourse was 
unrestrained; goSi and thrall lived the same lives, ate the same 
food, spoke the same tongue, and differed little in clothing or 

habits. The thrall had a house of his own and was rather villein 
or serf than slave, having rights and a legal price by law. During 
the heathen days many great chiefs passed part of their lives in 
Norway at the king's court, but after the establishment of Chris- 
tianity in Iceland they kept more at home, visiting the continent, 
however, for purposes of state, suits with clergy, etc. Trade was 
from the first almost entirely in foreign (Norse) hands. 

Life in the commonwealth was turbulent and anarchic, but 
free and varied ; it produced men of mark, and fostered bravery, 
adventure and progress. But on the union with Norway all this 
ceased, and there was left but a low dead level of poor peasant 
proprietors careless of all save how to live by as little labour as 
possible, and pay as few taxes as they could to their foreign 
rulers. The island received a foreign governor (Earl, Hirdstjori 
or Stiptamtsmadr as he was successively called), and was parcelled 
out into counties (syslur), administered by sheriffs (syslumadr) 
appointed by the king. A royal court took the place of the 
Althing courts; the local business was carried out by the (hreppst- 
jori) bailiff, a subordinate of the sheriff; and the goftorfc things, 
quarter-courts, trial by jury, etc., were swept away by these inno- 
vations. The power of the crown was increased by the confisca- 
tion of the great Sturlung estates, which were underleased to 
farmers, while the early falling off of the Norse trade threatened 
to deprive the island of the means of existence; for the great 
epidemics and eruptions of the i4th century had gravely attacked 
its pastoral wealth and ruined much of its pasture and fishery. 

Union with Denmark. The union of the Three Crowns 
transferred the practical rule of Iceland to Denmark in 1280, and 
the old Treaty of Union, by which the island had reserved its 
essential rights, was disregarded by the absolute Danish monarchs. 
During the whole of the isth century their trade with England, 
exporting sulphur, eiderdown, wool and salt stock-fish, and im- 
porting as before wood, iron, honey wine, grain and flax goods, 
was their only link with the outer world. This period of Iceland's 
existence is eventless: she had got peace but with few of its 
blessings; even shepherding and agriculture sank to a lower stage; 
wagons, ploughs and carts went out of use; architecture in timber 
became a lost art, and the fine carved and painted halls of the 
heathen days were replaced by turfwalled barns half sunk in the 
earth; the large decked luggers of the old days gave way to 
small undecked fishing -boats 

The Reformation in Iceland wakened men's minds, but it left 
their circumstances little changed When it was accomplished, the 
little knot of able men who came to the front did much in pre- 
serving the records of the past, while Odd and Hallgrim exhibit 
the noblest impulses of their time. The Hanse trade replaced the 
English for the worse; and the Danish monopoly which succeeded 
it when the Danish kings began to act again with vigour was 
still less profitable. The subservient Lutheran clergy became the 
most powerful class in the island, while the system of under- 
leasing at rackrent and short lease with unsecured tenant right 
extended over at least a quarter of the better land. 

A new plague, that of the English, Gascon and Algerine pirates, 
at the close of the i6th century and opening of the i7th, caused 
widespread panic and some devastation in 1579, 1613-16 and 
1627. But the i8th century is the most gloomy in Iceland's annals. 
Smallpox, famine, sheep disease and the eruptions of 1765 and 
1783 follow each other in terrible succession. Against such 
visitations, which reduced the population by about a fourth, little 
could be done. The few literary men, whose work was done and 
whose books were published abroad, were only concerned with 
the past, and Jon Vidalin is the one man of mark, beside Eggert 
Olafsson, who worked and wrote for his own generation. 

Gradually the ideas which were agitating Europe spread through 
Scandinavia into Iceland, and its claims were more respectfully 
listened to. The continental system, which, by its leading to the 
blockade of Denmark, threatened to starve Iceland, was neutral- 
ized by special action of the British government. Trade and 
fishery grew a little brisker, and at length the turn came. 

The rationalistic movement, headed by Magnus Stephenson, 
a patriotic, narrow-minded lawyer, did little good as far as church 
reform went, but was accompanied by a more successful effort to 


educate the people. Newspapers and periodicals were published, 
and the very stir which the ecclesiastical disputes encouraged did 
good. When free trade came, and when the free constitution of 
Denmark had produced its legitimate effects, the endeavours of a 
few patriots such as Jon Sigurdsson were able to push on the 
next generation a step further. Questions of a modern political 
complexion arose; the cattle export controversy and the great 
home rule struggle began. After thirty years' agitation home rule 
was conceded in 1874 and in 1918 Iceland was recognized as a 
separate kingdom, with unlimited sovereignty, in personal union 
with Denmark. According to the Act of Union there are no real 
joint affairs; Denmark, however, provisionally till 1940, takes 
charge of the foreign affairs of Iceland as its mandatory. For 
the same period Danish and Icelandic citizens, residing in either 
State, enjoy in every respect equal rights. Since 1915 Iceland 
has had its own merchant flag; since 1918 its own national arms. 
Abroad Danish legations act on behalf of both Denmark and Ice- 
land. Iceland has had a legation in Denmark, and Denmark a 
legation in Iceland since 1921; other states are represented in 
Iceland by consulates. 

ICELANDIC LANGUAGE. Closely akin to Norwegian, 
Old Icelandic was spoken in Iceland and in Greenland. A volu- 
minous literature dates from the first half of the i2th century, 
written in the Latin alphabet and adapted to the special require- 
ments of this language. No traces are found of any older runic 
literature. The runic monuments (about 45) are almost worth- 
less from a philological point of view. The oldest, which date 
from the early i3th century, are later than the oldest manuscripts 
in the Latin alphabet. 

Form of the Language. The oldest form of the Icelandic 
language is preserved in the later manuscripts of the i3th cen- 
tury, which contain poems by the oldest Icelandic poets, the 
metrical form having been the means of preserving the ancient 

Two of the oldest and most essential characteristics of Ice- 
landic as opposed to Norwegian are the more complete vowel 
assimilation ( tyonosto, tyonasto) ; and the retention of initial 
h before r (hreinlega, rainlega), I and n. Other differences, some 
of which occur at this period, others a little later, are in Icel., 
lengthening of a, o, u before //, Ig, Ik, Im and Ip (as Icel. hdljr, 
Norw. and oldest Icel. halfr, half) ; later still, also of a, i, u and y 
before ng and nk; Icel. ce and ey for older and 0y (as in Icel 
dcema, heyra, Norw. and oldest Icel. d0ma, to deem, htfyra, to 
hear) ; Icel. termination of 2nd plur. of verbs in 8 () or t, 
but Norw. often in -r (as Icel. takid, -t, Norw. takir, you take). 
At the middle of the ijth century the written language undergoes 
material changes. Thus in unaccented syllables i now appears for 
older e, and u (at first only when followed by one or more con- 
sonants belonging to the same syllable) for o; the passive ends in 
-z for -5*. Other differences from Norwegian are now completely 
established. With the beginning of the i4th century there appear 
several new linguistic phenomena: a u is inserted between final 
r and a preceding consonant (as in rlkur, mighty) ; q (pronounced 
as an open o) passes into (the character was not introduced 
till the 1 6th century), or before ng, nk into au (as Ipng fipll, 
pronounced laung fioll) ; e before ng, nk passes into ei; a little 
later 6 passes into ie, and the passive changes its termination from 
-s, oldest -sk, into zt (or zst) (as in kallazt, to be called). The 
post-classical period of Old Icelandic (1350-1530) already shows 
marked differences that are characteristic of Modern Icelandic; 
kn has, except in the northern dialects, passed into fin, as knutr, 
knot; as early as the I5th century we find ddl for // and rl (as 
jalla, pronounced faddla, to fall), ddti for nn and rn (as horn, 
pron. hoddn, horn), and a little later the passive ends in -st, 
e.g., kallast, to be called. 

Dialects. Dialectical differences do not occur to any great 
extent in the Old Icelandic literary language. To what extent 
the language of Greenland differed from that of Iceland we cannot 
judge from the few runic monuments which have come down 
to us from that colony. 

Modern Icelandic. The speech of modern Iceland has de- 
veloped quite naturally from the ancient tongue. It bears a 

strong resemblance to the modern Scandinavian tongues, espe- 
cially Norwegian. With the tendency in recent years toward uni- 
formity in speech among the Danes, Swedes and Norwegians, 
this rapprochement has become more marked and a fluent speaker 
of what is sometimes called Dano-Norwegian would have little 
difficulty in speaking and understanding modern Icelandic. The 
semi-vowels are modified in certain well-defined ways (Icelandic 
liuom is Norw. lifom), and vocalic assimilation is still strong in 
Icelandic, whereas it tends to become lost in Norwegian. There 
is increasing vigour in the modern Icelandic as evidenced by the 
steady growth of publications. (See ICELANDIC LITERATURE.) 

ICELANDIC LITERATURE. Iceland has always borne 
a high renown for song, but has never produced a poet of the 
highest order, the qualities which in other lands were most sought 
for and admired in poetry being in Iceland lavished on the saga, 
a prose epic, while Icelandic poetry is to be rated very high for 
the one quality which its authors have ever aimed at melody of 
sound. To these generalizations there are few exceptions, though 
Icelandic literature includes a group of poems which possess 
qualities of high imagination, deep pathos, fresh love of nature, 
passionate dramatic power, and noble simplicity of language which 
Icelandic poetry Jacks. The solution is that these poems do not 
belong to Iceland at all. They are the poetry of the "Western 

The Western Isles School. It was from among the Scandi- 
navian colonists of the British coasts that in the first generations 
coming after the colonization of Iceland a magnificent school of 
poetry arose, to which we owe works that for power and beauty 
can be paralleled in no Teutonic language till centuries after 
their date. To this school, which is totally distinct from the 
Icelandic, and which ran its own course and perished before the 
i3th century, the following works belong Of their authors we have 
scarcely a name or two; their dates can be rarely exactly fixed, 
but they lie between the beginning of the 9th and the end of the 
loth centuries. The poems are classified into groups; 

(a) The Helgi trilogy (last third lost save a few verses, but 
preserved in prose in Hromund Gripsson's Saga), the Raising 
of Anganty and Death of Hialmar (in Hervarar Saga), the 
fragments of a Volsung Lay (VolsungakviSa) (part inter- 
polated in earlier poems, part underlying the prose in Volsunga 
Saga), all by one poet, to whom Dr. Vigfusson would also ascribe 
Vdluspd, Vegtamskvida, prymskvida, Grdtta Song and Volun- 

(b) The Dramatic Poems: Fly ting of Loki, the For Skirnis, 
the Hdrbardsljdd and several fragments, all one man's work, to 
whose school belong, probably, the Lay underlying the story of 
Ivar's death in Skjoldunga Saga. 

(c) The Didactic Poetry: Grtmnismdl, VafpruSrismdl, Alvi's- 
smdl, etc. 

(d) The Genealogical and Mythological Poems: Hyndluljocf, 
written for one of the Haurda-Kari family, so famous in the 
Orkneys; Ynglingatal and Haustlong, by Thiodolf of Hvin; Rig's 
Thul, etc. 

(e) The Dirges and Battle Songs such as that on Hafur-firth 
Battle Hrafnsmdl, by Thiodolf of Hvin or Thorbjorn Hornklofi, 
shortly after 870; Eirik's Dirge (Eiriksmdl) between 950 and 
969; the Dart-Lay on Clontarf Battle (1014); Bjarka-mdl (frag- 
ments cf which we have, and paraphrase of more is found in 
Hrolf Kraki's Saga and in Saxo). 

There are also fragments of poems in Half's Saga, Asmund 
Kappa-Bana's Saga, in the Latin verses of Saxo, and the Shield 
Lays (Ragnarsdrdpa) by Bragi, etc., of this school, which closes 
with the Sun-Song, a powerful Christian Dantesque poem, recall- 
ing some of the early compositions of the Irish Church, and with 
the 1 2th century Lay of Ragnar, Lay of Star had, The Proverb 
SoHg (Hdvamdl) and Krdkumdl, to which we may add those 
singular Gloss-poems, the pulur, which also belong to the Western 

To Greenland, Iceland's farthest colony, founded in the loth 
century, we owe the two Lays of Atli, and probably Hymiskvi&a, 
which, though of a weirder, harsher cast, yet belong to the 
Western isles school and not to Iceland. 



In form all these poems belong to two or three classes: 
kvi&a, an epic "cantilena"; tal, a genealogical poem; drdpa, songs 
of praise, etc., written in modifications of the old Teutonic metre 
which we know in Beowulf ; galdr and lokkr, spell and charm songs 
in a more lyric measure; and mdl, a dialogue poem, and Ijdd, a 
lay, in elegiac measure suited to the subject. 

The characteristics of this Western school are no doubt the 
result of the contact of Scandinavian colonists of the viking-tide, 
living lives of the wildest adventure, with an imaginative and 
civilized race, that exercised upon them a very strong and lasting 
influence (the effects of which were also felt in Iceland, but in 
a different way). The frequent intermarriages which mingled 
the best families of either race are sufficient proof of the close 
communion of Northmen and Celts in the Qth and loth centuries, 
while there are in the poems themselves traces of Celtic myth- 
ology, language and manners. 

Many of these poems were Englished in prose by the trans- 
lator of Mallet, by B. Thorpe in his Saemund's Edda, and two or 
three by Messrs. Morris and Magnusson, as appendices to their 
translation of Vohunga Saga. Earlier translations in verse are 
those in Dryden's Miscellany (vol. vi ), A. Cottle's Edda, Mathias's 
Translations, and W. Herbert's Old Icelandic Poetry. Gray's ver- 
sions of Darrajar-ljdd and Vegtamskvifia are well known. 

When one turns to the early poetry of the Scandinavian 
continent, preserved in the rune-staves on the memorial stones 
of Sweden, Norway and Denmark, in the didactic Hdvamdl, the 
Great Volsung Lay (i.e., Sigurd II., Fafnis's Lay, Sigrdrifa's Lay) 
and Ham&smdl, all continental, and all entirely consonant to the 
remains of Old English poetry in metre, feeling and treatment, 
one can see that it is with this school that the Icelandic "makers" 
are in sympathy, and that from it their verse naturally descends. 
While shrewdness, plain straightforwardness, and a certain stern 
way of looking at life are common to both, the Icelandic school 
adds a complexity of structure and ornament, an elaborate 
mythological and enigmatical phraseology and a regularity of 
rhyme, assonance, luxuriance, quantity and syllabification, which 
it caught from the Latin and Celtic poets, and adapted with 
exquisite ingenuity to its own main object, that of securing the 
greatest possible beauty of sound. 

G. Vigfusson first promulgated the idea that the Eddie poems 
originated in the British isles, whether in the Northern and 
Western isles, or, as he later thought, in the Channel islands. 
Sophus Bugge, in The Home of the Eddie Poems, has attempted 
to show from internal evidence "that the oldest, and, indeed, the 
great majority of both the mythological and heroic poems were 
composed by Norwegians in the British isles, the greater number 
perhaps in northern England, but some, it may be, in Ireland, in 
Scotland, or in the Scottish isles." Finnur J6nsson holds that the 
great majority of the poems were composed in Norway, while 
Bjorn M. Olsen claims that most of them were composed by 
Icelanders. But, wherever the poems may have had their origin, 
they were evidently the work of men who were in contact with the 
civilizations of England and Ireland and were strongly influenced 
by the English and Irish literatures. 

Early Icelandic Poets- The first generations of Icelandic 
poets resemble in many ways the later troubadours; the books 
of the kings and the sagas are full of their strange lives. Men 
of good birth (nearly always, too, of Celtic blood on one side at 
least), they leave Iceland young and attach themselves to the 
kings and earls of the north, living in their courts as their hench- 
men, sharing their adventures in weal and woe, praising their 
victories, and hymning their deaths if they did not fall by their 
sides men of quick passion, unhappy in their loves, jealous of 
rival poets and of their own fame, ever ready to answer criticism 
with a satire or with a sword-thrust, but clinging through all to 
their art, in which they attained most marvellous skill. 

Such men were Egil, the foe of Eirik Bloodaxe and the friend 
of Aethelstan; Konndk, the hot-headed champion; Eyvind, King 
Haakon's poet, called Skaldaspillir, because he copied in his dirge 
over that king the older and finer EiHksmal; Gunnlaug, who sang 
at Aethelred's court, and fell at the hands of a brother bard. 
Hrafn; Hallfred, Olaf Tryggvason's poet, who lies in lona by the 

side of Macbeth; Sighvat, St.. Olaf's henchman, most prolific of 
all his comrades; Thormod, Coalbrow's poet, who died singing 
after Sticklestad battle; Ref, Ottar the Black, Arnor the earls' 
poet, and, of those whose poetry was almost confined to Iceland, 
Gretti, Biorn the Hitdale champion, and the two model Ice- 
landic masters, Einar Skulason and Markus the Lawman, both of 
the 1 2th century. 

It is impossible to do more here than mention the names of 
the most famous of the long roil of poets which are noted in the 
works of Snorri and in the two Skdlda-tal. They range from the 
rough and noble pathos of Egil, the mystic obscurity of Kormak, 
the pride and grief of Hallfred, and the marvellous fluency of 
Sighvat, to the florid intricacy of Einar and Markus. 

The art of poetry stood for the Icelanders in lieu of music; 
scarcely any prominent man but knew how to turn a mocking 
or laudatory stanza, and down to the fall of the commonwealth 
the accomplishment was in high request. In the literary age 
the chief poets belong to the great Sturlung family, Snorri 
and his two nephews, Sturla and Olaf, the White Poet, being the 
most famous "makers" of their day. Indeed, it is in Snorri 's 
Edda, a poetic grammar of a very perfect kind, that the best 
examples of the whole of northern poetry are to be found. The 
last part, Hdttatal, a treatise on metre, was written for Earl 
Skuli about 1222, in imitation of Earl Rognvald and Hall's 
Hdttalykill (Claris metrica) of 1150. The second part, Skdld- 
skapar-mdl, a gradus of synonyms and epithets, which contains 
over 240 quotations from 65 poets, and ten anonymous lays 
a treasury of verse was composed c. 1230. The first part, 
an exquisite sketch of northern mythology, Gylja-ginning, was 
probably prefixed to the whole later. There is some of Sturla's 
poetry in his Islendinga Saga, and verses of Snorri occur in the 
Grammatical Treatise on figures of speech, etc., of Olaf, which 
contains about 140 quotations from various authors, and was 
written about 1250. 

Besides those sources, the Kings' Lives of Snorri and later 
authors contain a great deal of verse by Icelandic poets. King 
Harold Sigurdsson, who fell at Stamford Bridge 1066, was both 
a good critic and composed himself. Many tales are told of him 
and his poet visitors and henchmen. The Icelandic sagas also 
comprise much verse which is partly genuine, partly the work 
of the 1 2th and i3th century editors. Thus there are genuine 
pieces in Nial's Saga (chaps. 34, 78, 103, 126, 146), in Eyrbyggja t 
Laxdcela, Egil's Saga (part only), Grettla (two and a half stanzas, 
cf. Landndmab6k) , Biorn' s Saga, Gunnlaug 9 s Saga, Hazard's 
Saga, Kormak's Saga, Viga-Glum's Saga, Erik the Red's Saga 
and Fdstbr&tira Saga. In NiaVs, Gisli's and Droplaug's Sons' 
Sagas there is good verse of a later poet, and in many sagas 
worthless rubbish foisted in as ornamental. 

To these may be added two or three works of a semi-literary 
kind, composed by learned men, not by heroes and warriors. 
Such arc Konunga-tal, Hugsvinnsmdl (a paraphrase of Cato's 
Distichs), Merlin's Prophecy (paraphrased from Geoffrey of 
Monmouth by Gunnlaug the monk), Jdmsvikinga-drdpa (by 
Bishop Ketil), and the Islendinga-drdpa, which has preserved 
brief notices of several lost sagas concerning Icelandic worthies, 
with which GuSmundar-drApa, though of the i4th century, 
may be also placed. 

Rimur. Just as the change of law gave the death-blow to an 
already perishing commonwealth, so the rush of mediaeval in- 
fluence, which followed the union with Norway, completed a 
process which had been in force since the end of the nth century, 
when it overthrew the old Icelandic poetry in favour of the rimur. 

The intrdduction of the danz, ballads (or fornkvaedi, as they 
are now called) for singing, with a burden, usually relating to 
a love-tale, which were immensely popular with the people and 
performed by whole companies at weddings, yule feasts and the 
like, had relegated the regular Icelandic poetry to more serious 
events or to the more cultivated of the chiefs. But these "jigs," 
as the Elizabethans would have called them, dissatisfied the popu- 
lar ear in one way: they were, like old English ballads, which they 
closely resembled, in rhyme, but void of alliteration, and accord- 
ingly they were modified and replaced by the rimur, the staple 


literary product of the isth century. These were rhymed but 
also alliterative, in regular form, with prologue or mansong (often 
the prettiest part of the whole), main portion telling the tale 
(mostly derived in early days from the French romances of the 
Carlovingian, Arthurian or Alexandrian cycles, or from the 
mythic or skrok-sogur), and epilogue. Their chief value to us 
lies in their having preserved versions of several French poems 
now lost, and in their evidence as to the feelings and bent of Ice- 
landers in the "Dark Age" of the island's history. The ring and 
melody which they all possess is their chief beauty. 

Of the earliest, Oldfsrlma, by Einar Gilsson (c. 1350), and the 
best, the Aristophanic Skida-rima (c. 1430), by Einar Fostri, 
the names may be given. Rimur on sacred subjects were called 
diktur ; of these, on the legends of the saints' lives, many remain. 
The most notable of its class is the Lilja of Eystein Asgrimsson, 
a monk of Holyfell (c. 1350), a most "sweet sounding song." 
Later the poems of the famous Jon Arason (b. 1484), last Cath- 
olic bishop of Holar (c. 1530), Ljomur ("gleams") and Plslar- 
grdtr ("passion-tears"), deserve mention. Arason is also celebrated 
as having introduced printing into Iceland 

Taste has sunk since the old days ; but still this rimur poetry 
is popular and genuine Moreover, the very prosaic and artificial 
verse of Sturla and the last of the old school deserved the 
oblivion which came over them, as a casual perusal of the stanzas 
scattered through Islendinga will prove. It is interesting to notice 
that a certain number of kenningar (poetical paraphrases) have 
survived from the old school even to the present day, though 
the mass of them have happily perished. The change in the 
phonesis of the language is well illustrated by the new metres 
as compared with the old Icelandic drdtt-kvaedi in its varied 
forms. Mojt of the older rimur and diktur are as yet unprinted. 
Many of the jornkvaedi are printed in a volume of the old 
Nordiske Littcratur Sam fund. 

The effect of the Reformation was deeply felt in Icelandic 
literature, both prose and verse. The name of Hallgrim Peturs- 
son, whose Passion-hymns, "the flower of all Icelandic poetry," 
have been the most popular composition in the language, is fore- 
most of all writers since the second change of faith The gentle 
sweetness of thought, and the exquisite harmony of wording in 
his poems, more than justify the popular verdict. His Hymns 
were finished in 1660 and published in 1666, two great Protestant 
poets thus being contemporaries. A collection of Reformation 
hymns, adapted, many of them, from the German, the H Star- 
book, had preceded them in 1619. There was a good deal of verse- 
writing of a secular kind, far inferior in every way, during this 
period. In spite of the many physical distresses that weighed 
upon the island, ballads (fornkvacdi) were still written, ceasing 
about 1750, rimur composed, and more elaborate compositions 

The most notable names are those of the improvibatore Stephen 
the Blind; Thorlak Gudbrandsson, author of Ulfar-Rimur, d. 
1707; John Magnusson, who wrote Hristafla, a didactic poem; 
Stefan Olafsson, composer of psalms, rimur, etc., d. 1688; Gun- 
nar Palsson, the author of Gunnarslag, often printed with the 
Eddie poems, c. 1791; and Eggert Olafsson, traveller, naturalist 
and patriot, whose untimely death in 1768 was a great loss to his 
country. His B&naffr-bdlkur, a Georgic written, like Tusser's 
Points, with a practical view of raising the state of agriculture, 
has always been much prized. Paul Vidalin's ditties are very 
naive and clever. 

Of later poets, down to more recent times, perhaps the best 
was Sigurd of Broadfirth, many of whose prettiest poems were 
composed in Greenland like those of Jon Biarnisson before him, 
c. 1750; John Thorlaksson's translation of Milton 's great epic 
into Eddie verse is praiseworthy in intention, but, as may be 
imagined, falls far short of its aim. He also turned Pope's Essay 
on Man and Klopstock's Messiah into Icelandic. Benedikt Gron- 
dal tried the same experiment with Homer in his Ilion's Kvaedi, 
r. 1825. There is a fine prose translation of the Odyssey by 
Sveinbjorn Egilson, the lexicographer, both faithful and poetic 
in high degree. 

Sagas. The real strength of old Icelandic literature is shown 

in its most indigenous growth, the "Saga" (see also SAGA). This 
is, in its purest form, the life of a hero, composed in regular form, 
governed by fixed rules, and intended for oral recitation. It bears 
the strongest likeness to the epic in all save its unversified form; 
in both are found, as fixed essentials, simplicity of plot, chrono- 
logical order of events, set phrases used even in describing the 
restless play of emotion or the changeful fortunes of a fight or a 
storm, while in both the absence of digression, comment or in- 
trusion of the narrator's person is invariably maintained. The 
saga grew up in the quieter days which followed the change of 
faith (1002), when the deeds of the great families' heroes were 
still cherished by their descendants, and the exploits of the great 
kings of Norway and Denmark handed down with reverence. 
Telling of stories was a recognized form of entertainment at all 
feasts and gatherings, and it was the necessity of the reciter which 
gradually worked them into a regular form, by which the memory 
was relieved and the artistic features of the story allowed to be 
more carefully elaborated. That this form was so perfect must be 
attributed to Irish influence, without which indeed there would 
have been a saga, but not the same saga. It is to the west that the 
best sagas belong; it is to the west that nearly every classic 
writer whose name we know belongs; and it is precisely in the 
west that the admixture of Irish blood is greatest. In comparing 
the Irish tales with the saga, there will be felt deep divergencies 
in matter, style and taste, the richness of one contrasting with 
the chastened simplicity of the other; the one's half -comic, half- 
earnest bombast is wholly unlike the other's grim humour; the 
marvellous, so unearthly in the one, is almost credible in the 
other; but in both are the keen grasp of character, the biting 
phrase, the love of action and the delight in blood which almost 
assumes the garb of a religious passion. 

When the saga had been fixed by a generation or *,wo of oral 
reciters, it was written down; and this stereotyped the form, 
so that afterwards when literary* works were composed by learned 
men (such as Abbot Karl's Swerri's Saga and Sturla's Islendinga) 
the same style was adopted. 

Taking first the sagas relating to Icelanders, of which some 
35 or 40 remain out of thrice that number, they were first written 
down on separate scrolls, no doubt mainly for the reciter's con- 
venience, between 1140 and 1220, in the generation which suc- 
ceeded Ari, and felt the impulse his books had given to writing. 
They then went through the different phases which such popular 
compositions have to pass in all lands editing and compounding 
(1220-60), padding and amplifying (1260-1300), and finally 
collection in large mss. (i4th century). Sagas exist showing all 
these phases, sonie primitive and rough, some refined and beau- 
tified, some diluted and weakened, according as their copyists 
have been faithful, artistic or foolish; for the first generation 
of mss. have all perished. We have also complex sagas put 
together in the i3th century out of the scrolls relating to a given 
locality, such a group as still exists untouched in Vdpnfird'inga 
being fused into such a saga as Nidla or Laxdcela. Of the authors 
nothing is known; we can only guess that some belong to the 
Sturlung school. According to subject they fall into two classes, 
those relating to the older generation before Christianity and 
those telling of St. Olaf's contemporaries; only two fall into a 
third generation. 

Beginning with the sagas of the west, most perfect in style 
and form, the earliest in subject is that of Gold-Thori (c. 930), 
whose adventurous career it relates; Haensa-pdrissaga tells of 
the burning of Blund-Ketil, a noble chief, an event which led to 
Thord Gelli's reforms next year (c. 964); Gislasaga (960-980) 
tells of the career and death of that ill-fated outlaw ; it is beauti- 
fully written, and the verses by the editor (i3th century) are 
goocj and appropriate; Hord's Saga (980) is the life of a band 
of outlaws on Whalesfirth, and especially of their leader Hord. 
Of later subject are the sagas of Havard and his revenge for his 
son, murdered by a neighbouring chief (997-1002); of the 
HeiSarvigasaga (990-1015), a typical tale of a great blood feud, 
written in the most primitive prose; of Gunnlaug and Hrafn 
(Gunnlaugssaga Ormstungu, 980-1008), the rival poets and their 
ill-starred love. The verse in this saga is important and interest- 


5 1 

ing. To the west also belong the three great complex sagas 
Egla, Eyrbyggja and Laxdaela. The first (870-980), after noticing 
the migration of the father and grandfather of the hero poet 
Egil, and the origin of the feud between them and the kings 
of Norway, treats fully of EgH's career, his enmity with Eirik 
Bloodaxe, his service with Aethelstan, and finally, after many 
adventures abroad, of his latter days in Iceland at Borg, illus- 
trating very clearly what manner of men those great settlers and 
their descendants were, and the feelings of pride and freedom 
which led them to Iceland. The style is that of Snorri, who 
had himself dwelt at Borg. Eyrbyggja (890-1031) is the saga of 
politics, the most loosely woven of all the compound stories. It 
includes a mass of information on the law, religion, traditions, 
etc., of the heathen days in Iceland, and the lives of Eric, the 
real discoverer of Greenland, Biorn of Broadwick, a famous chief, 
and Snorri, the greatest statesman of his day. Dr. Vigfusson 
would ascribe its editing and completion to Sturla the Lawman, 
c. 1250. Laxdaela (910-1026) is the saga of Romance. Its 
heroine Gudrun is the most famous of all Icelandic ladies. Her 
love for Kiartan the poet, and his career abroad, his betrayal 
by his friend Bolli, the sad death of Kiartan at his hands, the 
revenge taken for him on Bolli, whose slayers are themselves 
afterwards put to death, and the end of Gudrun, who becomes 
an anchorite after her stormy life, make up the pith of the story. 
The contrast of the characters, the rich style and fine dialogue 
which are so remarkable in this saga, have much in common 
with the best works of the Sturlung school. 

Of the north there are the sagas of Konndk (930-960), most 
primitive of all, a tale of a wild poet's love and feuds, containing 
many notices of the heathen times; of Vatzdaelasaga (890-980), 
relating to the settlement and the chief family in Waterdale; 
of H all f red the poet (996-1014), narrating his fortune at King 
Olaf's court, his love affairs in Iceland, and finally his death 
and burial at lona; of Reyk-daela (990), which preserves the 
lives of Askell and his son Viga-Skuti; of Svarf-daela (980-990), 
a cruel, coarse story of the old days, with some good scenes in 
it, unfortunately imperfect, chapters i-io being forged; of Viga- 
Glum (970-990), a fine story of a heathen hero, brave, crafty 
and cruel. To the north also belong the sagas of Gretti the Strong 
(1010-31), the life and death of the most famous of Icelandic 
outlaws, the real story of whose career is mixed up with the 
mythical adventures of Beowulf, here put down to Gretti, and 
with the late romantic episodes and fabulous folk-tales (Dr. 
Vigfusson would ascribe the best parts of this saga to Sturla; 
its last editor, whose additions would be better away, must have 
touched it up about 1300), and the stories of the Ljdsvetnin- 
gasaga (1009-60). Gudmund the Mighty and his family and 
neighbours are the heroes of these tales, which form a little 
cycle. The Banda-mannia saga (1050-60), the only comedy 
among the sagas, is also a northern tale; it relates the struggles 
of a plebeian who gets a chieftancy against the old families of 
the neighbourhood, whom he successfully outwits; Ql-kojra 
pdttr is a later imitation of it in the same humorous strain. The 
sagas of the north are rougher and coarser than those of -the 
west, but have a good deal of individual character. 

Of tales relating to the east there survive the Weapon-firth 
cycle the tales of Thor stein the White (c. 900), of Thor stein the 
Staff smitten (c. 985), W Gunnar Thidrand's Bane (1000-08) and 
of the Weapon-firth Men (975-990), all relating to the family 
of Hof and their friends and kin for several generations and 
the story of Hrafnkell Prey's Priest (c. 960), the most idyllic 
of sagas and best of the eastern tales. Of later times there are 
Droplaug's Sons 9 Saga (997-1007), written probably about mo, 
and preserved in the uncouth style of the original (a brother's 
revenge for his brother's death is the substance of it; Brand* 
krossa pdttr is an appendix to it), and the tales of Thorstein 
Hall o' Side's Son (c. 1014) and his brother Thidrandi (c. 996), 
which belong to the cycle of Hall o 9 Side's Saga, unhappily lost ; 
they are weird tales of bloodshed and magic, with idyllic and 
pathetic episodes. 

The Nial Saga. The sagas of the south are either lost or ab- 
sorbed in that of Nial (970-1014), a long and complex story into 

which are woven the tales of Gunnar Nial, and parts of others, as 
Brian Boroimhe, Hall o' Side t etc. It is, whether we look at style, 
contents or legal and historical weight, the foremost of all sagas. 
It deals especially with law, and contains the pith and the moral 
of all early Icelandic history. Its hero Nial, type of the good 
lawyer, is contrasted with its villain Morel, the example of 
cunning, chicane and legal wrong doing; and a great part of the 
saga is taken up with the three cases and suits of the divorce, the 
death of Hoskuld and the burning of Nial, which are given with 
great minuteness. The number and variety of its dramatis 
personae give it the liveliest interest throughout. The women 
Hallgerda, Bergthora and Ragnhild are as sharply contrasted as 
the men Gunnar, Skarphedin, Flosi and Kari The pathos of such 
tragedies as the death of Gunnar and Hoskuld and the burning 
is interrupted by the humour of the Althing scenes and the intel- 
lectual interest of the legal proceedings. The plot, dealing first 
with the life and death of Gunnar, type of the chivalry of his 
day, then with the burning of Nial by Flosi, and how it came 
about, and lastly with Kari's revenge on the burners, is the ideal 
saga-plot. The author must have been of the east, a good lawyer 
and genealogist, and have composed it about 1250, to judge from 
internal evidence. It has been overworked by a later editor, c. 
1300, who inserted many spurious verses. 

Relating partly to Iceland, but mostly to Greenland and Vin- 
land (N. America), are the Fldamannasaga (985-990), a good 
story of the adventures of Thorgils and of the struggles of ship- 
wrecked colonists in Greenland, a graphic and terrible picture; 
and Eirikssaga rand* a (990-1000), two versions, one northern 
(Flatcy-book), one western, the better (in Hawk's Book, and 
AM. 557), the story of the discovery of Greenland and Vinland 
(America) by the Icelanders at the end of the 9th century. Later 
is the Post brat tfrasaga (1015-30), a very interesting story, told 
in a quaint romantic style, of Thorgeir, the reckless henchman of 
King Olaf, and how his death was revenged in Greenland by his 
sworn brother the true-hearted Thormod Coalbrow's poet, who 
afterward dies at Sticklestad. The talc of Einar Sokkason (c. 
1125) may also be noticed The lost saga of Poet Helgi, of which 
only fragments remain, was also laid in Greenland. 

Besides complete sagas there are embedded in the Heims- 
kringla numerous small paettir or episodes, small tales of Ice- 
landers' adventures, often relating to poets and their lives at the 
kings' courts; one or two of these seem to be fragments of sagas 
now lost. Among the more notable are those of Orm Storolfsson, 
Qgmund Dijtt, Halldor Snorrason, Thorstein Oxfoot, Hromund 
Halt, Thorwald Tasaldi, Svadi and Arnor Herlingar-nej, Audunn 
of West firth, Sneglu-llalli, Hrafn of H rut fiord, Hreidar Heimiki, 
Gisli Illugison, Ivar the poet, Gull- Ac su Thord, Einar Skulason the 
poet, Mani the poet, etc. 

The forged Icelandic sagas appear as early as the i3th century. 
They are very poor, and either worked up on hints given in 
genuine stories or altogether apocryphal. 

History. About the year of the battle of Hastings was born 
Ari Frooi Thorgilsson (1067-1148), one of the blood of Queen 
Aud, who founded the famous historical school of Iceland, and 
himself produced its greatest monument in a work which can 
be compared for value with the English Domesday Book. Nearly 
all that we know of the heathen commonwealth may be -traced 
to the collections of Ari. It was he too that fixed the style in 
which history should be composed in Iceland. It was he that 
secured and put into order the vast mass of fragmentary tradition 
that was already dying out in his day. And perhaps it is the 
highest praise of all to him that he wrote in his own "Danish 
tongue," and so ensured the use of that tongue by the cultured 
of after generations Ari's great work is Konungabdk, or The Book 
of Kings, relating the history of the kings of Norway from the 
rise of the Yngling dynasty down to the death of Harald Sigurds- 
son in the year of his own birth. This book he composed from 
the dictation of old men such as Odd Kolsson, from the genea- 
logical poems, and from the various dirges, battle-songs and 
eulogia of the poets. It is most probable that he also compiled 
shorter Kings' Books relating to Denmark and perhaps to Eng- 
land. The Konungabdk is preserved under the Heimskringla of 


Snorri Sturluson, parts of it almost as they came from Ari's 
hands, for example Ynglinga and Harold Fair hair's Saga, and the 
prefaces stating the plan and critical foundations of the work, 
parts of it only used as a framework for the magnificent super- 
structure of the lives of the two Olafs, and of Harald Hardrada 
and his nephew Magnus the Good The best text of Ari's Konun- 
gabok (Ynglinga, and the sagas down to but not including Olaf 
Tryggvason's) is that of Fnsbdk. 

The Book of Settlements (Landndmabdk) is a wonderful per- 
formance, both in its scheme and carrying out It is divided 
into five parts, the first of which contains a brief account of the 
discovery of the island, the other four, one by one taking a 
quarter of the land, describe the name, pedigree and history 
of each settler in geographical order, notice the most important 
facts in the history of his descendants, the names of their home- 
steads, their courts and temples, thus including mention of 4,000 
persons, one- third of whom are women, and 2,000 places. The 
mass of information contained in so small a space, the clearness 
and accuracy of the details, the immense amount of life which 
is breathed into the whole, astonish the reader, when he reflects 
that this colossal task was accomplished by one man, for his 
collaborator Kolsegg merely filled up his plan with regard to 
part of the cast coast, a district with which Ari in his western 
home at Stad was little familiar. Landndmabdk has reached us 
in two complete editions, one edited by Sturla, who brought 
down the genealogies to his own grandfather and grandmother, 
Sturla and Gudny, and one by Hawk, who traces the pedigrees 
still later to himself. 

Ari also wrote a Book of Icelanders (Islendingabdk, c. 1127), 
which has perished as a whole, but fragments of it are embedded 
in many sagas and Kings' Lives; it seems to have been a com- 
plete epitome of his earlier works, together with an account of 
the constitutional history, ecclesiastical and civil, of Iceland. 
An abridgement of the latter part of it, the little Libellus Islan- 
dorum (to which the title of the bigger Liber Islendingabdk 
is often given), was made by the historian for his friends Bishops 
Ketil and Thorlak, for whom he wrote the Liber (c. 1137). This 
charming little book is, with the much later collections of laws, 
our sole authority for the Icelandic constitution of the common- 
wealth, but, "much as it tells, the lost Liber would have been 
of still greater importance." Kristni-Saga, the story of the 
christening of Iceland, is also a work of Ari's, "overlaid" by a 
later editor, but often preserving Ari's very words. This saga, 
together with several scattered tales of early Christians in Ice- 
land before the change of faith (1002), may have made up a 
section of the lost Liber. Of the author of these works little 
is known. He lived in quiet days a quiet life; but he shows himself 
in his works, as Snorri describes him, "a man wise, of good 
memory and a speaker of the truth." If Thucydides is justly 
accounted the first political historian, Ari may be fitly styled the 
first of scientific historians. 

A famous contemporary and friend of Ari is Saemund (1056- 
1131), a great churchman, whose learning so impressed his age 
that he got the reputation of a magician He was the friend of 
Bishop John, the founder of the great Odd-Verjar family, and 
the author of a Book of Kings from Harald Fairhair to Magnus 
the Good, in which he seems to have fixed the exact chronology 
of each reign. It is most probable that he wrote in Latin. The 
idea that he had anything to do with the poetic Edda in general, 
or the Sun's Song in particular, is unsupported by evidence. 

The flame which Ari had kindled was fed by his successors 
in the i2th century. Eirik Oddsson (c. 1150) wrote the lives 
of Sigurd Evil-deacon and the sons of Harold Gtlle, in his 
Hryggjar-Stykki (Sheldrake), of which parts remain in the mss. 
collections of Kings' Lives, Morkin-skinna, etc. Karl Jonsson, 
abbot of Thingore, the Benedictine minster, wrote (c. 1184) 
Sverrissaga from the lips of that great king, a fine racy biography, 
with a style and spirit of its own Boglunga-Sogur tell the story 
of the civil wars which followed Sverri's death. They are prob- 
ably by a contemporary. 

The Latin Lives of St. Olaf, Odd's in Latin (c. 1175), compiled 
from original authorities, and the Legendary Life, by another 

monk whose name is lost, are of the mediaeval Latin school of 
Saemund to which Gunnlaug belonged. 

Snorri's Heimskringla. Snorri Sturluson (q>v.) was known 
to his contemporaries as a statesman and poet; to us he is above 
all an historian. Snorri (1179-1241) wrote the Lives of the 
Kings (Heimskringla), from Olaf Tryggvason to Sigurd the 
Crusader inclusive ; and we have them substantially as they came 
from his hand in the Great King Olafs Saga; St. Olafs Saga, as 
in Heimskringla and the Stockholm ms.; and the succeeding 
Kings' Lives, as in Hulda and Hrokkinskinna, in which, however, 
a few episodes have been inserted. 

These works were indebted for their facts to Ari's labours, and 
to sagas written since Ari's death; but the style and treatment 
of them are Snorri's own. The fine Thucydidean speeches, the 
dramatic power of grasping character, and the pathos and poetry 
that run through the stories, along with a humour such as is 
shown in the Edda, and a varied grace of style that never flags or 
palls, make Snorri one of the greatest of historians. 

Here it should be noticed that Heimskringla and its class of 
mss. (Eirspennil, Jofraskinna, Gullinskinna, Fris-bdk and Kringla) 
do not give the full text of Snorri's works. They are abridgements 
made in Norway by Icelanders for their Norwegian patrons, the 
Life of St. Olaf alone being preserved intact, for the great 
interest of the Norwegians lay in him, but all the other Kings' 
Lives being more or less mutilated, so that they cannot be trusted 
for historic purposes; nor do they give a fair idea of Snorri's style. 

Agrip is a 12th-century compendium of the Kings 9 Lives from 
Harald Fairhair to Sverri, by a scholastic writer of the school of 
Saemund. As the only Icelandic abridgement of Norwegian his- 
tory taken not from Snorri but sources now lost, it is of worth. 
Its real title is Konunga-tal. 

Ndregs Konunga-tal, now called Fagrskinna, is a Norse com- 
pendium of the Kings' Lives from Halfdan the Black to Sverri's 
accession, probably written for King Haakon, to whom it was 
read on his death-bed. It is an original work, and contains much 
not found elsewhere. As non-Icelandic it is only noticed here 
for completeness. 

Styrmi Karason, a contemporary of Snorri's, dying in 1245, 
was a distinguished churchman (lawman twice) and scholar. 
He wrote a Life of St. Olaf, now lost; his authority is cited. 
He also copied out Landndmabdk and Sverri's Life from his 
mss., of which surviving copies were taken. 

Sturla, Snorri's nephew, wrote the Hdkonssaga and Magntissaga 
at the request of King Magnus, finishing the first c 1265, the 
latter c. 1280. King Haakon's Life is preserved in full; of the 
other only fragments remain. These are the last of the series 
of historic works which Ari's labours began, from which the 
history of Norway for 500 years must be gathered. 

A few books relating the history of other Scandinavian realms 
will complete this survey. In Skjoldunga-bdk was told the history 
of the early kings of Denmark, perhaps derived from Ari's col- 
lections, and running parallel to Ynglinga. The earlier part of 
it has perished save a fragment Sogu-brot, and citations and para- 
phrases in Saxo, and the mythical Ragnar Lodbrok's and Gongu- 
Hrolf's Sagas; the latter part, Lives of Harold Bluetooth and the 
Kings down to Sveyn //., is still in existence and known as 

The Knutssaga is of later origin and separate authorships, 
parallel to Snorri's Heimskringla, but earlier in date. The Lives 
of King Valdemar and his Son, written c. 1185, by a contemporary 
of Abbot Karl's, are the last of this series. The whole were edited 
and compiled into one book, often quoted as Skjoldunga, by a 
i3th century editor, possibly Olaf, the White Poet, Sturla's 
brother, guest and friend of King Valdemar II. Jdmsvikinga Saga, 
the history of the pirates of Jom, down to Knut the Great's days, 
also relates to Danish history. 

The complex work now known as Orkneyinga is made up of the 
Earls' Saga, lives of the first great earls, Turf-Einar, Thorfinn, 
etc. ; the Life of St. Magnus, founded partly on Abbot Robert's 
Latin life of him (c, 1150) an Orkney work, partly on Norse or 
Icelandic biographies; a Miracle-book of the same saint; the 
Lives of Earl Rognwald and Sveyn, the last of the vikings, and 



a few. episodes such as the Burning of Bishop Adam. A scholastic 
sketch of the rise of the Scandinavian empire, the Foundation of 
Norway, dating c. 1120, is prefixed to the whole. 

Faereyinga tells the tale of the conversion of the Faereys or 
Faroes, and the lives of its chiefs Sigmund and Leif, composed 
in the i3th century from their separate sagas by an Icelander of 
the Sturlung school. 

Biographies. The saga has already been shown in two forms, 
its original epic shape and its later development applied to the 
lives of Norwegian and Danish kings and carls, as heroic but 
deeper and broader subjects than before In the I3th century 
it is put to a third use, to tell the plain story of men's lives 
for their contemporaries, after satisfying which demand it dies 
away forever. 

These biographies are more literary and mediaeval and less 
poetic than the Icelandic sagas and kings' lives; their simplicity, 
truth, realism and purity of style are the same. They run in 
two parallel streams, some being concerned with chiefs and 
champions, some with bishops. The former are mostly found em- 
bedded in the complex masb of stories known as Stwlunga, from 
which Dr. Vigfusson extricated them, and for the first time set 
them in order. Among them are the sagas of Thorgils and Haflidi 
(1118-21), the feud and peacemaking of two great chiefs, con- 
temporaries of Ari; of Sturla (1150-83), the founder of the great 
Sturlung family, down to the settlement of his great lawsuit by 
Jon Loptsson, who thereupon took his son Snorri the historian 
to fosterage a humorous story but with traces of decadence 
about it, and glimpses of the evil days that were to come; of the 
Onundar-brennusaga (i 185-1 ,?oo), a tale of feud and fire-raising 
in the north of the island, the hero of which, Gudmund Dyri, 
goes at last into a cloister; of Hrafn Sveinbjarnarton (1190- 
1213), the noblest Icelander of his day, warrior, leech, seaman, 
craftsman, poet and chief, whose life at home, travels and pil- 
grimages abroad (Hrafn was one of the first to visit Becket's 
shrine), and death at the hands of a foe whom he had twice 
spared, are recounted by a loving friend in pious memory of his 
virtues, c. 1220; of Aron Hjorleifsson (1200-55), a man whose 
strength, courage and adventures befit rather a henchman of Olaf 
Tryggvason than one of King Haakon's thanes (the beginning 
of the feuds that rise round Bishop Gudmund are told here), of 
the Svine fell-men (1248-52), a pitiful story of a family feud in 
the far east of Iceland. 

But the most important works of this class are the Islendinga 
Saga and Thorgih Saga of Lawman Sturla. Sturla and his brother 
Olaf were the sons of Thord Sturluson and his mistress Thora. 
Sturla was born and brought up in prosperous times, but his man- 
hood was passed in the midst of strife, in which his family fell 
one by one, and he himself, though a peaceful man who cared 
little for politics, was more than once forced to fly for his life. 
While in refuge with King Magnus, in Norway, he wrote his two 
sagas of that king and his father. After his first stay in Norway 
he came back in 1271, with the new Norse law-book, and served 
a second time as lawman. The Islendinga must have been the 
work of his later years, composed at Fairey in Broadfirth, where 
he died, July 30, 1284, aged about 70 years. The saga of Thorgils 
Skardi (1252-61) seems to have been the first of his works on 
Icelandic contemporary history; it deals with the life of his own 
nephew, especially his career in Iceland from 1252 to 1258. The 
second part of Islendinga (1242-62), which relates to the second 
part of the civil war, telling of the careers of Thord Kakali, Kol- 
bein the Young, Earl Gizur and Hrafn Oddsson. The end is im- 
perfect, there being a blank of some years before the fragmentary 
ending to which an editor has affixed a notice of the author's death. 
The first part of Islendinga (1202-42) tells of the beginning and 
first part of the civil wars, the lives of Snorri and Sighvat, Sturla 's 
uncles, of his cousin and namesake Sturla Sighvatsson, of Bishop 
Gudmund, and Thorwald Gizursson, the fall of the Sturlungs, 
and with them the last hopes of the great houses to maintain the 
commonwealth, being the climax of the story. 

Sturla's power lies in his faithfulness to nature, minute ob- 
servance of detail and purity of style. The great extent of his 
subject^ and the difficulty of dealing with it in the saga form, are 

most skilfully overcome; nor does he allow prejudice or favour 
to stand in the way of the truth. He ranks below Ari in value and 
below Snorri in power; but no one else can dispute his place in 
the first rank of Icelandic writers. 

Of the ecclesiastical biographers, an anonymous Skalholt clerk 
is the best. He wrote Hungrvaka, lives of the first five bishops of 
Skalholt, and biographies of his patron Bishop Paul (Pdlssaga) 
and also of St. Thorlak (Thorldkssaga). They are full of inter- 
esting notices of social and church life. Thorlak was a learned 
man, and had studied at Paris and Lincoln, which he left in 1161. 
These lives cover the years 1056-1193. The life of St. John, 
a great reformer, a contemporary of Thorodd, whom he employed 
to build a church for him, is by another author (1052-1121). 
The life of Gudmund (Gudmundar Saga Gd&a), a priest, recounts 
the early life of this Icelandic Becket till his election as bishop 
(1160-1202); his after career must be sought out in Islendinga. 
It is written by a friend and contemporary. A later life by 
Arngrim, abbot of Thingore, written c. 1350/35 evidence of his 
subject's sanctity, tells a good deal about Icelandic life, etc. The 
lives of Bishops Ami and Lawrence bring down our knowledge of 
Icelandic history into the i4th century. The former work, Arna 
Saga Biskups, is imperfect; it is the record of the struggles of 
church and State over patronage rights and glebes, written c. 
1315; it now covers only the years 1269-91; a great many docu- 
ments are given in it, after the modern fashion. The latter, 
Ldrenzius Saga Biskups, by his disciple, priest Einar Haflidason, 
is a charming biography of a good and pious man, whose chequered 
career in Norway and Iceland is picturesquely told (1324-31). 
It is the last of the sagas. Bishop Jon's Table-Talk (1325-39) is 
also worth noticing; it contains many popular stories which the 
good bishop, who had studied at Bologna and Paris, was wont to 
tell to his friends. 

The Annals are now almost the sole material for Icelandic 
history; they had begun earlier, but after 1331 they got fuller 
and richer, till they end in 1430. The best are Annales Regii, 
ending 1306, Einar Haflidason's Annals, known as "Lawman's 
Annals," reaching to 1392, and preserved with others in Flatey- 
book, and the New Annals, last of all. The Diplomatarium, 
Islandicum, edited by Jon Sigurdsson, contains what remains of 
deeds, inventories, letters, etc., from the old days, completing our 
scanty material for this dark period of the island's history. 

Literature of Foreign Origin. After the union with Nor- 
way and change of law genuine tradition died out with the great 
houses. The ordinary mediaeval literature reached Iceland through 
Norway, and every one began to put it into a vernacular dress, 
so neglecting their own classics that but for a few collectors like 
Lawman Hauk they would have perished entirely. 

The Norwegian kings, Haakon Haakonson (c. 1225), and 
Haakon V. (c. 1305), employed Icelanders at their courts in trans- 
lating the French romances of the Alexander, Arthur and Char- 
lemagne cycles. Some 40 or 50 of these Riddara-Sogur (Ro- 
mances of Chivalry) remain. They reached Iceland and were 
eagerly read, many rimur being founded on them. Norse versions 
of Mary of Brittany 1 s Lays, the stories of Brutus and of Troy, and 
part of the Pharsalia translated are also found. The Speculum 
Regale, with its interesting geographical and social information, 
is also Norse, written c. 1240, by a Halogalander. The compu- 
tistic and arithmetical treatises of Stiorn-Odd, Biarni the Number- 
skilled (d. 1173), and Hauk Erlendsson the Lawman (d. 1334), 
and the geography of Ivar Bardsson, a Norwegian (c. 1340), are 
of course of foreign origin. A few tracts on geography, etc., in 
Hauk's book, and a Guide to the Holy Land, by Nicholas, abbot 
of Thwera (d. 1158), complete the list of scientific works. 

The stories which contain the last lees of the old mythology 
and pre-history seem to be also non-Icelandic, but amplified by 
Icelandic editors, who probably got the plots from the Western 
islands. Volsunga Saga and Hervarar Saga contain quotations and 
paraphrases of lays by the Helgi poet, and Half's, Ragnar's and 
Asmund Kappabana's Sagas all have bits of western poetry in 
them. Hrolf Kraki's Sega paraphrases part of Bjarkamdl; Hro- 
mund Gripsson's gives the story of Helgi and Kara (the lost third 
of the Helgi trilogy ),Gautrek's, Arrow Odd's, Frithiof'sSagas, etc., 



contain shreds of true tradition amidst a mass of later fictitious 
matter of no worth. With the Riddara-Sogur they enjoyed 
great popularity in the i5th century, and gave matter for many 
rimur. Thidrik's Saga, a late version of the Volsung story, is 
of Norse composition (c. 1230), from north German sources. 

The mediaeval religious literature of western Europe also in- 
fluenced Iceland, and the Homilies (like the Laws) were, accord- 
ing to Thorodd, the earliest books written in the vernacular, ante- 
dating even Ari's histories. The lives of the Virgin, the Apostles 
and the Saints fill many mss. (edited in four large volumes by 
Prof. Unger), and are the works of many authors, chiefly of the 
1 3th and i4th centuries; amongst them are the lives of 55. Ed- 
ward the Confessor, Oswald of Northumbria, Dunstan and Thomas 
of Canterbury. Of the authors we know Priest Berg Gunsteinsson 
(d. 121 1); Kygri-Biorn, bishop-elect (d. 1237); Bishop Brand 
(d. 1264); Abbot Runolf (d. 1307); Bishop Lawrence's son Arni 
(c. 1330); Abbot Berg (c. 1340), etc. A paraphrase of the his- 
torical books of the Bible was made by Bishop Brand (d. 1264), 
called Gydinga Sognr. About 1310 King Haakon V. ordered a 
commentary on the Bible to be made, which was completed down 
to Exodus xix. To this Brand's work was afterwards affixed, and 
the whole is known as Stjdrn. The Norse version of the famous 
Barlaam and Josaphat, made for Prince Haakon (c. 1240), must 
not be forgotten. 

Post-classical Literature. The post-classical literature tails 
chiefly under three heads religious, literary and scientific. Under 
the first comes foremost the noble translation of the New Testa- 
ment by Odd Gottskalksson, son of the bishop of Holar. Brought 
up in Norway, he travelled in Denmark and Germany, and took 
upon him the new faith before he returned to Iceland, where he 
became secretary to Bishop Ogmund of Skalholt. Here he began 
by translating the Gospel of Matthew into his mother-tongue in 
secret. Having finished the remainder of the New Testament at 
his own house at Gives, he took it to Denmark, where it was 
printed at Roskild in 1540. Odd afterwards translated the Psalms, 
and several devotional works of the day, Corvinus's Epistles, etc. 
He was made lawman of the north and west, and, while travelling 
in his districts, was drowned in the river Laxd in Kjos, June 1556. 
Three years after his death the first press was set up in Iceland 
by John Matthcwson, at Breidabolstad, in Hunafloe, and a Gospel 
and Epistle Book, according to Odd's version, issued from it in 
1562. In 1584 Bishop Gudbrand, who had brought over a splen- 
did font of type from Denmark in 1575 (which he completed with 
his own hands), printed a translation of the whole Bible at Holar, 
incorporating Odd's versions and some books (Proverbs and the 
Son of Sirach, 1580) translated by Bishop Gizar, but supplying 
most of the Old Testament himself. This fine volume was the 
basis of every Bible issued for Iceland till 1826, when it was re- 
placed by a bad modern version. For beauty of language and 
faithful simplicity of style, the finer parts of this version, especially 
the New Testament, have never been surpassed. 

The most notable theological work Iceland ever produced is 
the Postil-Book of Bishop John Vidalin (1666-1720), whose bold 
homely style and stirring eloquence made "John's Book," as it is 
lovingly called, a favourite in every household, till in the igth 
century it was replaced for the worse by the more sentimental 
and polished Danish tracts and sermons. Theological literature is 
very popular, and many works on this subject, chiefly translations, 
will be found in the lists of Icelandic bibliographers. 

The first modern scientific work is the Iter per patriam of 
Eggert Olafsson and Biarni Paulsson, which gives an account of 
the physical peculiarities fauna, flora, etc. of the island as far 
as could be done at the date of its appearance, 1772. The island 
was first made known to "the world" by this book and by the 
sketch of Unno von Troil, a Swede, who accompanied Sir Joseph 
Banks to Iceland in 1772, and afterwards wrote a series of "let- 
ters" on the land and its literature, etc. This tour was the fore- 
runner of an endless series of "travels," of which those of Sir 
W. J. Hooker, Sir G. S. Mackenzie (1810), Ebenezer Henderson 
(1818), Joseph Paul Gaimard (1838-43), Paijkull (1867), and, 
lastly, that of Sir Richard Burton, an excellent account of the land 
and people, full of information (1875), are the best. 

Iceland is emphatically a land of proverbs,, while of folktales, 
those other keys to the people's heart, there is plentiful store. 
Early work in this direction was done by Jon Gudmundsson, Olaf 
the Old and John Olafsson in the I7th century, who all put tra- 
ditions on paper, and their labours were completed by the mag- 
nificent collection of Jon Arnason (1862-64), who was inspired 
by the example of the Grimms. Many tales are but weak echoes 
of the sagas; many were family legends, many are old fairy tales 
in a garb suited to their new northern home ; but besides all these, 
there are a number of traditions and superstitions of indigenous 

The Renaissance of Iceland dates from the beginning of the 
1 7th century, when a school of antiquaries arose. Arngrim Jons- 
son's Brcvis Commentarius (1593), and Crymogaea (1609), were 
the first-fruits of this movement, of which Bishops Odd, Thorlak 
and Bryniulf (worthy parallels to Parker and Laud) were the 
wise and earnest supporters. The first (d. 1630) collected much 
material for church history. The second (d. 1656) saved Stur- 
lunga and the Bishops' Lives, encouraged John Egilsson to write 
his New Hnngerwaker, lives of the bishops of the Dark Ages and 
Reformation, and helped Biorn of Skardsa (d. 1655), a bold and 
patriotic antiquary (whose Annals continue Einar's), in his re- 
searches. The last (d. 1675) collected a fine library of mss., and 
employed the famous copyist John Erlendsson, to whom and the 
bishop's brother, John Gizurarson (d. 1648), we are indebted for 
transcripts of many lost mss. 

Torfaeus (1636-1719) and Bartholin, a Dane (d. 1690), roused 
the taste for northern literature in Europe, a taste which has 
never since flagged; and soon after them Arni Magnusson (1663- 
1730) transferred all that remained of vellum and good paper mss. 
in Iceland to Denmark, and laid the foundations of the famous 
library and bequest, for which all Icelandic students are so much 
beholden. For over 40 years Arni stuck to his task, rescuing every 
scrap he could lay h&nds on from the risks of the Icelandic cli- 
mate and carelessness, and when he died only one good mss. re- 
mained in the island. Besides his magnificent collection, there 
are a few mss. of great value at Upsala, at Stockholm, and in the 
old royal collection at Copenhagen. Those in the university library 
in the latter city perished in the fire of 1728. Sagas were printed 
at Upsala and Copenhagen in the 1 7th century, and the Arifamag- 
naean fund has been working since 1772. In that year appeared 
also the first volume of Bishop Finn Jonsson's Historia Ecclesi- 
astica Islandiae, a work of high value and much erudition, contain- 
ing not only ecclesiastical but civil and literary history, illustrated 
by a well-chosen mass of documents, 870-1740. It has been con- 
tinued by Bishop P. Peterson to modern times, 1740-1840. The 
results, however, of modern observers and scholars must be sought 
for in the periodicals, Safn, F&lagsrit, Ny Felagsrit and others. 
John Espolin's Islands Arboekur is very good up to its date, 1832. 

A brilliant sketch of Icelandic classic literature is given by Dr. 
Gudbrandr Vigfusson in the Prolegomena to Sturlunga Saga (1879). 
It replaces much earlier work, especially the Sciagraphia of Halfdan 
Einarsson (1777), and the Saga-Bibliotek of Miiller. The numerous 
editions of the classics by the Icelandic societies, the Danish Soci^te" 
des Antiquites, Nordisk Litteratur Samfund, and the new Gammel 
Nordisk Litteratur Samfund, the splendid Norwegian editions of 
Unger, the labours of the Icelanders Sigurdsson anr 1 Gislason, and 
of those foreign scholars in Scandinavia and Germany who have 
thrown themselves into the work of illustrating, publishing and 
editing the sagas and poems (men like P. A. Munch, S. Bugge, 
F. W. Bergmann, Th. Mobius and K. von Maurer, to name only a 
few), can only be referred to here. See also Finnur J6nsson, Den 
Oldnorske og Oldislanske Litteraturs Historic (1893-1900) ; R. B. 
Anderson's translation (Chicago, 1884) of Winkel Horn's History of 
the Literature of the Scandinavian North; and W. Morris and E. 
Magntisson's Saga Library. (F. Y. P.; R. P. Co.) 


The recent literature of Iceland has been in a more flourishing 
state than ever before since the I3th century. Lyrical poetry is 
by far the largest and most interesting portion of it. The great 
influence of Jonas Hallgrimsson (1807-45) is still felt, and his 
school was the reigning one up to the end of the iQth century, 
although then a change seemed to be in sight. The most success- 
ful poet of this school is Steingrfmr Thorsteinsson (1830-1913). 



He is" specially famous for his splendid descriptions of scenery 
(The Song of Gilsbakki), his love-songs and his sarcastic epi- 
grams. As a translator he has enriched the literature with The 
Arabian Nights, Sakuntala, King Lear and several other master- 
pieces of foreign literature. Equal in fame is Matthias Jochums- 
son, who, following another of Jonas Hallgrimsson 's many ways, 
has successfully revived the old metres of the classical Icelandic 
poets, whom he resembles in his majestic, but sometimes too gor- 
geous, language. As an artist he is inferior to Steingrimr Thor- 
steinsson, but surpasses him in bold flight of imagination. He has 
successfully treated subjects from Icelandic history Grettisljdti, 
a series of poems about the famous outlaw Grettir. His chief 
fault is a certain carelessness in writing; he can never write a 
bad poem, but rarely a poem absolutely flawless He has trans- 
lated Tegner's Frithiofs Saga, several plays of Shakespeare and 
some other foreign masterpieces. The great religious poet of Ice- 
land, Hallgrimr Petursson, has found a worthy successor in Vald- 
emar Briem (b. 1848), whose Songs of the Bible are deservedly 
popular. He is like Matthias Jochumsson in the copious flow of 
his rhetoric; some of his poems are perfect both as regards form 
and content, but he sometimes neglects the latter while polishing 
the former. An interesting position is occupied by Benedict Gron- 
dal, whose travesties of the old romantic stories, e.g., "The Battle 
of the Plains of Death," a burlesque on the battle of Solferino, 
and his Aristophanic drama Gandreifiin ("The Magic Ride") 
about contemporary events, are among the best satirical and hu- 
morous productions of Icelandic literature. 

Influenced by Jonas Hallgrimsson with regard to language and 
poetic diction, but keeping unbroken the traditions of Icelandic 
mediaeval poetry maintained by SigurSr BreiMjbrft (1798-1846), 
is another school of poets, very unlike the first In the middle 
of the i Qth century this school was best represented by Hjalmar 
J6nsson from Bola (1796-1875), a poor farmer with little educa- 
tion but endowed with great poetical talents, and the author of 
satirical verses not inferior to those of Juvenal both in force and 
coarseness In the last decades of the i9th century this school 
produced two poets of a very high order, both distinctly 
original and Icelandic. One is Pall Olafsson (1827-1906). His 
songs arc mostly written in the mediaeval quatrains (ferskcytla), 
and are generally of a humorous and satirical character; his con- 
vivial songs are known by heart by every modern Icelander; and 
although some of the poets of the present day are more admired, 
there is none who is more loved by the people. The other is por- 
steinn Erlingsson (b. 1858). His exquisite satirical songs, in an 
easy and elegant but still manly and splendid language, have 
raised much discussion. Of his poems may be mentioned The 
Oath, a series of most beautiful ballads, with a tragical love-story 
of the 17th century as their base, but with many and happy satir- 
ical allusions to modern life; Jorundr, a long poem about the 
convict king, the Danish pirate Jorgensen, who nearly succeeded 
in making himself the master of Iceland, and The Fate of the 
Gods and The Men of the West (the Americans), two poems 
which, with their anti-clerical and half-socialistic tendencies, have 
caused strong protests from orthodox Lutheran clergy. Near to 
this school, but still standing apart, is Grimur Thomsen. 

In the beginning of the '8os a new school arose having its 
origin in the colony of Icelandic students at the University of 
Copenhagen. They had all attended the lectures of Georg Brandes, 
the great reformer of Scandinavian literature, and, influenced by 
his literary theories, they chose their models in the realistic school. 
This school is very dissimilar from the half-romantic school of 
J6nas Hallgrimsson; it is nearer the national Icelandic school rep- 
resented by Pall 6lafsson and porsteinn Elingsson, but differs 
from those writers by introducing foreign elements hitherto 
unknown in Icelandic literature, and especially in the case of the 
prose-writers by imitating closely the style and manner of some 
of the great Norwegian novelists. Their influence brought the 
Icelandic literature into new roads, and it is interesting to see how 
the tough Icelandic element gradually assimilates the foreign. 
Of the lyricaj poets, Hannes Hafsteinn (b. 1861) is by far the 
most important. In his splendid ballad, The Death of Skarphe- 
dinn, and in his beautiful series of songs describing a voyage 

through some of the most picturesque parts of Iceland, he is en- 
tirely original; but in his love-songs, beautiful as many of them 
are, a strong foreign influence can be observed. Among the inno- 
vations of this poet we may note a predilection for new metres, 
sometimes adopted from foreign languages, sometimes invented 
by himself, a thing practised rarely and generally with small suc- 
cess by the Icelandic poets. Among the many later lyrical poets 
Einar Benediktsson and St. G Stephansson, resident in Canada, 
deserve special mention, both rather heavy in style, but rich in 
ideas and weighty in thought. Lighter and more elegant in style 
are David Stefansson, Stefan fra Hvitadal and Hulda (pseu- 
donym of Unnur Bjarklind). 

No Icelandic novelist has as yet equalled Jon Thoroddsen 
(1819-68). The influence of the realistic school has of late been 
predominant. The most distinguished writer of that school has 
been Gestur Palsson (1852-91), whose short stories with their 
sharp and biting satire have produced many imitations in Iceland. 
The best are A Home of Love and Captain Sigurd Jonas Jonas- 
son (b. 1856), a clergyman of northern Iceland, has, in a series 
of novels and short stories, given accurate, but somewhat dry, 
descriptions of the more gloomy sides of Icelandic country life. 
His best novel is Randidr i Hvassafelb, an historical novel of the 
middle ages Besides these we may mention Torfhildur Holm, one 
of the few women who have distinguished themselves in Icelandic 
literature. Her novels are mostly historical. Of the younger nov- 
elists the best are Einar H Kvaran, Jonas Gudlaugsson and Gun- 
nar Gunnarsson Gudmundur Fridjonsson, Jon Tfausti (pseu- 
donym of Gudmundur Magnusson) and Gudmundur G. Hagalin 
portray folk life with considerable skill J M. Bjarnason and 
Lain a Salvcrson both reside m Canada and depict the life of the 
Icelandic settlers there, the latter writing in English, eg., The 
Viking Heart. The last decade of the i9th century saw the estab- 
lishment of a permanent theatre at Reykjavik, the precursor of 
the National Theatre of Iceland, founded and endowed by the 
Althing early in the third decade of the present century. The 
poet Matthias Jochumsson wrote several dramas, but their chief 
merits are lyrical The most popular of Icelandic dramatists as 
yet is IndriM Einarsson, whose plays, chiefly historical, in spite 
of excessive rhetoric, possess a true dramatic value. Johann 
Sigurjonsson wrote one of the most powerful of modern dramas, 
Fjalla-Eyvindur, while Gudmundur Kamban's plays achieved a 
great success at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen The drama, 
The Mothcr-in-Law, by an Icelandic countrywoman, Kristin Sig- 
fusdottir, was produced at Reykjavik and Winnipeg, and is much 

In geography and geology porvaldr Thoroddsen has acquired 
a European fame for his researches and travels in Iceland, 
especially in the rarely-visited interior Of his numerous writings 
in Icelandic, Danish and German, the History of Icelandic Geog- 
raphy is a monumental work. In history Pall Melsteft's (b. 1812) 
chief work, the large History of the World, belongs to this period, 
and its pure style has had a beneficial influence upon modern 
Icelandic prose 

Of the younger historians we may mention porkell Bjarnason 
(History of the Reformation in Iceland) Jon Adils, Pall E Olason, 
and J6n Helgason. Jon porkclsson (b 1859), archivist, has ren- 
dered great services to the study of Icelandic history and liter- 
ature by his editions of the Diplomat arium Islandicum and Obit- 
uaria Islandica, and his Icelandic Poetry in the i$th and i6th Cen- 
tury, written in Danish, an indispensable work for any student 
of that period. J. Th. Thoroddsen has written with distinc- 
tion on geography, and Sigfus bigfusson on folk-lore A leading 
position among Icelandic lexicographers is occupied by J6n pork- 
elsson (1822-1904), whose Supplement til islandske Ordb&ger, an 
Icelandic-Danish vocabulary (three separate collections), has 
hardly been equalled in learning and accuracy. Other distinguished 
philologists are the late rektor of the Latin school at Reykjavik, 
Bjorn Magnuhson Olsen (Researches on Stitrlunga, Art the Wise, 
The Runes in the Old Icelandic Literature the last two works 
in Danish) ; Finnur J6n*son, professor at the University of Copen- 
hagen (History of the Old Norwegian and Icelandic Literature, 
in Danish, and excellent editions of many old Icelandic classical 


works); Valtyr GuSmundsson, lecturer at the University of Cop- 
enhagen (several works on the old architecture of Scandinavia) 
and editor of the influential Icelandic literary and political review, 
Eimreidin ("The Locomotive"); G. T. Zoega and Sigfiis Blondal, 
whose Icelandic-Danish dictionary is the fir&t complete dictionary 
of modern Icelandic. 

See J. C. Poestion, hlandische Dichter der Neuzeit (Leipzig, 1897) 
C. Kuthler, Geschichte der tslandischen Dtchtung der Neuzeit (Leipzig, 
1896) ; Ph. SchweiUcr, Island; Land und Leute (Leipzig, 1885) ; 
Alexander Baumgartner, Island und die Faroer (Freiburg im Breisgau, 
1889) ; Halldor Hermannsson, Islandica, vol. 6 (16 vol , 1908-24) ; 
Icelandic Authors of To-day (1913); Sigurdur Nordal, Islenzk 
Lcstrarbok (1924); Edmund Gosse and W. A. Craigie, The Oxford 
Book of Scandinavian Verse (1925). (S. BL ; R. P. Co.) 

ICELAND MOSS, a lichen (Cetraria islandica) whose erect 
or ascending foliaceous habit gives it something of the appear- 
ance of a moss, whence probably the name It is often of a pale 
chestnut colour, but varies considerably, being sometimes almost 
entirely greyish white; and grows to a height of from 3 to 4 in., 
the branches being channelled or rolled into tubes, which ter- 
minate in flattened lobes with fringed edges. It grows abundantly 
in the mountainous regions of northern countries, and it is 
specially characteristic of the lava slopes and plains of the west 
and north of Iceland. It is found on the mountains of north 
Wales, north England, Scotland and south-west Ireland. As met 
with in commerce it is a light-grey harsh cartilaginous body, 
almost destitute of colour, and having a slightly bitter taste. It 
contains about 70% of lichenin or lichen-starch, a body isomeric 
with common starch, but wanting any appearance of structure. 
It forms a nutritious and easily digested carbohydrate food; it 
is not, however, in great request. 


ICENI, a race of ancient Britain who occupied the part of 
England now known as Norfolk and Suffolk. After the death of 
their king Prasutagus in A.D. 60 the Romans established their 
authority, and the Iceni were eventually conquered and became 
part of the Roman Empire. See BOADICEA. 

ICE-PLANT, the popular name for Mesembryanthemwn 
crystallinum (family Aizoaceae), a hardy annual most effective 
for rockwork in mild climates. It is a low-growing, spreading, 
herbaceous plant with the fleshy stem and leaves covered with 
large glittering papillae which give it the appearance of being 
coated with ice. It is a dry-country plant, a native of Greece 
and other parts of the Mediterranean region, the Canary Islands, 
South Africa and California. Mesembryanthemum is a large genus 
(containing about 350 species) of erect or prostrate fleshy herbs 
or low shrubs, mostly natives of South Africa, and rarely hardy in 
the British Isles or the northeastern United States, where they 
are mostly grown as greenhouse plants. They bear conspicuous 
white, yellow or red flowers with many petals inserted in the 
Calyx-tube. The thick fleshy leaves are very variable in shape, 
and often have spiny rigid hairs on the margin. They are essen- 
tially sun-loving plants. The best -known member of the genus is 
M. cordifolium, var. varie^atum, with heart-shaped green and 
silvery leaves and bright rosy-purple flowers. It is extensively 
used for edging flower-beds and borders during the summer 
months. Besides the ice-plant three other species grow on the 
coast of California, the sea fig or beach strawberry (M. aequi- 
laterde}, with thick, three-sided leaves, and the small-leaved fig- 
marigold (M. nodiflorum), both native, and also the Hottentot 
fig (M. edule) of South Africa, with fleshy, edible fruit, culti- 
vated as a sand-dune binder but now naturalized along the coast 
near Los Angeles. 

ICE-YACHTING, the sport of sailing and racing ice-boats, 
is practised in Great Britain, Norway and Sweden to some extent, 
and is very jwpular in Holland and on the Gulf of Finland, but 
its highest development is in the United States and Canada. 
The Dutch ice-yacht is a flat-bottomed boat resting crossways 
upon a planking about 3ft. wide and i6ft. long, to which are affixed 
four steel runners, one each at bow, stern and each end of the 
planking. The rudder is a fifth runner fixed to a tiller. Heavy 
mainsails and jibs are generally used and the boat is built more for 

safety than for speed. The ice-boat of the Gulf of Finland is a 
V-shaped frame with a heavy plank running from bow to stern, 
in which the mast is stepped. The stern or steering runner is 
worked by a tiller or wheel. The sail is a large lug and the boom 
and gaff are attached to the mast by travellers. The passengers sit 
upon planks or rope netting. 

In 1879 H. Relyea built the "Robert Scott," which had a single 
backbone and wire guy-ropes, and it became the model for all 
American river ice-yachts. Masts were now stepped farther 
forward, jibs were shortened, booms cut down, and the centre 
of sail-balance was brought more inboard and higher up, causing 
the centres of effort and resistance to come more in harmony. 
The shallow steering-box became elliptical. In 1881 occurred the 
first race for the American Challenge Pennant, which represents 
the championship of the Hudson river, the clubs competing in- 
cluding the Hudson river, North Shrewsbury, Orange lake, New- 
burgh and Carthage Ice-Yacht Clubs. The racet> are usually sailed 
five times round a triangle of which each leg measures one mile, 
at least two of the legs being to windward. Ice-yachts are divided 
into four classes, carrying respectively 600 sq.ft. of canvas or 
more, between 450 and 600, between 300 and 450, and less than 
300 sq.ft. Ice-yachting is very popular on the Great Lakes, both 
in the United States and Canada, the Kingston (Ontario) Club 
having a fleet of over 25 sail. Other important centres of the sport 
are Lakes Minnetonka and White Bear in Minnesota, Lakes 
Winnebago and Pepin in Wisconsin, Bar Harbor lake in Maine, 
the St. Lawrence river, Quinte Bay and Lake Champlain. 

A modern ice-yacht is made of a single-piece backbone the 
entire length of the boat, and a runner-plank upon which it rests 
at right angles, the two forming a kite-shaped frame. The best 
woods for these pieces are basswood, butternut and pine. They 
are cut from the log in such a way that the heart of the timber 
expands, giving the planks a permanent curve, which, in the fin- 
ished boat, is turned upward. The two forward runners, usually 
made of soft cast iron and about 2ft. yin. long and 2 Jin. high, are 
set into oak frames a little over sft. long and sin high. The 
runners have a cutting edge of 90%, though a V-shaped edge is 
often preferred for racing. The rudder is a runner about 3ft. 
7in. long, worked by a tiller, sometimes made very long, 7^ft. not 
being uncommon. This enables the helmsman to lie in the box at 
full length and steer with his feet, leaving his hands free to tend 
the sheet. Masts and spars are generally made hollow for racing- 
yachts and the rigging is pliable steel wire. The sails are of 1002. 
duck for a boat carrying 400 sq.ft. of canvas. They have very 
high peaks, short hoists and long booms. The mainsail and jib 
rig is general, but a double-masted lateen rig has been found ad- 

An ice-yacht about 4oft. in length will carry six or seven 
passengers or trew, who are distributed in such a manner as to 
preserve the balance of the boat. In a good breeze the crew lie 
out on the windward side of the runner-plank to balance the boat 
and reduce the pressure on the leeward runner. A course of 2om. 
with many turns has been sailed on the Hudson in less than 48 
minutes, the record for a measured mile with flying start being 
at the rate of about 72m. an hour. In a high wind, however, ice- 
yachts often move at the rate of 85 and even pom an hour. 

See Ice Sports, in the "Isthmian Library" ; Skating, Curling, Tobog- 
ganing, etc., in the "Badminton Library." 

ICHANG, a treaty port of China on the left bank of the 
Yang-tze kiang in western Hupeh. Although a relatively small 
town, with about 60,000 inhabitants, Ichang serves an important 
economic function in the trade of Szechwan and the Yang-tze 
Valley. Ten miles above the port begins the rugged country, 350 
m. in extent, through which the Yang-tze breaks, in a series of 
lour .great limestone gorges and some 60 rapids and whirlpools the 
grandeur of tfhicli has been a favourite theme of many Chinese 
poets, especially Li-Tai-po. Hence Ichang, as the highest point 
of uninterrupted navigation, is a transhipment point between 
steamers and junks plying from Hankow and the special boats 
designed for the passage of the gorges. Formerly this took place 
entirely in junks hauled by gangs of coolies over the rapids. Much 
of the trade is still junk-borne, but in 1909 was inaugurated a 



V* A > , A "r -* r> *WL\ *6'" 



service of small, high-powered flat-bottomed steamers which now 
carry a large proportion of the cotton, cotton-goods, oils, rice and 
refined sugar passing upstream. A special insurance on goods sent 
through the gorges is obtainable at the port. An increasing amount 
of the downstream trade passes through the new customs office at 
Wanhsien on the Szechwan side of the gorges. Ichang was opened 
to foreign trade by the Chefoo Convention of 1876. There is a 
small foreign settlement between the native city and the sheltered 
anchorage. In 1926 the total trade of the port was valued at 
16,820,989 HK.Tls., made up as follows: net foreign imports: 
3,635,347; net Chinese imports: 9,616,893; exports: 3,568,749. 

ICHNEUMON, the name applied to a number of small 
African weasel-shaped mammals belonging to the carnivorous 
family Viverridae, the Indian representatives being known as 
mongooses (q.v.). A large num- 
ber of species of the genus Her- 
pestes are known and range over 
southern Asia and all Africa, 
Ichneumon also occurring in 
South Spain. It is covered with 
long, harsh, tawny-grey fur, 
darker on the head and along 
the middle of the back; its legs 
are reddish and its feet and tail black It lives largely on rats and 
mice, birds and reptiles, and for this reason it is domesticated. 

ICHNEUMON-PLY, a general name applied to parasitic 
insects of the section Ichneumonoidea, order Hymenoptera, from 
the typical genus Ichneumon, belonging to the chief family of 
that section. The species of the families Ichneumonidae, Bra- 
comdae, Evaniidae, Proctotrypidae, and Chalcididae are often 
indiscriminately called "Ichneumons," but the "super-family" of 
the Ichneumonoidea in the classification of W. H. Ashmead con- 
tains only the Evaniidae, the Stephanidae, and the large assem- 
blage of insects usually included in the two families of the 
Ichneumonidae and the Braconidae. The Ichneumonidae proper 
are one of the most extensive groups of insects. Gravenhorst 
(1829) described some 1,650 European species, to which many 
subsequent additions have bren made. They have all long nar- 
row bodies; a small free head with long filiform or setaceous 
antennae, which are never elbowed, and have always more than 
1 6 joints; the abdomen attached to the thorax at its hinder ex- 
tremity between the base of the posterior coxae, and provided in 
the female with a straight ovipositor often exserted and very 
long; and the wings veined, with perfect cells on the disc of the 
front pair. 

Their parasitic habits render these flies of great importance in 
the economy of nature, as they serve to check any inordinate in- 
crease in the numbers of injurious insects. Without their aid it 
would in many cases be impossible for the agriculturist to hold 
his own against the ravages of his minute insect foes, whose habits 
are not sufficiently known to render artificial checks or destroying 
agents available. The females deposit their eggs in or on the eggs, 
larvae or pupae of other insects of all orders, chiefly Lepidoptera, 
the caterpillars of butterflies and moths being specially attacked 
(as also are spiders). Anyone who has watched insect life dur- 
ing the summer can hardly have failed to notice the busy way in 
which the parent ichneumon, a small four-winged fly, with con- 
stantly vibrating antennae, searches for her prey; and the clusters 
of minute cocoons round the remains of some cabbage-butterfly 
caterpillar must also have been observed by many. This is the 
work of Apanteles (or Microgaster) glomerattis, one of the Bra- 
conidae, which in days past was a source of disquietude to nat- 
uralists, who believed that the life of the one defunct larva had 
transmigrated into the numerous smaller flies reared from it. 
Ichneumon-flies which attack external feeders have a short ovi- 
positor, but those attached to wood-feeding insects have that 
organ of great length to reach the haunts of their concealed prey. 
Thus a species from Japan (Brecon penetrator) has its ovipositor 
nine times the length of the body; and the large species of Rhyssa 
and Rptiattef, parasitic on Sirex and large wood-boring beetles in 
temperate Europe, have very long instruments (with which when 
handled they will endeavour to sting, sometimes penetrating the 

skin), in order to get at their secreted victims, A common red- 
dish-coloured species of Option (0. obscurum), with a sabre- 
shaped abdomen, is noteworthy from the fact of its eggs being 
attached by stalks outside the body of the caterpillar of the puss- 
moth (Centra vinula). 

The larvae of the ichneumon-flies are white, fleshy, cylindrical, 
footless grubs; the majority of them spin silk cocoons before 
pupating, often in a mass (sometimes almost geometrically), and 
sometimes in layers of different colours and texture. 

The literature on Ichneumon-flies is considerable and technical in 
character. W. H. Ashmead has written a comprehensive summary on 
the group (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxiii,, 1901) and some account of 
their parasitic behaviour is given by R. A. Cushman (Proc. Entom. 
Soc. Washington, xxviii., 1025). The British species are described by 
C. Morley, Ichneumons of Great Britain (Plymouth, 1903-14), and 
T. A. Marshall (Trans. Entom. Soc., 1885-1899). 

ICHNOGRAPHY, an obsolete, architectural term for a 
horizontal section or plan of a building. 

ICHTHYOLOGY, the sttidy of fishes (see CYCLOSTOMATA, 

ICHTHYOPHAGI (Gr. for "fish-eaters"), the name given 
by ancient geographers to several coast -dwelling peoples in differ- 
ent parts of the world and ethnically unrelated. Nearchus men- 
tions such a race as inhabiting the barren shores of the Mekran 
on the Arabian sea; Pausanias locates them on the western coast 
of the Red sea. Ptolemy speaks of fish-eaters in Ethiopia, and on 
the west coast of Africa; while Pliny relates the existence of such 
tribes on the islands in the Persian gulf. 

ICHTHYOSAURIA, a group of extinct reptiles which 
breathed by Jungs but were completely adapted for life in water. 
They existed during the age of reptiles, the Mesozoic epoch of 
geology, before the warm-blooded mammals and birds began to 
flourish, and they filled the place in the seas now occupied by the 
whales and porpoises In general, their adaptation to marine life 
was like that of the modern porpoises, but they never lost their 
hind pair of limbs, (heir tail fin was extended in a vertical plane 
instead of horizontally, and the end of their backbone was always 
prolonged into this fin. Ichthyosaurus (or fish-lizard) itself, which 
is known by numerous complete skeletons from the Lias, chiefly 
of England and Germany, is represented not only by the bones 
but also by the skin and some other soft parts, which are often 
well preserved in the Upper Lias of Holzmaden, Wurttemberg. 
The head is relatively large and tapers forward into a slender, elon- 
gated snout. The margins of the head bones are thin and deeply 
overlapping, as in fishes and porpoises. The eye is very large and 
surrounded by a rigid ring of sclerotic plates. The teeth, numer- 
ous and pointed, are inserted in a single row in a groove in each 



jaw. The backbone consists of short biconcave vertebrae which, 
originally separated by elastic tissue, would produce flexibility 
like that of the backbone of a fish. There is no neck, and there 
are no vertebrae modified for contact with the supports of the 
hinder pair of limbs; the stoutest vertebrae are just in front of 
the base of the tail fin, and behind this fulcrum the backbone 
rapidly tapers and is sharply bent downwards to strengthen the 
lower lobe of the fin. The vertical tail-fin is fan-shaped, without 
any stiffening rays, and there is a soft triangular median fin on the 
back. The paired limbs are paddles, with the arm bones (leg 


bones) short and pressed together, and the fingers (toes) enclosed 
in a continuous covering of flesh and skin. The hind-limbs are 
often relatively small. The tail-fin would be used for progression, 
while the paired limbs would be for balancing. The skin is known 
to have been completely smooth. Remains of food in the intestine 
show that Ichthyosaurus fed chiefly on cuttle fishes and fishes, 
but no example is known showing any spiral marking on the food 
mass. The isolated spirally marked coprolites commonly ascribed 
to Ichthyosaurus doubtless belong to the associated Hybodont 
sharks. The skeletons of young within some specimens of Ichthyo- 
saurus prove that it was viviparous. 

The earliest Ichthyosauria, found in the Triassic rocks of 
Europe, Spitsbergen and North America, include many com- 
paratively small species not more than a metre in length. Their 
head bones are less extensively overlapping than in the later 
forms; the teeth are in separate sockets and not all uniformly 
conical; the vertebrae are sometimes a little elongated and not 
deeply concave at the ends; the tail-fin is an elongated flap of 
skin on the back, not yet fan-shaped; and the limb-bones are 
comparatively elongated. They therefore suggest that the Ich- 
thyosauria, like the modern whales and porpoises, were descended 
from land animals. In the Liassic or Lower Jurassic rocks the 
Ichthyosauria attain their greatest size, being sometimes 10 to 12 
metres in length. In the Middle and Upper Jurassic rocks *ome 
genera, such as Ophthalmosaurus and Baptanodon, are almost or 
completely toothless, and the paddles become extremely flexible 
owing to the thick layer of cartilage persisting round all their 
bones. In the Cretaceous rocks,. just before their extinction, the 
Ichthyosauria exhibit their widest geographical distribution, their 
remains having been found in nearly all parts of the world, from 
Europe in the north to New Zealand in the south 

See R. Owen, Monograph of the Fossil Reptilia of the Liassic 
Formations, part 3 (Palaeontographical Society, London, 1881) ; F. 
von Huene, Die Ichthyosaurier des Lias (Berlin, 1922). (A. S. W.) 

ICHTHYOSIS or XERODERMA, a general thickening 
of the whole skin and marked accumulation of the epidermic ele- 
ments, with atrophy of the sebaceous glands, giving rise to a 
hard, dry, scaly condition. This disease generally first appears in 
infancy, and is probably congenital. It differs in intensity and in 
distribution, and is little amenable to treatment. A somewhat 
similar condition (leukoplakia) affects the tongue in syphilitic 
subjects and cancer may start in one of the patches. 

ICKNIELD STREET, (i) The Saxon name (earlier Icen- 
hylt) of a prehistoric (not Roman) "Ridgeway" along the Berk- 
shire downs and the Chilterns, which crossed the Thames^ near 
Streatley and ended somewhere near Tring or Dunstable. In 
some places there are traces of a double road, one line on the 
hills and one in the valley below, as if for summer and winter 
use. No modern highroad follows it for any distance. Antiquaries 
have supposed that it once ran on to Royston, Newmarket and 
Norfolk, where dwelt the Iceni, before the Roman conquest. But 
the name does not occur in early documents so far east, and it 
has certainly nothing to do with that of the Iceni (Haverfield, 
Victoria History of Norfolk, i. 286). (2) A Roman road which 
ran through Derby, Lichfield, Birmingham and Alcester is some- 
times called Icknield Street and sometimes Rycknield Street. The 
origin of this nomenclature is very obscure. 

See Victoria History of Warwick, i. 239, and of Derbyshire, i. 243; 
cf., C. Fox, Archaeology of the Cambridge Region, and Askins on A 
Romano-British Site on Cowbury Hill t Berks, p. 29 (1916). 

ICON, generally any image or portrait-figure. The word is 
specially applied to the representations in the Eastern Church of 
sacred personages, which are either flat paintings or in very low 
relief, sculptured figures being forbidden. (See BYZANTINE ART.) 

The term "iconography" once confined to the study of engrav- 
ings is now applied to the history of portrait images in Christian 
art, though it is also used with a qualifying adjective of Greek, 
Roman and other art. 

ICONIUM (mod. Konia), a city of Asia Minor, the last of 
the Phrygian land towards Lycaonia, was usually attributed to 
Lycaonia in the Roman time, but retained its old Phrygian con- 
nection and population to a comparatively late date. It lies in an 

excellently fertile plain, 6 m. from the Pisidian mountains on 
the west, with mountains more distant on the north and south, 
while to the east the plain stretches away for hundreds of miles. 
Streams from the Pisidian mountains aid the cultivation of the 
land on the south-west and south of the city, and on the east and 
north-east a great part of the naturally fertile soil has been irri- 
gated since 1914 with water brought from Beyshehr Lake. Trees 
grow nowhere except in the gardens near the city. 

Originally a Phrygian city, as is implied in Acts xiv. 6, it was in 
a political sense the chief city of the Lycaonian tetrarchy added 
to the Galatian country about 165 B.C., and it was part of the 
Roman province Galatia from 25 B.C. to about A.D. 295. Then it 
was included in the province Pisidia (as Ammianus Marcellinus 
describes it) till 372, after which it formed part of the new 
province Lycaonia so long as the provincial division lasted. Later 
it was a principal city of the theme of Anatolia. It was thrice 
visited by Paul, probably in A.D. 47, 50 and 53; and it is the 
principal scene of the tale of Paul and Thecla (which though 
apocryphal has certainly some historical basis; see THECLA). 
There was a distinct Roman element in Iconium, arising doubt- 
less from the presence of Roman traders. This was recognized by 
Claudius, who granted the honorary title Claudiconium, and by 
Hadrian, who elevated the city to the rank of a Roman colony 
about A.D. 130 under the name Colonia Aelia Hadriana Augusta 
Iconiensium. In later Roman and Byzantine times it must have 
been a large and wealthy city. It was a metropolis and an arch- 
bishopric, and one of the earliest councils of the Christian church 
was held there in A.D. 235. The ecclesiastical organization of 
Lycaonia and the country round Iconium on all sides was com- 
plete in the early 4th century, and monuments of later 3rd and 
4th century Christianity are extremely numerous. It suffered 
much from the Arab raids in the three centuries following A.D. 
660; its capture in 708 is mentioned, but it never was held as a 
city of the caliphs. The period of its greatest splendour was after 
the conquest by the Seljuk Turks about 1072-74. It soon became 
the capital of the Seljuk state. The palace of the sultans and the 
mosque of Ala ed-dm Kaikobad formerly covered a great part of 
the Acropolis hill in the northern part of the city. Farther south 
there is still the great complex of buildings which till recently 
formed the chief seat of the Mevlevi dervishes, a sect widely 
spread over Anatolia, but now disbanded; their "Tekke" has 
been converted into a museum. The walls, about 2 m. in cir- 
cumference, consisted of a core of rubble and concrete, coated 
with ancient stones, inscriptions, sculptures and architectural 
marbles, forming a striking sight. Beyond the walls extended the 
gardens and villas of a prosperous Oriental population. 

When the Seljuk state broke up, and the Osmanli or Ottoman 
sovereignty arose, Konia decayed. The walls and the palace, still 
perfect in the beginning of the igth century, were gradually 
pulled down for building material, and in 1882 there remained only 
a small part of the walls, from which all the outer stones had been 
removed, while the palace was a ruin. At that time and for some 
years later a large part of Konia was almost deserted. But about 
1895 the advent of the Anatolian railway began to restore its 
prosperity. The water supply was also improved. The sacred 
buildings were patched up (except a few which were quite ruinous) 
and the walls wholly removed, but an unsightly fragment of a 
palace-tower still remained in 1906. In 1904-1905 the first two 
sections of the Baghdad railway, to Karaman and Eregli, were 

Iconium is 389 m. by rail from Smyrna by way of Afiun Qara- 
hisar. Pop. (1927) 101,674. Carpets are manufactured and 
mercury is mined. 

ICONOCLASTS, breakers of images, a name applied in the 
8th and 9th centuries to the opponents of the use of images in 
Christian worship. (See ROMAN EMPIRE, LATER.) 

At the period of the Reformation (q.v.) the name was given 
to those who advocated the destruction of images in the churches. 

ICONOSTASIS, the screen in a Greek, Russian or Armenian 
church, which encloses the sanctuary. It is generally of masonry, 
high enough to reach the spring of the vault and extends into the 
body of the church as far as the easternmost nave pier. In its 





nave front there are usually three doors. The face of the screen 
is often decorated with many tiers of small arcades; each arch 
encloses the representation of a saint. In Russian churches only 
the hands, feet and faces of the painted representation or ikon 
are exposed; the rest of the panel is covered with elaborate, en- 
graved, embossed metal work. In earlier times in Greece, however, 
the entire image was painted. 
ICTERUS, a genus of birds belonging to the family, Icteridae 
intermediate between the finches (q.v.) and starlings (q.v.)\ 

many of them are called troup- 
ials; others are known as the 
American grackles (q.v.). One 
of the best -known species is 
Icterus spurius, the garden oriole, 
an inhabitant of northern 
South and Central America 
and the United States. Very 
many species exist in the Neo- 
tropical region, though a few 
migrate northward in summer. 
They are nearly all gregarious, 
many of them with loud and 
melodious notes, rendering them 
favourites in captivity. Some 
have a plumage wholly black, 
others are richly clad; the 
well-known Baltimore oriole, 
golden robin or hangnest of 
the United States, Icterus gal- 
bula, has plumage of brightly 
contrasted black and orange, the tinctures of the armorial 
bearing of Lord Baltimore, the original grantee of Maryland. 
The most divergent form of Icteridae seems to be that known in 
the United States as the meadow-lark, Sturnella ma^na, while 
the bobolink or rice-bird (q.v.) with its bunting-like bill, is not 
much less aberrant. 

ICTINUS, Greek architect of the 5th century B.C., was the 
architect of the Parthenon at Athens, of the Hall of the Mysteries 
at Eleusis, and of the temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae, near 

IDA (d. 559), first king of Bernicia, became king in 547, soon 
after the foundation of the kingdom of Bernicia by the Angles 
He built the fortress of Bebbanburh (Bamborough) and after his 
death his kingdom, which did not extend south of the Tecs, passed 
in turn" to six of his sons. The surname of "Flame-Bearer/* some- 
times applied to him, refers not to Ida, but to his son Theodoric 
(d. 587). 

IDAHO, the "Gem State," one of the far north-western 
States of the U.S., is situated between 42 and 49 N. and 111 
and 117 W. It is bounded on the north by British Columbia in 
the Dominion of Canada, on the east by Montana and Wyoming, 
on the south by Utah and Nevada, and on the west by Oregon 
and Washington. Its area, of which 534sq.m. are water surface, 
is 83,88osq.m., or 53,346,5603^ This is about the size of England 
and Scotland combined, or of New England plus New Jersey. 
The name is an expression of the Shoshonee Indians, Ec-dah-how, 
meaning, "Look, the sun is coming down the mountain!" It was 
used by the Indians to arouse the camp in the morning. The 
popular name "Gem State" is derived from the expression "gem 
of the mountain," often erroneously given as a translation of the 
Indian name. 

Physical Features. Idaho lies entirely on the western water- 
shed of the Rocky mountains, and, excepting a small area in the 
south-east which is drained by Bear river into the Great Salt Lake 
basin, it is drained by the Columbia river and its branches. The 
chief of these branches is the Snake river, which takes its rise 
in Yellowstone park and flows in a great bend south and west 
nearly 8oom. through southern Idaho until it strikes the western 
border, then flowing northward soorn. farther and forming the 
boundary between Idaho and Oregon and between Idaho and 
Washington. At Lewiston it turns abruptly to the west and leaves 

Und to Firms (1925) 15% 

the State. Below Idaho Falls for about 6oom. of its course its 
walls are canyon like in character, the river flowing from several 
hundred to several thousand feet below the level of the plain 
above. Finally as it flows north it cuts through a mountain range 
(once a barrier to the Snake, which made all southern Idaho a 
lake) in the famous Seven Devils canyon, with walls in places 
5,oooft. high. Along the Snake's southern and western course 
are successively Idaho falls, American falls, Twin falls, Sho- 

shone falls, Auger falls and Sal- 
mon falls. Shoshonc falls are 43 
ft. higher than Niagara and did 
not suffer in comparison with the 
latter until extensive irrigation 
diminished the volume of water 
in the Snake. These falls, to- 
gether with numberless rapids, 
some of them miles in length, 
make the river useless for the 
transportation of produce, but 
furnish a tremendous potential 
water-power supply. 

Bordering the Snake river in a 
belt 50 to 7501 wide are the 



MinMl Und 9% 



ENGLAND, NEW JERSEY. DELAWARE Snake river plains, originally arid, 
AND MARYLAND desolate sage-brush land, but 

now irrigated and Idaho's chief agricultural region. These plains 
were built up by a series of lava sheets from extinct volcanic 
craters to the north, and the volcanic-ash soil is rich in mineral 
elements of plant food, such as phosphorous and potash. In the 
northern plain between Arco and Carey is a district containing 
about 63 volcanic craters, lava and cinder cones, which was set 
apart in 1924 as the "Craters of the Moon" national monument. 
It is a region with weird landscape effects and furnishes the best 
example of fissure lava flows in North America. South of the 
plains the land rises to a divide between the Columbia basin and 
the Great Salt Lake basin. This divide in places breaks into low 
mountain ranges. In the south-cast the Bear river range forms a 
northern extension of the Wasatch range of Utah. In the south- 
west the Owyhee mountains and their foothills occupy a large 

The main mountain system of the State, however, is formed 
by those ranges (the Cabinet, Cocur d'Alene, Bitter Root and 
Beaverhead) which lie along the north-east boundary, together 
with their various spurs extending westward and south-westward 
toward the central part of the State. From these mountains flow 
the Salmon and Clearwater rivers, the main branches of the 
Snake. Through narrow valleys and canyons often impassable, 
they drain the most thinly settled and the wildest and most 
rugged section of the State. Most of the region, an area several 
times larger than Switzerland, is still impenetrable except by 
pack-horse. Its existence has prevented the construction of a 
railway connecting north and south Idaho, and not until 1927 
was a north and south highway completed. All travel previously 
between the two settled regions of the State had to pass through 
Oregon and Washington. The wilderness region is bounded on 
the south by the Sawtooth mountains, a range which also forms 
the northern boundary of the Snake river valley. These moun- 
tains rival in sublimity any range in the United States. They 
contain Hyndman peak (i2,o78ft.), the highest point in Idaho. 
Other high and beautiful ranges of the region are the Salmon river 
mountains and the Lost river range. South of the latter are Big 
Lost river and a number of smaller streams which disappear after 
reaching the upper Snake river plains in the driest portion of 
Idaho. North of the Salmon river country is the Clearwater 
country, through which runs the Lo Lo trail travelled by Lewis 
and Clark. This trail passes through the largest area of virgin 
timber still standing in the United States. The whole region fur- 
nishes excellent hunting of the white-tail and mule deer, elk, bear, 
mountain goat and blue and ruffed grouse and other game birds. 
The State game warden reports deer and moose to be increasing. 
Beautiful mountain lakes abound in fish and furnish enchanting 
camping sites. The region is also rich in mineral resources, which 



must wait for transportation facilities before they can be 
profitably developed. 

The northern part of the State is low (average 3,oooft.) com- 
pared with the average level of the State (5,oooft.), and this 
low altitude gives it an advantage in climate which offsets its 
northern position. There are ranges of great height and beauty, 
but the valleys between are broad and fertile. Towards the Wash- 


ib 6 zb ' 40 ' cb ' db ' too MILES 

1- Sand point 

2 Coeur d'Alcne 

3 Wallace ' 

4 Moscow 

5 lewiston 
'6 Salmon 
7 Weiser 

8 -Ca Id well 
9 Twin Falls 

10 St Anthony 

11 Rexburg 

12 Idaho Falls 

13 Blackfoot 

14 Pocatello 

15 Malad City 

16 Prton 

17 Pans 

N E V A D 


ington boundary in particular, there are many fine farming 
regions. An abundant rainfall in this northern section (20 to 35 
in. annually) makes irrigation unnecessary. Here are the largest 
and most beautiful of Idaho's lakes Priest lake, Pend Oreille and 
Coeur d'Alene. Across this narrow northern portion flow the 
Clark Fork and Kootenai rivers on their way to join the Colum- 
bia. The lowest portion of the State is at Lewiston, where the 
Snake river leaves the State at an altitude of only 72oft. 

The vast extent and varied topography of Idaho give it a 
number of distinct climate zones. The entire State comes under 
the modifying influence of the equable climate of the North 
Pacific ocean and is protected by its great north-eastern mountain 
barrier from the severe cold waves that sweep the plains east of 
the continental divide. The mean annual temperature varies from 
about 36 (coldest region centring in Custer county, around the 
Sawtooth range) to 55 along the middle reaches of the Snake 
river. In the lower valleys of the Snake and its tributaries the 
weather is mild enough for even the more tender fruits. The 
orchards of this region are becoming famous. Precipitation varies 
even more than temperature, but in general it is greatest in the 
mountainous region and least in the open plains. The driest 
regions are along the great south-west bend of the Snake, in the 
Lost River country, and in the upper reaches of the Salmon river. 
Tornadoes and severe storms are virtually unknown. 

Government* Idaho is governed by a constitution adopted 
in 1889, which went into effect when the State entered the Union, 
July 3, 1890. From time to time, as new needs and conditions 
presented themselves, this constitution has been amended, and 

by 1925, 27 amendments were in effect. 

The executive department is made up of elected and appointed 
officers, all serving two years. Those elected are the governor, 
lieutenant governor, secretary of State, State auditor, State 
treasurer, attorney general, superintendent of public instruction, 
and inspector of mines. In addition to the usual duties of their 
offices, these officers serve on the State library commission and on 
special administrative boards, such as the board of pardons, the 
board of land commissioners, the board of equalization, the board 
of canvassers and the board of examiners. In 1919 an act of the 
legislature grouped 51 bureaus, boards and commissions into nine 
departments. Later the nine departments were reduced to seven : 
the departments of agriculture, finance, law enforcement, public 
investments, public welfare, public works and reclamation. Each 
department is headed by a commissioner appointed by the gov- 
ernor and responsible directly to him. 

The legislature consists of two houses, whose members are 
elected biennially. A senator is elected from each county, and a 
representative for every 2,500 votes or fraction thereof exceeding 
1,000 in each county. In 1927 there were 44 senators and 68 
representatives. The legislature meets at Bois6 for its regular 
session the first Monday of January in odd-numbered years. 
Special sessions may be called by the governor if he decides that 
they are necessary. A two-thirds vote of the legislature can over- 
ride the governor's vote. 

The judiciary consists of a supreme court, holding five terms 
yearly, its five justices being elected for six years, and n district 
courts with 16 judges, each holding office for four years. At least 
two terms of the district court must be held in each county each 
year. Each county also has a probate court trying lesser cases 
both of civil and of criminal nature, and normally there are two 
justices of the peace in each county precinct. 

Population. The first census of Idaho was in 1870, when the 
population was 14,999; in 1880 it was 32,610; in 1890, 88,548; 
in 1900, 161,772; in 1910, 325,594; and in 1920, 43^,866. The 
increase between 1900 and 1910 was 101-3%; between 1910 and 
1920 it was 32-6%. Basing its calculations upon the latter per- 
centage, the U.S. census bureau estimated the population in 1927 
to be 534,000; but probably the percentage of increase had not 
been maintained. Of the population in 1920, 98-6% was white. 
The remaining 1-4% was made up of 4,048 Indians (approxi- 
mately the same number as in 1880), 920 negroes, 585 Chinese 
and 1,569 Japanese. The Chinese have gradually decreased since 
placer-mining days, but the Japanese are slowly increasing. Of 
the Indians 1,760 belong to the Bannock and Shoshone tribes 
residing on the Fort Hall reservation. These are the most prim- 
itive of all the north-western tribes, retaining their old-time 

tribal customs despite the in- 
fluences of civilized communities 
all about them. Only 120 of 470 
families on the reservation live 
in permanent homes. The Nez 
Perce Indians number about 
1,400 and are the most interest- 
ing historically as well as the 
most advanced. They and the 
Coeur d'Alenes, who number 
about 650, have always been 
self-supporting. The land of their 
reservations has been allotted 
187O- to individuals of the tribes, in- 
stead of being held in common. 
In the extreme north near Bon- 
ner's ferry, are a small band of Kootenai Indians who have no 
reservation, but settled on homesteads along the Kootenai river. 
Of the total population in 1920, 9-2% were foreign born and 
ii3% were bora of foreign parentage. The Scandinavian coun- 
tries contributed 9,734 of the foreign born; Great Britain and Ire- 
land, %7,664; Germany, 4,143; and various other countries, less 
than 1,500 each. The urban population in 1920 was 119,037; the 
rural population, 312,829. The percentage of urban population 
had increased from 21-5 in 1910 to 27-6 in 1920. Idaho has 36 in- 



1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 19ft 






corporated cities, of which Bois6, the capital, is the largest, with 
an estimated population of 23,042 in 19251 Pocatello, with a 
population estimated at 18,335 * n 1925, is the metropolis of the 
eastern part of the State. Burley, Caldwell, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 
Falls, Lewiston, Nampa and Twin Falls were the other cities over 
5,000 in population. 

Finance. The general fund for ordinary running expenses of 
the State is derived from an annual tax levied on the counties, a 
tax on insurance companies, interest on current funds in the 
State depositories, fees paid by corporations, fees of the depart- 
ments of the State and other sources. Expenditures from this 
fund are authorized biennially by the legislature under a budget 
system. In addition to the general fund there are no less than 
75 special funds for particular purposes, each with its income de- 
rived as far as possible from its own activities and services. Such, 
for example, is the game fund, with its income derived from 
licences, or the highway fund, with much of its income derived 
from a tax of two cents a gallon on gasolene. The lands for public 
school endowment and for special institutions are also adminis- 
tered as special funds. 

In the biennial period 1924-26 State receipts totalled $17,995,- 
964; disbursements $17,905,911. The general fund received 
$4,592,855, and disbursed $4,942,466. The assessed value of the 
State in 1925 was $478,686,746, a decrease from $499,471,287 
in 1920. On this assessed value in 1925 a tax of $1,675,000 (3-4 
mills) was levied for the general fund, and $535,000 (1-2 mills) 
for special funds. The general tax of 3-4 mills may be compared 
with that of 76 in 1919, 5-5 in 1921, 4.7 in 1923. Despite this 
tax reduction, the State was gradually reducing a debt which had 
been increased mainly by highway expenditures. There were 
still in June, 1926, State bonds outstanding to the amount of 
$5,649,500, $3,420,000 of them being for roads and bridges, 
$i>375>ooo for a new State capitol, and the rest for other State 
buildings and institutions. 

The value of all property in the State was estimated in 1922 
at $1,534,000,000, as compared with $579,000,000 in 1912. There 
were 161 banks in the State in 1925, with total resources of $91,- 
900,000. Their savings deposits were $25,539,000 in 1925, a de- 
crease from the $32,512,000 of 1920, but an increase over the 
$24,206,000 of 1924. 

Education. A radical change in the Idaho public school 
system was made in 1913, when the legislature provided that from 
the primary grades to the State university the administration 
should be controlled by a single State board of education instead 
of six separate boards as it had been. This board consists of six 
members, five of them appointed by the governor (one each year 
for a term of five years), the sixth being the State superintendent 
of public instruction, an ex officio member. Besides the elemen- 
tary and secondary schools, the board has under its supervision 
the University of Idaho, at Moscow, the State normal schools at 
Lewiston and Albion, the Idaho Technical institute at Pocatello, 
the Idaho Industrial school at St. Anthony, and the State school 
for the deaf and blind at Gooding. 

The public school population of Idaho in 1926 was 138,885, a 
slight decrease from the peak of 141,991 in 1922, but an increase 
over the 137,756 of 1920. The actual enrolment in 1925-26 
was 117,360. There were 4,377 teachers employed, and their 
average salary was $1,084.12. Of the total enrolment, 21,730 
were pupils in the 78 high schools of the State. Total school ex- 
penditure has increased from $2,175,000 in 1910 to $8,591,000 in 
1920, and $10,053,454 in 1926. Approximately one-half of this 
was paid for teachers* salaries. The sources of the current school 
income for 1926 were State appropriations, $608,682; county ap- 
propriations, $2,742,654; special school tax, $4,290,185; and 
miscellaneous, $1,518,288. School expenditure in 1926 was $72.34 
per capita of the school population, as compared with $63.24 in 
1920. For the benefit of the common schools, the Federal Gov- 
ernment granted 2,963,698 acres of land, now owned and ad- 
ministered by the State. There are special grants also which 
serve as an endowment for the higher institutions 

Enrolment at the University of Idaho has increased rapidly 
from 1,435 in 1921-22 to 2,266 in 1925-26. Efforts have been 

made to alleviate the resultant overcrowding. A new science hall 
was completed in 1925 at a cost of $216,000, and the budget ap- 
proved for 1927-28 carried an appropriation of $420,000 for a 
new library and a new heating plant. In 1926 the faculty Was in- 
creased by 20 members, making a total staff of 143. The approved 
budget for maintenance for the biennium 1927-28 was $2,749,403, 
as compared with $2,031,987 for the previous biennium Of this 
amount $1,998,273 came from the State and the rest from Federal 
appropriations, land endowments, fees, etc. In the Lewiston State 
Normal school, enrolment for the year 1925-26 was 363; in the 
Albion State Normal school, it was 387. There is also the College 
of Idaho, a co-educational, non-sectarian institution under Pres- 
byterian control, at Caldwell, which had 499 students and a 
teaching staff of 32 in 1924-25. 

In 1903 a State library commission was established to manage 
the travelling library of the State, and to give assistance to any 
community trying to establish a free reading-room. In 1926 there 
were over 30,000 books in the library, and 200 cases were in 
circulation. There is little illiteracy, the State ranking third in the 
Union in 1920, with a percentage of 1-5. Over half of the illiter- 
ates were foreign born. 

Charitable and Penal Institutions. The State peniten- 
tiary at Bois6, had in 1926 an average of 363 inmates constantly 
under custody. This, when compared with the average of 280 for 
the biennium 1923-24, showed an alarming increase and resulted 
in an acute overcrowding problem. A modern shirt-factory fur- 
nished au occupation for two-thirds of the inmates, and was so 
successful financially that it paid both a small wage to the 
workers and a large share of the institutional expense. Under the 
administration of the department of public welfare are an insane 
asylum (342 inmates in 1926), at Blackfoot; the Northern Idaho 
Sanitarium (277 inmates in 1926), at Orofino; the Idaho Sani- 
tarium (285 inmates in 1926) for mental defectives, at Nampa; 
a State sanitarium for invalids, at Lava Hot Springs; and the 
Soldiers' Home (88 inmates in 1926), at Bois. The State board 
of education has under its administration an industrial training 
school for boys and girls (314 in attendance in 1926), at St. 







Wheat Potatoes Beans Com Sugar Clover 
Beets Seed 
Idaho- 277 2120 237 410 128 47 
U.S.: 144 1147 10S 282 107 14 

Bushels p* Acre 


Anthony, and a school for the deaf and blind (90 enrolled in 
1926), at Gooding There is also at Boise a foundation for home- 
less children, under private auspices. 

Agriculture and Live Stock. Agriculture and live stock 
raising which in Idaho can no longer be separated rank as the 
most important industries. Agriculture is of three types, accord- 
ing to the amount of rainfall. In the northern part of the State 
and in other regions where the rainfall is over iSin. annually, 
humid farming can be practised The cut-over forest lands in the 
north are among the richest lands of the State. Along the Snake 


river irrigation must be relied on entirely, but it has been de- 
veloped to such an extent that the region produces the largest 
share of Idaho's crops. Here the soils are volcanic and contain 
a rich supply of the mineral plant foods. The lack of nitrogen 
is soon overcome by ploughing in clover and alfalfa crops. Any 
failure of the irrigation ditches, such as occurred in the ab- 
normally dry year of 1919 and partially in other years, is pre- 
vented for the future by the completion in 1926 of the enlarged 
American falls dam which creates 
the largest storage reservoir in 
America. This will hold the spring 
flood waters of the Snake, which 
formerly were wasted. On the 
bench lands and the borders of 
the Snake river plains, dry 
farming is carried on extensively. 
This was the type of agriculture 
that was expanded most to meet 
the abnormal demands of the 
World War years, and it is 
among dry-land farmers that 
the largest number of failures 
have occurred in the subse- 
quent period of depression. The 
value of farm property increased 
from $67,271,000 in IQOO to 


in 1 900 

$305,317)000 in 1910, and $716,- A CONCRETE GRAIN ELEVATOR IN 
138,000 in 1920, since when THE IDAHO WHEAT BELT 
there has been a decrease. The land valued in 1920 at 
$511,866,000 was in 1925 valued at only $310,243,000. The 
value of buildings and live stock has also decreased, though 
less disastrously. The number of farms decreased from 42,106 
in 1920 to 40,593 in 1925; the acreage, from 8,376,000 to 8,140,- 
ooo; and farm population, from 200,902 to 172,216. The mort- 
gage debt of Idaho farmers increased from $14,557,000 in 1910 
to $69,868,000 in 1920, 59% of the farms owned being mort- 
gaged in 1920 Tenants operated 24-4% of the farms in 1925, as 
compared with 15-9% in 1920. These figures show the agricul- 
tural crisis that Idaho has experienced since the World War. In 
addition to the general depression of prices, it was aggravated 
there by several exceptionally dry years. 

The total value of the 22 chief crops in 1919 was $111,940,000; 
in 1924, it was $73,009,000; in 1925, $103,681,000; and in 1926, 
$82,611,000. Wheat and hay are the State's most valuable crops. 
In 1926 i,o45,oooac. were planted to wheat, yielding approxi- 
mately 24,633,000 bushels, valued at $26,173,000. The average 
yield, 23-5 bushels per acre, is exceptionally high as compared 
with the averages in such important wheat States as Kansas 
(14-8), North .Dakota (8-0), Montana (12-4) and Minnesota 
(12-9). In 1926 121,000 tons of hay, 2,768,000 tons of meadow 
hay, and 2,157,000 tons of alfalfa were harvested, meadow hay 
yielding an average of 2-7 tons per acre and the alfalfa yielding 
3-2 tons. In 1926 66,000 acres of corn (maize) produced 2,706,000 
bushels, an average of 41 bushels per ac., which is higher than in 
any except the Atlantic States, and may be compared with Iowa's 
average of 37 bushels per acre. In 1926 Idaho produced 4,760,000 
bushels of oats and 4,144,000 bushels of barley. Potatoes are an 
important Idaho crop, and the 1926 production of 16,198,000 
bushels was greater than that of any other State west of the 
Mississippi except Minnesota. The average yield was 178 bushels 
per acre, an average higher than that of any other State but 
Maine. The 1925 shipments, totalling 18,271 cars, were exceeded 
only by those of Maine and Minnesota. Sugar-beet has been an 
important crop, but low prices have decreased the acreage. Only 
17,000 acres were harvested in 1926, as compared with 38,000 
acres in 1925. 

Idaho has consistently shipped more apples than any other 
western State except Washington, and the shipments are increasing 
fast. In 1925 they totalled 7,485 car-loads. The principal varieties 
are the Jonathan and the Rome Beauty. The principal growing 
valleys are the Boise and Payette and those around Lewiston 
A careful State orchard census in 1924 showed commercial or- 

chards (not including home orchards of less than 50 trees) 
amounting to 27,767 acres, including 956,319 apple trees, 448,495 
plum trees, 71,522 peach trees and 73,521 apricot, cherry, and 
pear trees. Idaho is one of the leading States in output of 

As there are no large consuming centres in Idaho, growers 
must seek distant markets. These have been opening up rapidly 
on the Pacific coast, especially in California. This has also 
stimulated dairying. Milch-cows and heifers increased' from 
160,000 head in 1925 to 170,000 head in 1927, and their value 
from $8,000,000 to $11,050,000. Creamery butter production 
rose from 4,660,000 Ib. in 1920 to 15,101,000 in 1925. Cheese pro- 
duction rose from 1,722,000 Ib. to 7,320,000 Ib. in the same years, 
giving Idaho a rank of fifth among the States in its output. 

The sheep-raising industry suffered greatly immediately after 
the World War. Sheep valued at $25,309,000 in 1920 dropped in 
value to $13,415,000 in 1921. Increased wool prices in 1924, 
however, aided the industry, and in 1927 Idaho's sheep were 
valued at $21,326,000. In 1925, 14,309,000 Ib. of wool were ship- 
ped, and the estimate for 1926 was 14, 507^000 Ib. Near Du Bois 
there is a U.S. sheep experiment station of 44,810 acres, devoted 
to a study of the problems of range sheep men in the western 

Mining. The total value of Idaho's mineral production from 
the discovery of gold in 1860 to 1927 is estimated at $1,030,000,- 
ooo. The leading minerals in the order of their importance are 
lead, silver, zinc, copper and gold. The annual production of 
these minerals in the decade before the World War averaged 
$24,500,000 in value. During the war the output of lead, silver, 
zinc and copper, because of the high prices these metals com- 
manded, increased over 100%, but the production of gold de- 
creased 60%. The total mineral production of 1917 was valued 
at $54,845,153. After the war the decline in demand and prices, 
combined with high freight rates and high wages, caused the 
greatest depression of mining in 20 years. The production for 
1921 totalled only $16,564,014, many of the leading producers 
suspending operations entirely. Between 1921 and 1926, how- 
ever, prices of metals slowly increased, so that old mines were 
reopened and new developments and explorations carried out. 
By 1925 all the producing mines were maintaining capacity pro- 

The total value of the five leading metals in 1925 was $32,- 
971,930, an increase of $4,394,681 over that of 1924. The in- 
crease was mainly in the amount of lead and zinc produced and 
in the higher prices at which these metals sold, the lead output 
being worth $23,930,319, and the zinc $2,828,573. The silver 
output decreased slightly, but higher prices gave it a value of 
$5,324,178. There was a substantial increase in the production 
of copper, the 1925 output being $473,217, but a decided decrease 
in the production of gold, the 1925 valuation, $415,640, being the 
lowest in the State's history. Of the State's mineral production, 
92-52% was from the lead-silver-zinc belt of the Coeur d'Alene 
region in Shoshone county. In 1925 there was a great increase in 
the number of small producers, which is generally accepted as a 
sign of health in the mining industry. Most of these were in the 
southern part of the State. The year was also a good one for 
labour, the pay-roll being one of the largest in the State's mining 
history. The average miner's wage increased from about $4-50 
per day in 1921 to $5-50 in 1925. 

The lead, silver and zinc ores are always found associated with 
each other, and the mining of one can hardly be carried on sep- 
arately from the other. Much of Idaho's success in mining has 
been due to milling experiments and inventions which make it pos- 
sible to treat these complex ores at very little increase in milling 
costs, giving at the same time high-grade concentrates and in* 
creased percentage of recovery. 

Only Missouri produced more lead than Idaho until 1925, 
when Utah with a sudden increase passed ahead. Only Utah and 
Montana produced more silver. Only a few regions in the State 
have been thoroughly prospected. Lead-zinc-silver discoveries in 
the granite areas of Valley and Custer counties in 1925 attracted 
nation-wide attention. Other known deposits, in remote regions, 


await transportation facilities before they can be developed. The 
mining industry has suffered greatly from speculative promotion, 
which is now curtailed by "blue sky" laws requiring the filing of 
all publicity literature, so that some check can be made upon 
the truth of promoters* claims. 

Lumbering. More than one- third (37%) of Idaho is cov- 
ered with forests. The total stand of timber has been officially 
estimated at 98,000,000,000 board ft., of which 58-1% is owned 
by the Federal Government, 10-7% by the State, and 30-75% 
by private holders. There are 19 national forests, containing 
20,503,893 acres. They were created in 1905, but before this 
there were many choice areas in private hands, and it has been 
from these that most of the commercial timber has been cut. 
In 1923 the cut for the State was 1,073,000,000 board ft.; in 
1924 it was 1,018,000,000 board ft. The principal trees in order 
of their commercial importance are white pine, western or "yel- 
low" pine, spruce, cedar, white fir, larch and red fir. 

Manufactures. Manufacturing in Idaho is built mostly 
upon the transformation of the raw products of the agricultural, 
mining and lumbering industries. There were 510 establishments 
in 1923, employing 15,347 men and paying $22,886,000 in wages. 
The value of manufactured products was $87,429,000, $44,295,- 
ooo of which was added by manufacture. This exceeds the value 
of any previous year's output, there having been a steady 
increase since the depression of 1921. 

Idaho ranks as the fifth State in the Union in the richness of 
its water-power resources, so that an ample and cheap supply for 
future manufacturing is assured. In resources developed, Idaho 
in 1925 was fourth among the States, 45 plants developing 
224,368 h.p. The valuation of all transmission lines in that year 
was 19,267,718. Water-power resources still undeveloped were 
estimated by the U.S. geological survey at from 2,262,000 to 
5,067,000 horse-power. 

History. Idaho was a part of the "Oregon Country" claimed 
by Spain, Russia, Great Britain and the United States. Spain 
relinquished her claims in 1819, Russia in 1824. Great Britain 
and the U.S. then held the region jointly until a treaty in 1846 
gave the U.S. sole possession south of the 49th parallel. The 
strongest claim of the U S. was exploration by the Lewis and 
Clark expedition, the first known white men in Idaho. The 
expedition found its way across the mountains from Montana 
by Lemhi Pass in Aug. 1805. The leaders intended to follow 
to its mouth the first westward stream they encountered, but 
the impassable canyons along the Salmon forced them to recross 
the range into Montana. They travelled north through the 
Bitter Root valley and turned west to re-enter Idaho through 
Lo Lo Pass. This famous Indian thoroughfare led them down 
the ridges between the tributaries of the Clearwater river until 
they reached its navigable waters. Here they built canoes and 
embarked westward out of the State toward the Columbia. Their 
return in 1806 was by the same route. 

Lewis and Clark were none too early, for in 1809 pavid 
Thompson and Finan McDonald, traders of the North-West 
Company, a British organization, entered Idaho from the north 
and on the shores of Lake Pend Oreille byilt a trading post, the 
first building in the State. In the spring of 1809-10, 46 packs 
of fur of 90 Ib. each were taken out Idaho's first commercial 
contribution to the outside world. In 1810 Andrew Henry, of 
the Missouri Fur company, built the second building in Idaho, 
on Henry's Fork of the Snake river, the first establishment of 
a citizen of the U.S. west of the continental divide. Another 
expedition from the U.S. consisting of 56 men under the com- 
mand of Wilson Price Hunt, was sent overland to the mouth of 
the Columbia river by John Jacob Astor, and visited Fort Henry 
in 1 8 1 1. Their adventures and disasters in attempting to cross 
southern Idaho are accurately and vividly told by Washington 
Irving in Astoria. They were the first party to make the trip 
along the route later followed, in the main, by the Oregon trail. 

During the War of 1812 the Americans were forced to give 
up the region; and with little competition; British traders con- 
trolled the fortunes of Idaho for the next 35 years. In 1818 
Donald McKenzie was put in charge of the Snake river brigade, 

and for four years he led large trapping parties into the region, 
searching for the best beaver territory. These expeditions were 
continued for many years by Peter Skene Ogden and John 
Work, later chiefs of the brigade. Their journals show the thor- 
oughness of their knowledge of the region's topography. In 1834 
Nathaniel Wyeth, a Boston man, built Fort Hall on the upper 
Snake river in an ambitious attempt to establish a trade in the 
region. To draw away his trade the Hudson's Bay Company 
built Fort Boise the same year. Both forts later became famous 
hostelries to emigrants on the Oregon trail. 

Movements over this trail began in 1842, when Dr. Elijah 
White led the first party of 100 to Oregon. Extensive travel 
began the following year, the first train numbering nearly 1,000 
men, women and children. Except for those unfortunates who 
found graves by the wayside, none of these travellers remained 
in Idaho, nor did those thousands remain who later crossed 
south-eastern Idaho on the California trail. It was a back-wave 
of this emigration, lured by the discoveries of gold in 1860, 
that was to result in the permanent settling of the State. 

Meanwhile, the Rev Henry Spalding and his wife, sent out 
by the American Board for Foreign Missions, had established 
a school for the Indians on Lapwai creek, east of Lewiston 
(1836), and the first home of a white family where the first 
white child was born and reared. Seeds were planted in the 
hope of interesting the Indians in agriculture, and apple trees 
were set out and irrigating and power ditches were made and 
used, at the end of which was established and operated a small 
grist and sawmill. The first printing-press in the Oregon country 
was brought to Lapwai by pack-horse and set up to print a 
primer, a hymn-book and the Gospel of Matthew in the Nez 
Perce language. Father Desmet, the pioneer of Catholicism in 
the North-weht, also established the Sacred Heart mission among 
the Coeur d'AIene Indians in 1842 In the spring of 1846 
William Craig located a few miles up Lapwai creek from the 
Spalding mission a homestead of 640 ac., under the Oregon dona- 
tion act, the earliest title in Idaho for which a patent was issued, 
although the title initiated by the Spalding Mission site ten years 
earlier was recognized and bought later by the Government be- 
fore issuance of patent. A Mormon mission and colony had 
been attempted in the valley of the Lemhi river in 1855, but 
were recalled by President Young in 1858 because of the hos- 
tility of the Bannock and Shoshone Indians. In 1860 a band 
of Mormon home-seekers made the first permanent agricultural 
settlement, at Franklin, just north of the southern boundary. 
They thought themselves to be still in Utah, but the survey later 
showed they were in Idaho. Here they proceeded to irrigate 
their little ten-ac. tracts and opened the first school for whites. 

The discovery of gold by Capt. E. D. Pierce in 1860 upon 
Orofino creek, a tributary of the Clearwater river, was more 
potent in the immediate fortunes of the territory. News of the 
rich strike started a stampede from Walla Walla in the spring 
of 1 86 1. In May there were a thousand men in the new town 
of Pierce city, where, about Sept. i, the officials of the first 
county in Idaho began functioning, though as Shoshone county 
of Washington territory. Lewiston was founded at the con- 
fluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers, where the boats un- 
loaded and the pack-trains started. Prospectors soon claimed other 
deposits, and Elk city and Florence became the lively centres of 
new districts to the south. More permanent deposits were dis- 
covered at Warren in 1862. Pack-horse trails were the only ap- 
proach to some of these famous camps high in the rugged 

Gold was discovered in the Boise basin of southern Idaho in 
1862. By 1864 there were 16,000 people in the basin. Idaho 
city was the metropolis. Discoveries were also made in Owyhee 
county, where Ruby city and Silver city became the main camps. 
Silver ledges and gold-bearing quartz were found, and eastern 
capital was attracted by unmistakable signs of permanency. 
Idaho was organized as a territory in 1863, including, in addi- 
tion to its present limits, also Wyoming, Montana and the por- 
tions of Nebraska, North and South Dakota west of the eastern 
line of Colorado continued north. William H. Wallace was ap- 

6 4 


pointed the first governor, and in December the first legislature 
met in Lewiston. In the second legislature, southern Idaho men 
predominated, and the capital was moved to Bois6, where it has 
since remained Idaho's first newspaper, the Golden Age, was 
started in Lewiston, Aug 2, 1862, and in 1863 the publishing 
of the first southern Idaho newspaper, the Boise News, began. 
In 1864 two stage lines were established from the Columbia river 
in the basin, and one from Salt Lake city. The telegraph did 
not reach Boise until 1875 

The influx of miners and ranchers on territory reserved for 
the Indians made the tribes restless. There were three outbreaks 
between 1870 and 1880. The Nez Perce chiefs refused to sign a 
treaty giving up fertile valleys where the whites had already 
settled; and when the Government tried to coerce them, they 
resisted. One expedition sent against them was disastrously 
defeated in Whitebird canyon. After a long period of skirmish- 
ing Gen. Howard met the Indians in a two days' battle near 
Kamiah A charge the second day dislodged the Indians from 
their riflepits, and they fled eastward over the Lo Lo trail. It 
was the beginning of Chief Joseph's masterly retreat of i,3Oom., 
which ended when he was finally captured by Gen. Miles in the 
Bear Paw mountains of Montana The Bannocks, in an ugly 
mood after the Nez Perce war, would not stay on their reserva- 
tion, and hostilities ensued. Their resistance might have been 
formidable had not Buffalo Horn, their able leader, been killed 
early in the war. This broke their spirit, and Gen. Howard 
easily defeated the disorganized remnants of their forces. 

The first agricultural and live stock developments began in 
valleys near the mining districts Such were the Boise, Payette 
and Weiser valleys and the valleys in the vicinity of Lewiston. 
Some settlers raised garden vegetables and oats and wheat, while 
others merely kept horse ranches, and cut the hay along the river 
bottoms for feed Ranches of the latter sort became numerous 
along the Oregon and Montana trails. Cattle and sheep also 
reached Idaho over the Oregon trail, the owners of the herds 
settling in the fertile valleys along the route. Spanish cattle 
came from Utah and California Drought in California in the 
years 1863, 1864 and 1871 sent large herds northward. By 1875 
the ranges were well stocked, and the next year the first drove 
was sent east. The stock industry naturally began in the southern 
counties because the country was not so heavily wooded, nor 
was it so far from the Union Pacific railway, which was de- 
pended upon for transportation The Oregon Short line, which 
was built across southern Idaho in 1882-84, greatly stimulated 
stock raising and general settlement. The building of the North- 
ern Pacific across northern Idaho, 1880-82, did the same for 
that region. One of the wildest stampedes in the history of 
mining took place into this northern Coeur d'Alene country in 
1884. The quartz then discovered was to make this one of the 
richest silver-lead regions in the world. 

Fanning in southern Idaho depended upon irrigation. Private 
enterprises in favourable localities were first resorted to, but 
the land that could be so irrigated was limited. Corporations 
were then formed to build larger canal systems. But they be- 
came so exorbitant in their demands and partial in their grants 
of water that the farmers hated them. Laws were passed whereby 
farmers themselves could control irrigation ditches. In 1894 the 
Carey act gave each of the States i,ooo,oooac. if the State 
would undertake to irrigate the land. After 1902 development 
under this act was rapid, and Idaho has a greater number of 
Carey projects than any other State In 1902 Congress passed 
the Reclamation act, providing for the financing of large devel- 
opments of the Federal Government. The developments in Idaho 
under this act are the Minidoka, King Hill and Boise projects. 
An important feature of the Boise project is the Arrowrock dam, 
35ift. high. The development of dry-land farming in the second 
decade of the present century, especially in Madison, Bonne- 
ville, Fremont, Jefferson, Bingham and Power counties, raised 
the income from agriculture far above that from mining, which 
had formerly been the most valuable industry. Despite the de- 
pression following the World War, agriculture has retained its 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The most valuable of the biennial State reports are 
those of tJhe treasurer, secretary of State, board of equalization, board 
of education, department of public welfare, and department of public 
works. The Annual Report of the Mining Industry, by the inspector 
of mines, contains extensive general and classified bibliographies of 
Idaho mining and geology. The bulletins and pamphlets of the Idaho 
bureau of mines and geology and the bulletins and circulars of the 
department of agriculture are excellent for their respective subjects. 
There is a Manual of Horticulture (1913) published by the State. For 
history and government, see H. H. Bancroft, History of Washington, 
Idaho and Montana (1890) ; John Hailey, History of Idaho (1910) ; 
W. J. McConnell, Early History of Idaho (1913); H. T. French, 
History of Idaho (1914) ; C. J. Brosnan, History of the State of Idaho 
(1918) ; and J. E. Rees, Idaho Chronology (1918), which includes a 
bibliography; also F. E. Lukens, Idaho Citizen (1925). (W. E. B.) 

IDAHO FALLS, a city of E Idaho, U.S A., on the Snake 
river, 123 m. S.W. of the western entrance to Yellowstone park, at 
an altitude of 4,708 ft. ; the county seat of Bonneville county. It is 
on the Oregon Short Line of the Union Pacific system, and on 
Federal highway 91, at the southern terminus of 191. The popu- 
lation was 8,064 in 1920 (90% native white), and was estimated 
locally at 10,752 in 1928. It is the shipping point and trading 
centre of a vast irrigated region of 1,250,000 ac., devoted to a 
variety of crops, and to stock-raising, wool-growing, dairying 
and cheese-making, bee-keeping and cattle and sheep-feeding. In 
or near the city are several large beet sugar factories (including 
the first one built in Idaho, in 1903), a seed-cleaning mill which 
supplies peas and beans for gardens from Maine to California, a 
factory which extracts hundreds of tons of alfalfa and sweet- 
clover honey, grain elevators, flour and potato-flour mills and 
potato and wool warehouses. 

The falls are at the head of a narrow canyon. Here a toll 
bridge was built in 1866, and around it grew up a supply station 
for the freighters travelling the Utah-Montana trail. The town 
was long called Eagle Rock, because an eagle had a nest on a 
large rock in the stream just above the bridge. It was chartered 
as a city in 1891. 

IDAR, an Indian State forming part of the Mahi Kantha 
agency, within the Gujarat division of Bombay. It has an area 
of 1,669 sqm and a pop. (1921) of 226,355. Much of the ter- 
ritory is held by kinsmen of the rajah on feudal tenure. The 
products are grain, oil-seeds and sugar-cane. The town of Idar, 
64 m. N.E. of Ahmedabad, was formerly the capital, but the 
small town of Himmatnagar is the present capital. The State was 
created in the i8th century, by a branch of the great Rathor clan 
of Rajputs, to which Jodhpur and Bikaner belong. It suffered 
from the depredations of the Mahrattas, and still pays tribute to 
the gaekwar of Baroda. In 1901 the succession devolved on the 
famous Sir Pertab Singh, but he abdicated in 1911 to assume the 
regency of Jodhpur, and the present chief, Maharajah Sir Daulat 
Singh ji, is his adopted son. The Maharajah is entitled to a salute 
of 1 5 guns. 

IDAS, in Greek legend, son of Aphareus of the royal house of 
Mcssenc, brother of Lynceus. In Homer (Iliad, ix. 556 et seq.), 
he is ^called the strongest of men on earth. He carried off Mar- 
pessa, daughter of Evenus, as his wife, and dared to bend his 
bow against Apollo, who was also her suitor. Zeus intervened, 
and left the choice to Marpessa, who declared in fivour of Idas, 
fearing that the god might desert her when she grew old (Apol- 
lodorus i. 60-61). The Apharetidae are best known for their 
fight with the Dioscuri. A quarrel had arisen about the division 
of a herd of cattle which the four had stolen. Idas claimed the 
whole, and drove the cattle off to Messene. The Dioscuri over- 
took him and lay in wait in a hollow oak. But Lynceus, whose 
keenness of sight was proverbial, saw Castor through the trunk 
and warned his brother, who thereupon slew the mortal Castor; 
finally Polydeuces slew Lynceus, and Idas was struck by light- 
ning (Apollodorus iii. 134-137; Pindar, Nem., x. 60; Pausanias 
iv. 3. i). According to others, the Dioscuri had carried off the 
daughters of Leucippus* who had been betrothed to the Aphare- 
tidae (Ovid, Fasti, v. 699; Theocritus ami. 137). The scene of 
the combat is placed near the grave of Aphareus at Messene, at 
Aphidne in Attica, or in Laconia; and there are other variations 
of detail in the accounts (see also Hyginus, Fab., So). The grave 
of Idas and Lynceus was shown at Sparta, according to Pausanias 


(iii. 13), whose own opinion, however, is that they were buried 
in Messenia. 

See Roscher's Lexikon s,v. Idas, Leukippidcn, Lynkeus, Marpessa. 


IST EARL OF (1818-1887), British statesman, was bom in Lon- 
don, on Oct. 27, 1818. On leaving Balliol college, Oxford, he be- 
came in 1843 private secretary to Gladstone at the Board of 
Trade, He was afterwards legal secretary to the board ; and after 
acting as one of the secretaries to the Great Exhibition of 1851, 
co-operated with Sir Charles Trevelyan in framing the report 
which revolutionized the conditions of appointment to the Civil 
Service. He succeeded his grandfather as 8th baronet in 1851. 
He entered parliament in 1855 as Conservative M.P. for Dudley, 
and was elected for Stamford in 1858, a seat which he exchanged 
in 1866 for North Devon. Steadily supporting his party, he be- 
came president of the Board of Trade in 1866, secretary of State 
for India in 1867, and chancellor of the exchequer in 1874. * n 
the interval between these last two appointments he had been 
one of the commissioners for the settlement of the "Alabama" 
difficulty with the United States, and on Disraeli's elevation to the 
House of Lords in 1876 he became leader of the Conservative 
party in the Commons. As a finance minister he was largely 
dominated by the lines of policy laid down by Gladstone; but he 
distinguished himself by his dealings with the Debt, especially 
his introduction of the New Sinking Fund '(1876), by which he 
fixed the annual charge for the Debt in such a way as to provide 
for a regular series of payments off the capital. He was trans- 
ferred to the Lords in 1885, when Salisbury became prime 
minister. Taking the titles of earl of Iddesleigh and Viscount St. 
Gyres, he was included in the cabinet as first lord of the treasury. 
In Salisbury's 1886 ministry he was secretary of state for foreign 
affairs, but the arrangement was unsatisfactory, and his resigna- 
tion had just been decided upon when on Jan. 12, 1887, he died 
very suddenly at Salisbury's official residence in Downing Street. 
He wrote Twenty Years of Financial Policy (1862). See Andrew 
Lang, Life of Lord Iddetleigh (1890). 

IDEA, a term used both popularly and in philosophical ter- 
minology with the general sense of "mental vision," (Gr. Idea 
connected with idtlv, to see). To have no idea how a thing 
happened is to be without a mental picture of an occurrence. 
In this general sense it is synonymous with concept (q.v.) in its 
popular usage. In philosophy the term "idea" is common to all 
languages and periods, but there is scarcely any term which has 
been used with so many different shades of meaning. Plato used it 
in the sphere of metaphysics for the eternally existing reality, 
the archetype, of which the objects of sense are more or less im- 
perfect copies. Chairs may be of different forms, sizes, colours and 
so forth, but "laid up in the mind of God" there is the one per- 
manent idea or type, of which the many physical chairs are de- 
rived with various degrees of imperfection. From this doctrine it 
follows that these ideas are the sole reality (see further IDEAL- 
ISM) ; in opposition to it are the empirical thinkers of all time 
who find reality in particular physical objects (see HYLO^OISM, 
EMPIRICISM, etc.). For other meanings of the word see PSY- 

IDEAL means primarily that which is of the nature of an 
idea. It is, however, more commonly used to denote that which 
is perfect or supreme of its kind. See IDEA and IDEALISM. 

IDEALISM, a term generally used for the attitude of mind 
which is prone to represent things in an imaginative light and 
to lay emphasis exclusively or primarily on abstract perfection 
(i.e., on "ideals") (from Gr. ISka, archetype or model, through 
Fr. idfalisme). With this meaning the philosophical use of the 
term has little in common. 

To understand the philosophical theory that has come to be 
known under this title, we may ask (i) what in general it is and 
how it is differentiated from other theories of knowledge and real- 
ity, (2) how it has risen in the history of philosophy, (3) what 
position it occupies at the present time in the world of specu- 
lation. . 

General Definition of Idealism. Idealism as a philosophical 
doctrine conceives of knowledge or experience as a process in 

which the two factors of subject and object stand in a relation of 
entire interdependence on each other as warp and woof. Apart 
from the activity of the self or subject in sensory reaction, mem- 
ory and association, imagination, judgment and inference, there 
can be no world of objects. A thing-in-itsclf which is not a 
thing to some consciousness is an entirely unrealizable, because 
self-contradictory, conception. But this is only one side. It is 
equally true that a subject apart from an object is unintelligible. 
As the object exists for knowledge through the constructive activ- 
ity of the subject, so the subject lives in the construction of the 
object. To seek for the true self in any region into which its oppo- 
site in the form of a not-self does not enter is to grasp a shadow. 
It is in seeking to realize its own ideas in the world of knowledge, 
feeling and action that the mind comes into possession of itself; 
it is in becoming permeated and transformed by the mind's ideas 
that the world develops for us the fullness of its reality as object. 

Thus defined, idealism is opposed to ordinary common-sense 
dualism, which regards knowledge or experience as the result 
of the more or less accidental relation between two separate and 
independent entities the mind and its ideas on one side, the thing 
with its attributes on the other that serve to limit and condition 
each other from without. It is equally opposed to the doctrine 
which represents the subject itself and its states and judgments 
as the single immediate datum of consciousness, and all else, 
whether objects in an external world or persons other than the 
individual subject whose states are known to itself, as having a 
merely problematic existence resting upon analogy or other pro- 
cess of indirect inference. This theory is sometimes known as 
idealism. But it falls short of idealism as above defined in that it 
recognizes only one side of the antithesis of subject and object,, 
and so falls short of the doctrine which takes its stand on the 
complete correlativity of the two factors in experience. It is for 
this reason that it is sometimes known as subjective or .incom- 
plete idealism. Finally the theory defined is opposed to all forms 
of realism, whether in the older form which sought to reduce 
mind to a function of matter, or in any of the newer forms which 
seek for the ultimate essence of both mind and matter in some 
unknown force or energy which, while in itself it is neither, yet 
contains the potentiality of both. It is true that in some modern 
developments of idealism the ultimate reality is conceived of in an 
impersonal way, but it is usually added that this ultimate or abso- 
lute being is not something lower but higher than self-conscious 
personality, including it as a more fully dev?lopecl form may be 
said to include a more elementary. 

Origin and Development of Idealism. In its self-conscious 
form idealism is a modern doctrine. In it the self or subject 
may be said to have come to its rights. This was possible in any 
complete sense only after the introspective movement represented 
by the middle ages had done its work, and the thought of the 
individual mind ; nd will as possessed of relative independence 
had worked itself out into some degree of clearness. In this re- 
spect Descartes' dictum cogito ergo sum may be said to have 
struck the keynote of modern philosophy, and all subsequent 
speculation to have been merely a prolonged commentary upon it. 
While in its completer form it is thus a doctrine distinctive of 
modern times, idealism has its roots far back in the history of 
thought. One of the chief proofs that has been urged of the 
truth of its point of view is the persistency with which it has 
always asserted itself at a certain stage in philosophical reflec- 
tion and as the solution of certain recurrent speculative difficulties. 
All thought starts from the ordinary dualism or pluralism which 
conceives of the world as consisting of the juxtaposition of mu- 
tually independent things and persons. The first movement is in 
the direction of dispelling this appearance of independence. They 
are seen to be united under the relation of cause and effect, as 
attributes of an underlying substance, or again as temporal mani- 
festations of some single entity or energy which constitutes the 
eternal essence of the things that come before our knowledge. 
But in the pantheism that thus takes the place of the old dualism 
there seems no penmnent place left for the individual. Mind 
and will in their individual manifestations fade into the general 
background without significance except as a link in a necessary 



chain. Deliverance from the pantheistic conception of the uni- 
verse was sought in the recognition of the central place occupied 
by thought and purpose in the actual world, and as a consequence 
of this, of the illegitimacy of the abstraction whereby material 
energy is taken for the ultimate reality. 

Ancient Idealism: Socrates and Plato. The first illustra- 
tion of this movement on a large scale was given in the Socratic 
reaction against the pantheistic conclusions of early Greek philo- 
sophy (see IONIAN SCHOOL). The whole movement of which 
Socrates was a part may be said to have been in the direction of 
the assertion of the rights of the subject. Its keynote is to be 
found in the principle "man is the measure." This was inter- 
preted by its author, Protagoras, and by the Sophists in general in 
a subjective sense, with the result that it became the motto of a 
sceptical and individualistic movement in contemporary philo- 
sophy and ethics. It was not less against this form of idealism than 
against the determinism of the early physicists that Socrates 
protested. Along two lines the thought of Socrates led to idealistic 
conclusions which may be said to have formed the basis of all 
subsequent advance, (i) He perceived the importance of the 
universal or conceptual element in knowledge, and thus at a single 
stroke broke through the hard realism of ordinary common sense, 
disproved all forms of naturalism that were founded on the denial 
of the reality of concepts, and cut away the ground from a merely 
sensational and subjective idealism. This is what Aristotle means 
by claiming for Socrates that he was the founder of definition. (2) 
He taught that life was explicable only as a system of ends Good- 
ness consists in the knowledge of what these are It is by his hold 
upon them that the individual is able to give unity and reality 
( to his will. In expounding these ideas Socrates limited himself to 
the sphere of practice. Moreover, the end or ideal of the practical 
life was conceived of in too vague a way to be of much practical 
use. His principle, however, was essentially sound, and led directly 
to the Platonic Idealism. 

Plato extended the Socratic discovery to the whole of reality 
and while seeking to see the pre-Socratics with the eyes of Soc- 
rates sought "to see Socrates with the eyes of the pre-Socratics." 
Not only were the virtues to be explained by their relation to a 
common or universal good which only intelligence could appre- 
hend, but there was nothing in all the furniture of heaven or 
earth which in like manner did not receive reality from the share 
it had in such an intelligible idea or essence. But these ideas 
arc themselves intelligible only in relation to one another and 
to the whole. Accordingly Plato conceived of them as forming 
a system and finding their reality in the degree in which they 
embody the one all-embracing idea, conceived of not under 
the form of an efficient but of a final cause, an inner principle of 
action or tendency in things to realize the fullness of their own 
nature which in the last resort was identical with the nature of the 
whole. This Plato expressed in the myth of the Sun, but the gar- 
ment of mythology in which Plato clothed his idealism, beautiful 
as it is in itself and full of suggestion, covered an essential weak- 
ness. The more Plato dwelt upon his world of ideas, the more they 
seemed to recede from the world of reality, standing over against 
it as principles of condemnation instead of revealing themselves in 
it. In this way the Good was made to appear as an end imposed 
upon things from without by a creative intelligence instead of as 
an inner principle of adaptation. 

Aristotle. -On one side of his thought Aristotle represents a 
reaction against idealism and a return to the position of common- 
sense dualism, but on another, and this the deeper side, he repre- 
sents the attempt to restore the theory in a more satisfactory 
form. His account of the process of knowledge in his logical 
treatises exhibits the idealistic bent in his philosophy. This is as 
far removed as possible either from dualism or from empiricism. 
The universal is the real; it is that which gives coherence and 
individuality to the particulars of sense which apart from it are 
like the routed or disbanded units of an army. Still more mani- 
festly in his Ethics and Politics Aristotle makes it clear that it is 
the common or universal will that gives substance and reality to the 
individual. In spite of these and other anticipations of a fuller 
idealism, the idea remains as a form imposed from without on a 

reality otherwise conceived of as independent of it. As we ad- 
vance from the logic to the metaphysics and from that to his 
ontology, it becomes clear that the concepts are only "categories" 
or predicates of a reality lying outside of them, and there is an 
ultimate division between the world as the object or matter of 
thought and the thinking or moving principle which gives it life. 
It is this that gives the Aristotelian doctrine in its more abstract 
statements an air of uncertainty. Yet besides the particular con- 
tribution that Aristotle made to idealistic philosophy in his logical 
and ethical interpretations, he advanced the case in two directions : 
(a) He made it clear that no explanation of the world could be 
satisfactory that was not based on the notion of continuity in the 
sense of an order of existence in which the reality of the lower was 
to be sought for in the extent to which it gave expression to the 
potentialities of its own nature which were also the potentialities 
of the whole of which it was a part. (6) From this it followed that, 
difficult as we might find it to explain the relation of terms so re- 
mote from each other as sense and thought, the particular and the 
universal, matter and mind, these oppositions cannot in their na- 
ture be absolute. These truths, however, were hidden from Aris- 
totle's successors, who for the most part lost the thread which 
Socrates had put into their hand. When the authority of Aristotle 
was again invoked, it was its dualistic and formal, not its ideal- 
istic and metaphysical, side that was in harmony with the spirit of 
the age. Apart from one or two of the greatest minds, notably 
Dante, what appealed to the thinkers of the middle ages was not 
the idea of reality as a progressive self-revelation of an inner 
principle working through nature and human life, but the formal 
principles of classification which it seemed to offer for a material 
of thought and action accepted from another source. 

Modern Idealism. Modern like ancient idealism came into 
being as a correction of the view that threatened to resolve the 
world of matter and mind alike into the changing manifestations 
of some single non-spiritual force or substance. While, however, 
ancient philosophy may be said to have been unilinear, modern 
philosophy had a twofold origin, and till the time of Kant may be 
said to have pursued two independent courses. 

Cartesianism. All philosophy is the search for reality and 
rational certainty as opposed to mere formalism on the one hand, 
to authority and dogmatism on the other. In this sense modern 
philosophy had a common root in revolt against mediaevalism. In 
England this revolt sought for the certainty and clearness that 
reason requires in the assurance of an outer world given to imme- 
diate sense experience; on the continent of Europe, in the assur- 
ance of an inner world given immediately in thought. Though 
starting from apparently opposite poles and following widely 
different courses the two movements led more or less directly 
to the same results. It is easy to understand how English sensa- 
tionism issued at once in the trenchant naturalism of Hobbes. It 
is less comprehensible how the Cartesian philosophy from the 
starting-point of thought allied itself with a similar point of 
view. This can be understood only by a study of the details of 
Descartes' philosophy. Suffice it to say that in spite of its spirit- 
ualistic starting-point its general result was to give a stimulus to 
the prevailing scientific tendency as represented by Galileo, Kep- 
ler and Harvey to the principle of mechanical explanations of the 
phenomena of the universe. True it was precisely against this that 
Descartes' immediate successors struggled. But the time-spirit 
was too strong for them. Determinism had other forms besides 
that of a crude materialism, and the direction that Malebranche 
succeeded in giving to speculation led to Spinoza's pantheism. 

Berkeley. The foundations of idealism in the modern sense 
were laid by the thinkers who sought breathing room for mind 
and will in a deeper analysis of the relations of the subject to the 
world that it knows. From the outset English philosophy had a 
leaning to the psychological point of view, and Locke was only 
carrying on the tradition of his predecessors and particularly of 
Hobbes in definitely accepting it as the basis of his Essay. It was, 
however, Berkeley who first sought to utilize the conclusions that 
were implicit in Locke's starting-point. Berkeley's statement of 
the view that all knowledge is relative to the subject that no ob- 
ject can be known except under the form which our powers of 



sense-perception, our memory and imagination, our notions and 
inference, give it is still the most striking that we possess. To 
have established this position was a great step in speculation. 
Henceforth ordinary dogmatic dualism was excluded from philo- 
sophy; any attempt to revive it, whether with Dr. Johnson by an 
appeal to common prejudice, or in the more reflective Johnson- 
ianism of the 18th-century Scottish philosophers, must be an 
anachronism. Equally impossible was it thenceforth to assert the 
mediate or immediate certainty of material substance as the cause 
either of events in nature or of sensations in ourselves. But 
with these advances came the danger of falling into error from 
which common-sense dualism and naturalistic monism were free. 
From the point of view which Berkeley had inherited from Locke 
it seemed to follow that not only material substance, but the 
whole conception of a world of objects, is at most an inference 
from subjective modifications which are the only immediately cer- 
tain objects of knowledge. The implications of such a view were 
first clearly apparent when Hume showed that on the basis of it 
there seemed to be nothing that we could confidently affirm except 
the order of our own impressions and ideas. This being so, not 
only were physics and mathematics impossible as sciences of neces- 
sary objective truth, but our apparent consciousness of a per- 
manent self and object alike must be delusive. 

Kant and Leibniz. It was these paradoxes that Kant sought 
to rebut by a more thoroughgoing criticism of the basis of knowl- 
edge the substance of which is summed up in his celebrated 
Refutation of Idealism, wherein he sought to undermine Hume's 
scepticism by carrying it one step further and demonstrating that 
not only is all knowledge of self or object excluded, but the con- 
sciousness of any series of impressions and ideas is itself impos- 
sible except in relation to some external permanent and universally 
accepted world of objects. 

But Kant's refutation of subjective idealism and his vindica- 
tion of the place of the object can be fully understood only when 
we take into account the other defect in the teaching of his prede- 
cessors that he sought in his Critique to correct. In continental 
philosophy the reaction against mechanical and pantheistic ex- 
planations of the universe found even more definite utterance 
than in English psychological empiricism in the metaphysical sys- 
tem of Leibniz, whose theory of self-determined monads can be 
understood only when taken in the light of the assertion of the 
rights of the subject against the Substance of Spinoza and the 
atoms of the materialist. But Leibniz also anticipated Kant in 
seeking to correct the empirical point of view of the English phil- 
osophers. True, sense-given material is necessary in order that we 
may have thought. "But by what means," he asks, "can expe- 
rience and the senses give ideas? Has the soul windows? Is it 
like a writing tablet? Is it like wax? It is plain that all those who 
think thus of the soul make it at bottom corporeal. True, nothing 
is in the intellect which has not been in the senses, but we must 
add except the intellect itself. The soul contains the notions of 
being, substance, unity, identity, cause, perception, reasoning and 
many others which the senses cannot give" (Nouveaux essais, ii. 
i). But Leibniz's conception of the priority of spirit had too little 
foundation, and the different elements he sought to combine were 
too loosely related to one another to stand the strain of the two 
forces of empiricism and materialism that were opposed to his 
idealism. More particularly by the confusion in which he left the 
relation between the two logical principles of identity and of suffi- 
cient reason underlying respectively analytic and synthetic, deduc- 
tive and inductive thought, he may be said to have undermined 
in another way the idealism he strove to establish. It was in seek- 
ing to close up the fissure in his system represented by this dual- 
ism that his successors succeeded only in adding weakness to weak- 
ness by reducing the principle of sufficient reason to that of formal 
identity (see WOLFF) and representing all thought as in essence 
analytic. From this it immediately followed that, so far as the con- 
nection of our experiences of the external world does not show it- 
self irreducible to that of formal identity, it must remain unin- 
telligible. As empiricism had foundered on the difficulty of show- 
ing how our thoughts could be an object of sense experience, so 
Leibnizian formalism foundered on that of understanding how 

the material of sense could be an object of thought. On one view 
as on the other scientific demonstration was impossible. 

The extremity to which philosophy had been brought by em- 
piricism on the one hand and formalism on the other was Kant's 
opportunity. Leibniz's principle of the "nisi intellectus ipse" 
was expanded by him into a demonstration the completest yet 
effected by philosophy of the part played by thought not merely 
in the manipulation of the material of experience but in the ac- 
tual constitution of the object that is known. On the other hand 
he insisted on the objective reference of this activity with- 
out which it was impossible to get beyond the circle of our own 
thoughts. The parts of the Critique of Pure Reason, more par- 
ticularly the "Deduction of the Categories" in which this theory 
is worked out, may be said to have laid the foundation of modern 
idealism "articulum stands aut cadentis doctrinae." In spite of 
the defects of Kant's statement to which it is necessary to re- 
turn the place of the concepts and ideals of the mind and the 
synthetic organizing activity which these involve was established 
with a trenchancy which has been acknowledged by all schools 
alike. The "Copernican revolution" which he claimed to have 
effected may be said to have become the starting-point of all 
modern philosophy. Yet the divergent uses that have been made 
of it witness to the ambiguity of his statement which is trace- 
able to the fact that Kant was himself too deeply rooted in the 
thought of his predecessors and carried with him too much of 
their spirit to be able entirely to free himself from their assump- 
tions ami abstractions. His philosophy was more like Michael- 
angelo's famous sculpture of the Dawn, a spirit yet encumbered 
with the stubble of the material from which it was hewn, than 
a clear cut figure with unmistakable outlines. Chief among these 
encumbering presuppositions was that of a fundamental distinc- 
tion between perception and conception and consequent upon it 
between the synthetic and the analytic use of thought. It is upon 
this in the last resort that the distinction between the phenomenal 
world of our experience and a noumenal world beyond it is 
founded. Kant perceives that "perception without conception is 
blind, conception without perception is empty," but if he goes so 
far ought he not to have gone still further and inquired whether 
there can be any perception at all without a concept, any concept 
which does not presuppose a precept, and, if this is impossible, 
whether the distinction between a world of appearance which is 
known and a world of things-in-themselves which is not, is not 

Hegel. It was by asking precisely these questions that Hegel 
gave the finishing strokes to the Kantian philosophy. The starting- 
point of all valid philosophy must be the perception that the es- 
sence of all conscious apprehension is the union of opposites 
of which that of subject and object is the most fundamental and 
all-pervasive. True, before differences can be united they must 
have been separated, but this merely proves that differentiation 
or analysis is only one factor in a single process. Equally funda- 
mental is the clement of synthesis. Nor is it possible at any point in 
knowledge to prove the existence of a merely given object in whose 
determination the thinking subject has played no part, nor a merely 
thinking subject in whose structure the object is not an organic 
factor. In coming, as at a certain point in its development it does, 
to the consciousness of an object, the mind does not find itself in 
the presence of an opponent, or of anything essentially alien to 
itself but of that which gives content and stability to its own 
existence. True, the stability it seems thus to find is incomplete. 
The mind cannot rest in the immediate appearance of the object 
without involving us in contradiction. The sun does not "rise," 
the dew docs not "fall." But this only means that the unity be- 
tween subject and object to which the gift of consciousness com- 
mits us is incompletely realized in that appearance : the apparent 
truth has to submit to correction and supplementation before 
it can be accepted as real truth. It does not mean that there is 
anywhere a mere fact which is not also an interpretation, nor an 
interpreting mind whose ideas have no hold upon fact. From 
this it follows that ultimate or absolute reality is to be sought 
not beyond the region of experience, but in the fullest and most 
harmonious statement of the facts of our experience. True a com- 



pletely harmonious world whether of theory or of practice remains 
an ideal But the fact that we have already in part realized the 
ideal and that the degree in which we have realized it is the degree 
in which we may regard our experience as trustworthy, is proof 
that the ideal is no mere idea as Kant taught, but the very sub- 
stance of reality. 

Intelligible as this development of Kantian idealism seems in 
the light of subsequent philosophy, the first statement of it in 
Hegel was not free from obscurity. The unity of opposites trans- 
lated into its most abstract terms as the "identity of being and 
not-being," the principle that the "real is the rational," the appar- 
ent substitution of "bloodless" categories for the substance of 
concrete reality gave it an air of paradox in the eyes of meta- 
physicians, while physicists were scandalized by the premature 
attempts at a complete philosophy of nature and history. For 
this Hegel was doubtless partly to blame. But philosophical critics 
of his own and a later day are not hereby absolved from a certain 
perversity in interpreting these doctrines in a sense precisely oppo- 
site to that in which they were intended. The doctrine of the 
unity of contraries so far from being the denial of the law of non- 
contradiction is founded on an absolute reliance upon it. Freed 
from paradox it means that in every object of thought there are 
difterent aspects or elements each of which if brought separately 
into consciousness may be so emphasized as to appear to con- 
tradict another. Unity may be> made to contradict diversity, per- 
manence change, the particular the universal, individuality related- 
ness. Ordinary consciousness ignores these "latent fires"; ordinary 
discussion brings them to light and divides men into factions and 
parties over them; philosophy not because it denies but because 
it acknowledges the law of non-contradiction as supreme is 
pledged to seek a point of view from which they may be seen to 
be in essential harmony with one another as different sides of the 
same truth. The "rationality of the real" has in like manner been 
interpreted as intended to sanctify the existing order. Hegel 
undoubtedly meant to affirm that the actual was rational in the 
face of the philosophy which set up subjective feeling and reason 
against it. But idealism has insisted from the time of Plato on 
the distinction between what is actual in time and space and the 
reality that can only partially be revealed in it. Hegel carried 
this principle further than had yet been done. His phrase does 
not therefore sanctify the established fact but, on the contrary, 
declares that it partakes of reality only so far as it embodies 
the ideal of a coherent and stable system which it is not. As little 
is idealism responsible for any attempt to pass off logical abstrac- 
tions for concrete reality. The "Logic" of Hegel is merely the 
continuation of Kant's "Deduction" of the categories and ideas 
of the reason which has generally been recognized as the soberest 
of attempts to set forth the presuppositions which underlie all 
experience. "What Hegel attempts to show is just that the cate- 
gories by which thought must determine its object are stages in a 
process that, beginning with the idea of 'Being,' the simplest of all 
determinations is driven on by its own dialectic till its reaches the 
idea of self-consciousness. In other words the intelligence when 
it once begins to define an object for itself, finds itself launched 
on a movement of self-asserting synthesis in which it cannot stop 
until it has recognized that the unity of the object with itself in- 
volves its unity with all other objects and with the mind that 
knows it. Hence, whatever we begin by saying, we must ultimately 
say 'mind' " (Caird, Kant, i. 443). 

Idealism in England and America. While the form in 
which these doctrines were stated proved fatal to them in the 
country of their birth, they took deep root in the next genera- 
tion in English philosophy. Here the stone that the builders 
rejected was made the head of the corner. The influences which 
led to this result were manifold. From the side of literature 
the way was prepared for it by the genius of Coleridge, Words- 
worth and Carlyle; from the side of morals and politics by the 
profound discontent of the constructive spirit of the century with 
the disintegrating conceptions inherited from utilitarianism. In tak- 
ing root in England idealism had to contend against the traditional 
empiricism represented by Mill on the one hand and the pseudo- 
Kantianism which was rendered current by Mansel and Hamilton 

on the other. As contrasted with the first it stood for the .neces- 
sity of recognizing a universal or ideal element as a constitutive 
factor in all experience whether cognitive or volitional; as con- 
trasted with the latter for the ultimate unity of subject and ob- 
ject, knowledge and reality, and therefore for the denial of the 
existence of any thing-in-itself for ever outside the range of ex- 
perience. Its polemic against the philosophy of experience has 
exposed it to general misunderstanding, as though it claimed some 
a priori path to truth. In reality it stands for a more thorough- 
going and consistent application of the test of experience. The 
defect of English empiricism from the outset had been the un- 
critical acceptance of the metaphysical dogma of a pure unadul- 
terated sense-experience as the criterion of truth. This assumption 
idealism examines and rejects in the name of experience itself. Sim- 
ilarly it only carried the doctrine of relativity to its logical con- 
clusion in denying that there could be any absolute relativity. 
Object stands in essential relation to subject, subject to object. 
This being so, it is wholly illogical to seek for any test of the truth 
and reality of either except in the form which that relation itself 
takes. In its subsequent development idealism in England has 
passed through several clearly marked stages which may be distin- 
guished as (a) that of exploration and tentative exposition in the 
writings of J. F. Ferrier, J. Hutchison Stirling, Benjamin Jowett, 
W. T. Harris; (6) of confident application to the central problems 
of logic, ethics and politics, fine art and religion, and as a principle 
of constructive criticism and interpretation chiefly in T. H. Green, 
E. Caird, B. Bosanquet; (c) of vigorous effort to develop on fresh 
lines its underlying metaphysics in F. H. Bradley, J. M. E. 
McTaggart, A. E. Taylor, Josiah Royce and others. Under the in- 
fluence of these writers idealism, as above expounded though with 
difference of interpretation in individual writers, may be said 
towards the end of the igth century to have been on its way to 
becoming the leading philosophy in the British Isles and America. 

Reaction against Traditional Idealism. But it was not 
to be expected that the position idealism had thus won for itself 
would remain long unchallenged. It had its roots in a literature 
and in forms of thought remote from the common track; it had 
been formulated before the great advances in psychology which 
marked the course of the century; its latest word seemed to in- 
volve consequences that brought it into conflict with the vital 
interest the human mind has in freedom and the possibility of real 
initiation. It is not, therefore, surprising that there should have 
been a vigorous reaction. This has taken mainly two opposite 
forms. On the one hand the attack has come from the old ground 
of the danger that is threatened to the reality of the external 
world and may be said to be in the interest of the object. On the 
other hand the theory has been attacked in the interest of the 
subject on the ground that in the statuesque world of ideas into 
which it introduces us it leaves no room for the element of move- 
ment and process which recent psychology and metaphysic alike 
have taught us underlies all life. The conflict of idealism with 
these two lines of criticism the accusation of subjectivism on the 
one side, of intellect ualism and rigid objectivism on the other- 
may be said to have constituted the history of Anglo-Saxon 
philosophy during the first two decades of the 20th century. 

New Dualism. Whatever is to be said of ancient Idealism, 
the modern doctrine may be said notably in Kant to have been 
in the main a vindication of the subjective factor in knowledge. 
But that space and time, matter and cause should owe their origin 
to the action of the mind has always seemed paradoxical to com- 
mon sense. Nor is the impression which its enunciation in Kant 
made, likely to have been lightened in this country by the con- 
nection that was sure to be traced between Berkeleyanism and the 
new teaching or by the form which the doctrine received at the 
hands of T. H. Green, its leading English representative between 
1870 and 1880. If what is real in things is ultimately nothing but 
their relations, and if relations are inconceivable apart from the 
relating mind, what is this but the dissolution of the solid ground 
of external reality which my consciousness seems to assure me 
underlies and eludes all the conceptual network by which I try to 
bring one part of my experience into connection with another? 
It is quite true that modern idealists like Berkeley himself have 



sought to save themselves from the gulf of subjectivism by calling 
in the aid of a universal or infinite mind or by an appeal to a 
total or absolute experience to which our own is relative. But 
the former device is too obviously a deus ex machina, the purpose 
of which would be equally well served by supposing with Fichte 
the individual self to be endowed with the power of subconsciously 
extraditing a world which returns to it in consciousness under the 
form of a foreign creation. The appeal to an Absolute on the 
other hand is only to substitute one difficulty for another. For 
granting that it places the centre of reality beyond the individual 
self it does so only at the price of reducing the reality of the latter 
to an appearance; and if only one thing is real what becomes of 
the many different things which again my consciousness assures 
me are the one world with which I can have any practical con- 
cern? To meet these difficulties and give back to us the assur- 
ance of the substantiality of the world without us it has therefore 
been thought necessary to maintain two propositions which are 
taken to be the refutation of idealism, (i) There is given to us 
immediately in knowledge a world entirely independent of and 
different from our own impressions on the one hand and the con- 
ceptions by which we seek to establish relations between them 
upon the other. The relation of these impressions (and for the 
matter of that their inter-relations among themselves) to our 
minds is only one out of many. As a leading writer puts it: "There 
is such a thing as greenness having various relations, among others 
that of being perceived." (Mind, N. S. xii. p. 433.) (2) Things 
may be, and may be known to be simply different. They may ex- 
clude one another, exist so to speak in a condition of armed neu- 
trality to one another, without being positively thereby related to 
one another or altered by any change taking place in any of them. 
As the same writer puts it : "There is such a thing as numerical dif- 
ference, different from conceptual difference," or expressing the 
same thing in other words "there are relations not grounded in the 
nature of the related terms." (Proc. Arist. Soc., 1901, p. no) 

In this double-barrelled criticism it is important to distinguish 
what is really relevant Modern idealism differs from the arrested 
idealism of Berkeley precisely in the point on which dualism in- 
sists. In all knowledge we are in touch not merely with the self 
and its passing states, but with a real object which is different 
from them. On this head there is no difference, and idealism need 
have no difficulty in accepting all that its opponents here contend. 
The difference between the two theories does not consist in any 
difference of emphasis on the objective side of knowledge, but in 
the standard by which the reality of the object is to be tested the 
difference is logical not metaphysical it concerns the definition 
of truth or falsity in the knowledge of the reality which both 
admit. To idealism there can be no ultimate test, but the possibil- 
ity of giving any fact which claims to be true its place in a co- 
herent system of mutually related truths. To this dualism opposes 
the doctrine that truth and falsehood are a matter of mere imme- 
diate intuition: "There is no problem at all in truth and falsehood, 
some propositions are true and some false just as some roses are 
red and some white." (Mind, N. S. xiii. p. 523.) 

Pragmatism. More widespread and of more serious import 
is the attack to which idealism has been subjected from the side 
of the subject and subjective interests which has found expres- 
sion in Pragmatism and kindred movements. Here also it is im- 
portant to distinguish what is relevant from what is irrelevant 
in the line of criticism represented by these writers. There need 
be no contradiction between idealism and a reasonable prag- 
matism. In so far as the older doctrine is open to the charge 
of neglecting the conative and teleological side of experience it 
can afford to be grateful to its critics for recalling it to its own 
eponymous principle of the priority of the "ideal" to the "idea," 
of needs to the conception of their object. The real issue comes 
into view in the attempt, undertaken in the interest of freedom, 
to substitute for the notion of the world as a cosmos (with a 
permanent, resistant structure) one of it as only so far cosmic as 
to be capable of being infinitely moulded to human desire. 

To the older idealism as to the new the essence of mind or 
spirit is freedom. But the guarantee of freedom is to be sought 
for not in the denial of law, but in the whole nature of mind and 

its relation to the structure of experience. Without mind no 
orderly world: only through the action of the subject and its 
"ideas" are the confused and incoherent data of sense-perception 
(themselves shot through with both strands) built up into that 
system of things which we call Nature, and which stands out 
against the subject as the body stands out against the soul whose 
functioning may be said to have created it. On the other hand, 
without the world no mind: only through the action of the environ- 
ment upon the subject is the idealizing activity in which it finds 
its being called into existence. Herein lies the paradox which is 
also the deepest truth of our spiritual life. In interpreting its 
environment first as a world of things that seem to stand in a 
relation of exclusion to one another and to itself, then as a nat- 
ural system governed by rigid mechanical necessity, the mind 
can yet feel that in its very opposition the world is akin to it, 
bone of its bone and flesh of its flesh. What is true of mind is 
true of will. Idealism starts from the relativity of the world to 
purposive consciousness. But this again may be so stated as to 
represent only one side of the truth. It is equally true that the 
will is relative to the world of objects and interests to which 
it is attached through instincts and feelings, habits and sentiments. 
In isolation from its object the will is as much an abstraction as 
thought apart from the world of percepts, memories and associa- 
tions which give it content and stability. And just as mind does 
not lose but gains in individuality in proportion as it parts with any 
claim to the capricious determination of what its world shall be, 
and becomes dominated by the conception of an order which is 
immutable, so the will becomes free and "personal" in proportion 
as it identifies itself with objects and interests, and subordinates 
itself to laws and requirements, which involve the suppression of 
all that is merely arbitrary and subjective. Here, too, subject and 
object grow together. The power and vitality of the one is the 
power and vitality of the other, and this is so because they are 
not two things with separate roots but are both rooted in a com- 
mon reality which, while it includes both is mort than either. 

Seeing nothing but irreconcilable contradiction between the con- 
ceptions of the world as immutable law and a self-determining 
subject the new idealism seeks other means of vindicating the 
reality of freedom. It agrees with older forms of libertarianism 
in taking its stand on the fact of spontaneity as primary and self- 
evidencing, but it is not content to assert its existence side by 
side with rigidly determined sequence. It carries the war into the 
camp of the enemy by seeking to demonstrate that the completely 
determined action which is set over against freedom as the basis 
of explanation in the material world is merely a hypothesis which, 
while it serves sufficiently well the limited purpose for which it 
is devised, is incapable of verification in the ultimate constituents 
of physical nature. There seems in fact nothing to prevent us 
from holding that while natural laws express the average tenden- 
cies of multitudes they give no clue to the movement of indi- 
viduals. Some have gone farther and argued that from the nature 
of the case no causal explanation of any real change in the world 
of things is possible A cause is that which contains the effect, 
but this is precisely what can never be proved with respect to 
anything that is claimed as a real cause in the concrete world. 
Everywhere the effect reveals an element which is indiscoverable 
in the cause with the result that the identity we seek for ever 
eludes us. Even the resultant of mechanical forces refuses to 
resolve itself into its constituents In the "resultant" there is a 
new direction, and with it a new quality the component forces of 
which no analysis can discover. 

It is not here possible to do more than indicate what appear 
to be the valid elements in these two conflicting interpretations of 
the requirements of a true idealism On behalf of the older it 
may be affirmed that no solution is likely to find acceptance 
which involves the rejection of unity and intelligible order as the 
primary principle of our world. The assertion of this principle by 
Kant was the corner-stone of idealistic philosophy in general, 
underlying as it does the conception of a permanent subject not 
less than that of a permanent object. As little from the side of 
logic is it likely that any theory will find acceptance which 
reduces all thought to a process of analysis and the discovery of 

7 o 


abstract identity. There is no logical principle which requires 
that we should derive qualitative change by logical analysis from 
quantitative difference. Everywhere experience is synthetic: it 
gives us multiplicity in unity. Explanation does not require the 
annihilation of all differences but the apprehension of them as 
in organic relation to one another and to the whole to which they 
belong. The revival as in the above argument of the idea that 
the function of thought is the elimination of difference, and 
that rational connection must fail where absolute identity is 
indiscoverable merely shows how imperfectly Kant's lesson has 
been learned by some of those who prophesy in his name. Apart 
from the narrowness which would limit human interest to "prac- 
tice," as pragmatism fain would do, there is paradox in a theory 
which, at a moment when the best inspiration in poetry, sociology 
and physical science comes from the idea of the unity of the world, 
gives in its adhesion to an irrational pluralism on the ground of 
its preponderating practical value. 

On the other hand, idealism would be false to itself if it inter- 
preted the unity which it thus seeks to establish in any sense 
that is incompatible with the validity of moral distinctions and 
human responsibility in the fullest sense of the term. It would 
on its side be, indeed, a paradox if at a time when the validity of 
human ideals and the responsibility of nations and individuals 
to realize them is more universally recognized than ever before 
on our planet, the philosophical theory which hitherto has been 
chiefly identified with their vindication should be turned against 
them. Perhaps the depth and extent of the dissatisfaction are suf- 
ficient evidence that most recent developments are not free from 
ambiguity on this vital issue. But what is thus suggested is not 
a rash departure from the general point of view of idealism, but 
a cautious inquiry into the possibility of reaching a conception 
of the world in which a place can be found at once for the idea 
of unity and determination and of movement and freedom. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. See articles Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, 
Leibniz, Berkeley, Kant, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, Nco-Hegehanism , 
T. H. Green, Works (1900) and Prolegomena to Ethics (1884); W. 
Wallace, Prolegomena to the Study of Hegel (1894) ; F. H. Bradley, 
Appearance and Reality (1X93), Ethical Studies (1928) ; B. Bosanquct, 
Gifford Lectures (1911-12) ; G. M E. McTaggart, Studies in Hegelian 
Dialectic (1896), Cosmology (1901); G. Moyce, Religious Aspect of 
Philosophy (1885), The World and the Individual (1900-01). 

(J. H. Mu.) 

IDELER, CHRISTIAN LUDWIG (1766-1846), German 
chronologist and astronomer, was born near Perlebcrg on Sept. 21, 
1766. After holding various official posts under the Prussian 
government he became professor at the university of Berlin in 
1821, and 18 years later foreign member of the Institute of 
France. From 1816 to 1822 he was tutor to the young princes 
William Frederick and Charles. He died in Berlin on Aug. 10, 
1846. He devoted his life chiefly to the examination of ancient 
systems of chronology. In 1825-26 he published his great work, 
Handbiich der mathematischen und technischen Chronologie (2 
vols. ; 2nd ed., 1883), re-edited as Lehrbuch der Chronologie 
(1831); a supplementary volume, Die Zeitrechnung der Chinesen, 
appeared in 1839. 

TIGATION: Criminal. 

IDENTITY PHILOSOPHY is a system of philosophy 
which treats mind and matter, subject and object or thought and 
existence, as merely two aspects or expressions of the same ulti- 
mate reality (or underlying identity). There are many systems 
of philosophy which answer more or less to this general descrip- 
tion, though different in other respects. Indeed some of them are 
on the verge of idealism, and some are on the verge of material- 
ism. The most familiar instances of Identity Philosophies, ancient 
and modern, are the systems of the Eleatics, Spinoza, Fichte, 
Schelling and Hegel. 

See BODY AND MLND, ONTOLOGY and the articles on the philosophers 
named above. 

IDENTITY, PRINCIPLE OF. Identity means sameness, 
and a thing can only be the same as itself. Two or more things 
may be very similar to each other; they cannot be the same as each 
other, except in the sense of "extremely similar to one another" 

a sense in which "same" and "identical" are sometimes used. In a 
statement of the type "5 is identical with P" S and P can only be 
two names of one and the same object. In all consistent thought 
and discourse it is assumed that the object of thought has a certain 
definite character which it retains more or less. This assumption 
is one of the so-called Laws of Thought. It is known as the 
Postulate or Principle of Identity, and is frequently expressed in 
the formula A is A. This assumption may appear to conflict with 
the obvious changes in the objects of daily experience. But change 
implies identity. A thing is not said to change when something else 
is substituted for it. Change implies a certain continuity or 
identity of the old with the new. In some cases indeed absence of 
change might be strong evidence against identity. If I meet a youth 
who looks exactly like my school-fellow looked forty years ago, I 
am quite sure it is a different person, though possibly closely re- 
lated to him. In calling the Principle of Identity an assumption 
or postulate it is not intended to suggest that it is merely an 
intellectual assumption; it is believed to be true of things, even if 
this cannot be proved to be the case. See THOUGHT, LAWS or. 
For identity in logic see EXPLANATION, and for identity in mathe- 

See also H. W. B. Joseph, Introduction to Logic (1916) ; J. S. 
Mackcn/ic, Elements of Constructive Philosophy (1917). 

IDEOGRAPH, a symbol or character painted, written or in- 
scribed, representing ideas, not sounds; it occurs in Chinese and 
in most Egyptian hieroglyphs (Gr. Idea, idea and ypa<J>tu>, to 
write). (See WRITING.) 

IDES. The name given in the Roman calendar to the i3th day 
of the month with the exception of March, May, July and Oc- 
tober, the Ides in these months falling on the i5th day. See 

IDIOBLAST, a botanical term for an individual cell which 
is distinguished by its shape, size or contents, such as the stone- 
cells in the soft tissue of a pear. 


IDIOM, a form of expression in words, grammatical construc- 
tion, phraseology, etc., which is peculiar to a language; sometimes 
also a variety of a particular language, a dialect (Gr. i6tco/*a, 
something peculiar and personal). 

IDIOSYNCRASY, a physical or mental condition peculiar 
to an individual, usually taking the form of a special suscepti- 
bility to particular stimuli; thus it is an idiosyncrasy of one in- 
dividual that abnormal sensations of discomfort should be ex- 
cited by certain odours or colours, by the presence in the room 
of a cat, etc. ; similarly, certain persons are found to be peculiarly 
responsive or irresponsive to the action of particular drugs. The 
word is also used, generally, of any eccentricity or peculiarity of 
character, appearance, etc. 

IDOCRASE, a rock-forming mineral of complex composition. 
It is a basic calcium and aluminium silicate containing small 
amounts of iron, magnesium, water, fluorine, etc., and sometimes 
boron; the approximate formula is H 8 Ca<,(Al,Fe) a Sir,O,H. It crys- 
tallizes in the tetragonal system, but often exhibits optical anom- 
alies, and the optical sign varies from positive to negative. Well- 
developed crystals are of frequent occurrence. They usually 
have the form of four- or eight-sided prisms terminated by the 
basal planes and pyramid-planes. Crystals are transparent to 
translucent, vitreous in lustre and vary in colour from brown to 
green; a sky-blue variety, called cyprine, owes its colour to the 
presence of a trace of copper. The specific gravity is 3-4 and the 
hardness 6\. The name vesuvianite is also in common use for 
this mineral. 

Idocrase is typically a mineral of contact-metamorphic origin, 
occurring most frequently in crystalline limestones at their con- 
tact with igneous rock-masses; it also occurs in serpentine, chlo- 
rite-schist and gneiss, and is usually associated with garnet, diop- 
side, wollastonite, etc. Localities which have yielded fine crystal- 
lized specimens are the Ala valley in Piedmont, Monte Somma 
(Vesuvius), the River Wilui in Siberia ("wiluite"), Christiansand 
in Norway, etc. When found as transparent crystals of a good 
green or brown colour it is occasionally cut as a gem-stone. A 
compact variety ( "calif ornite"), closely resembling jade in appear- 


7 1 

ance, has been used as an ornamental stone. 

ID()L, in philosophy, means a prejudice of some kind which 
is a hindrance to objective, impartial or free thought. The term 
was first used in this sense by Giordano Bruno and adopted from 
him by Francis Bacon, who is chiefly responsible for the vogue 
which it has. Bacon distinguished four kinds of idols, namely: 
(i) idols of the tribe, prejudices more or less common to the 
whole human race; (2) idols of the cave, prejudices peculiar to 
individuals; (3) idols of the market place, prejudices encouraged 
by one's social group and mother tongue; (4) idols of the theatre, 
or prejudices or false notions taught and encouraged by various 
schools of thought. 

See F. Bacon, Novum Organum. 

IDOLATRY, the worship of idols, i e., images or other ob- 
jects believed to represent or be the abode of a superhuman 
personality. The term is often used generically to include such 
varied forms as litholatry, dcndrolatry, pyrolatry, zoolatry and 
even necrolatry. In an age when the study of religion was prac- 
tically confined to Judaism and Christianity, idolatry was regarded 
as a degeneration from an uncorrupt primeval faith, but the com- 
parative and historical investigation uf religion has shown it to 
be rather a stage of an upward movement, and that by no means 
the earliest. 

As the earlier stages in the development of the religious con- 
sciousness persist and are often manifest in idolatry, so in the 
higher stages, when men have attained loftier spiritual ideas, 
idolatry itself survives and is abundantly visible as a reactionary 
tendency. The history of the Jewish people whom the prophets 
sought, for long in vain, to wean from worshipping images is an 
illustration; so, too, the vulgarities of modern popular Hinduism 
contrasted with the lofty teaching of the Indian sacred books. 

In the New Testament the word eid^XoXarpeia (idolol atria), 
afterwards shortened occasionally to cftScoXarpeta (idolatria), 
occurs in all four times, viz., in i Cor. x 14; Gal. v. 20; i Peter 
iv. 3; Col. iii. 5. In the last of these passages it is used to 
describe the sin of covetousness or "mammon-worship " In the 
other places it indicates with the utmost generality all the rites 
and practices of those special forms of paganism with which 
Christianity first came into collision. It can only be understood 
by reference to the LXX., where et&oXop (like the word "idol" in 
A.V.) occasionally translates indifferently no fewer than 16 words 
by which in the Old Testament the objects of what the later Jews 
called "strange worship" are denoted (see Encyclopaedia Biblica). 
In the widest acceptation of the word, idolatry in any form is 
absolutely forbidden in the second commandment, which runs: 
"Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image; [and] to no 
visible shape in heaven above, or in the earth beneath, or in the 
water under the earth, shalt thou bow down or render service." 

It is obvious that two religious votaries in an attitude of 
reverence before an image may be moved by very different ideas 
of what the image is and signifies, although their outward atti- 
tude is the same. The one may regard it as merely an image, 
picture, or representation of a higher being, and in itself void of 
value or power. Its value is that of mere resemblance or some 
kind of acquired association. But the other may regard it as the 
tenement or vehicle of the god and fraught with Divine influence. 
In modern Christendom the former is the attitude which the 
Roman Church officially inculcates towards sacred pictures and 
statues; they are intended to convey to the eyes of the faithful, 
especially to the illiterate among them, facts about Jesus, the 
Virgin, and the Saints. The other attitude is that in*o which 
simple-minded peasants may easily lapse, as it is that which 
characterizes other religions, ancient or modern, which use images 
of any kind; and it is this attitude which may be conveniently 
called "idolatry" or image-worship. 

The invectives against idolatry of the early Jewish and Chris- 
tian apologists, of Philo, Minucius, Felix, Tertullian, Arnobius, 
Lactantius, and others, throw light on the question how an ancient 
pagan regarded his idols. One capital argument of the Christians 
was the absurdity of a man making an idol and then adoring or 
being afraid of the work of his own hands. Lactantius preserves 

the answer of the pagans so criticized (De origine erroris, ii. 2): 
we do not, they said, fear the images themselves, but those beings 
after whose likeness they were fashioned and by whose names 
they were consecrated. And Augustine (De civ. dei, viii. 23) 
relates how, according to Hermes, the spirits entered "by invita- 
tion" so that the images became "bodies of the gods." Image- 
worship is essentially a form or rather an outcome of animism, 
now known to represent a type of religion arising subsequently 
to its really primitive forms. An image fashioned like a god and 
having this advantage over a mere stock or stone, that it declares 
itself and reveals at a glance to what god it is sacred, is believed 
to attract and influence the god to choose it as his home and 
tenement. Religious ceremonial is much more hopeful and effica- 
cious for a worshipper who thus has means of approaching the 
god he worships in visible and tangible form, and even of coercing 
it. Having the god thus at hand and bound up with the material 
object, the simple-minded worshipper can punish it if his prayers 
are left unanswered (cf. Tylor, Primitive Culture, ii. 170). 
Suetonius relates (Aug. 16) that Augustus, having lost some ships 
in a storm, punished Neptune by refusing to allow his image to 
be carried in procession at the games. See RELIGION (History 
of), and ANIMISM with references there to be found. 

BiBMOGRM'HY. On the whole subject see art. "Images and Idols" 
in Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, vol vii. (1914), 
with extensive bibhogiaphy and references; also Tylor, Primitive 
Culture (ed. igo.O ; Farnell, Evolution of Religion (1905). 

IDOMENEUS (e-dom-en-us), in Greek legend, son of Deu- 
calion, grandson of Minos and Pasiphae, and king of Crete. He 
courted Helen, and took a distinguished part in the Trojan War. 
According to Homer (Odyswv, iii. 191), he returned home safely 
with all his countrymen who had survived the war; in later tradi- 
tion, having been overtaken by a violent storm, he vowed to sacri- 
fice to Poseidon the first living thing that met him when he reached 
home. This proved to be his son, whom he slew in accordance 
with his vow; whereupon a plague broke out and Idomeneus was 
driven out. He fled to the district of Sallentum in Calabria, and 
subsequently to Colophon in Asia Minor, where he settled near 
the temple of the Clarian Apollo and was buried on Mt Cercaphus 
(Virgil, Aeneid, iii. 121, 400, 531, and Servius on those passages). 
But the Cretans showed his grave at Cnossus, where he was 
worshipped as a hero with Meriones (Diod Sic. v. 79). 

For this story (a well-known mdrchcn, "Home-comer's Vow," cf 
Jephtha's daughter) see H. J. Rose Handbook of Greek Mythology 

(IQ28), Ch. X. 

IDRIA, a mining town in the province of Gorizia, Italy, 29 
m. N E by road from Gorizia Pop. (1921) 5,041 (town), 5,592 
(commune). It is in the narrow Alpine valley of the Idria, an 
affluent of the Isonzo, and has rich mines of quicksilver acci- 
dentally discovered in 1490 The mercurial ore lies in a bed of 
clay slate, and is found both mingled with schist and in the form 
of cinnabar The yield of pure metal is high compared with the 
amount of the refuse The mines of Idria rank second to those of 
Almaden in Spain, which are the richest in the world. 

IDRIALIN, a mineral wax accompanying the mercury ore in 
Idria. According to Goldschmidt it can be extracted by means 
of xylol, amyl alcohol or turpentine; also without decomposi- 
tion, by distillation in a current of hydrogen, or carbon dioxide. 
It is a white crystalline body, with difficulty fusible, boiling 
above 440 C (824 F ), of the composition C,oH_*,O Its solution 
in glacial acetic acid, by oxidation with chromic acid, yields 
a red powdery solid and a fatty acid fusing at 62 C., and 
exhibiting all the characters of a mixture of palmitic and 
stearic acids. 

IDRISI or Edrisi (Abu Abdallah Mohammed Ibn Moham- 
med Ibn Abdallah Ibn Idrisi, c. AD. 1099-1154), Arabic geog- 
rapher. His great -grandfather, Idrisi II , "Biamrillah," i mem- 
ber of the princely house which had reigned as caliphs in north- 
west Africa, was prince of Malaga. After his death in 1055, 
Malaga was seized by Granada, and the Idrisi family then prob- 
ably migrated to Ceuta, where a freedman of theirs held power. 
Here the geographer was born in A H. 493 (A.D. 1099). He stud- 
ied at Cordova and visited before AD. 1154, both Lisbon and 


the mines of Andalusia. He had also resided near Morocco city, 
and once was at (Algerian) Constantine. In AD. 1117 he visited 
the cave of the Seven Sleepers at Ephesus; he probably travelled 
extensively in Asia Minor. Some have inferred that he had seen 
part of the coasts of France and England. Roger II. of Sicily 
(1101-54) invited him to his court between 1125 and 1150. Idrisi 
made for the Norman king a celestial sphere and a disk represent- 
ing the known world of his day both in silver. Roger bestowed on 
him rich presents, and employed him in the compilation of a fresh 
description of the "inhabited earth" from observation. The king 
and his geographer sent emissaries to various countries to observe, 
record and design ; and Idrisi inserted in the new geography the 
information they brought. Thus was gradually completed (by the 
month of Shawwal, AH. 548 * mid- January, AD. 1154), the fa- 
mous work, best known, from its patron and originator, as Al 
Rojari, but whose fullest title seems to have been, The going out 
of a Curious Man to explore the Regions of the Globe, its Prov- 
inces, Islands, Cities and their Dimensions and Situation. This 
has been abbreviated to The Amusement of him who desires to 
traverse the Earth, or The Relaxation of a Curious Mind. The 
title of Nubian Geography, based upon Sionita and Hezronita's 
misreading of a passage relating to Nubia and the Nile, is mis- 
leading. The Rogerian Treatise contains a full description of the 
world as far as it was known to the author. The "inhabited earth" 
is divided into seven "climates," beginning at the equinoctial 
line, and extending northwards to the limit at which the earth 
was supposed to be rendered uninhabitable by cold. Each climate 
is then divided by perpendicular lines into eleven equal parts, 
beginning with the western coast of Africa and ending with the 
eastern coast of Asia. The whole world is thus formed into 77 
equal square compartments. The inconveniences of the arrange- 
ment (ignoring all divisions, physical, political, linguistic or re- 
ligious, which did not coincide with those of his "climates") are 

We find few traces of his influence on European thought and 
knowledge. The chief exception is perhaps in the delineation of 
Africa in the world-maps of Marino Sanuto (q.v.) and Pietro 
Vesconte. His account of the voyage of the Maghrurin or "De- 
ceived Men" of Lisbon in the Atlantic (a voyage on which they 
seem to have visited Madeira and one of the Canaries) may have 
had some effect in stimulating the later ocean enterprise of Chris- 
tian mariners; but we have no direct evidence. In spite of the 
record of the Lisbon Wanderers, he shares the common Muslim 
dread of the black, viscous, stormy and wind-swept waters of the 
western ocean, whose limits no one knew, and over which thick 
and perpetual darkness brooded But his breadth of view, his 
recognition of scientific truths (such as the roundness of the 
world) and his wide knowledge and intelligent application of 
preceding work (such as that of Ptolemy, Masudi and Al Jayhani) 
must not be forgotten. He also preserves and embodies a con- 
siderable amount of private and special information especially 
as to Scandinavia, portions of the African coast, the river Niger 
(whose name is perhaps first to be found, after Ptolemy's doubt- 
ful Nigeir, in Idrisi), portions of the African coast, Egypt, Syria, 
Italy, France, the Adriatic shore-lands, Germany and the Atlan- 
tic islands. Unfortunately the place-names are often illegible 
or hopelessly corrupted in the manuscripts. Idrisi's world-map, 
with all its shortcomings, is perhaps the best product of the 
Mohammedan cartography of the middle ages. 

Besides the Rojari, Idrisi wrote another geographical work cited 
by Abulfida as The Book of Kingdoms, but apparently entitled 
by its author The Gardens of Humanity and the Amusement of the 
Soul. This was composed for William the Bad (1154-66), son 
and successor of Roger II., but is now lost. 

Two manuscripts of Idrisi exist in the Bibliothque Nationalc, Paris, 
and two others m the Bodleian Library, Oxford. One of the English 
mss., brought from Egypt by Greaves, is illustrated by a map of the 
known world, and by 33 sectional maps (for each part of the first three 
climates) . The second manuscript, brought by Pococke from Syria, is 
dated A.K. 906, or A.D. 1500. It consists of 320 leaves, and is illus- 
trated by one general and 77 particular maps. The general map was 
published by Dr Vincent in his Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. A copy 
of Idrisi's work in the Escorial was destroyed by the fire of 1671. 

A French translation of the whole of Idnsi's geography, based on one 

of the mss. of the Bibliothfcque Nationale, Paris, was published by 
Am6d6e Jaubert in 1836-40, and forms volumes v. and vi. of the 
Recueil de voyages issued by the Paris Society de Geographic. Part of 
a contemplated critical edition was prepared by de Goeje Description 
de I'Afriquc et de I'Espagne par Edrisi, textt arabe> publit avec une 
traduction, de$ notes et un glossaire par R. Dozy et M. J. de Goeje 
(Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1866). Other parts of Idrisi's work have been 
separately edited; e.g., "Spain" (Description de Espana de . . . Aled- 
m), by J. A. Cond, in Arabic and Spanish (Madrid, 1799) ; "Sicily" 
(Descripzione della Sicilia . . . di Elidris), by P. D. Magri and F. 
Tardia (Palermo, 1764); "Italy" (Italia d scritta net "libro del Re 
Ruggero," compilato da Edrisi), by M. Amari and C. Schiaparelli, in 
Arabic and Italian (Rome, 1883) ; "Syria" (Syria descripta a ... El 
Edrisio . . . ), by E F. C. Rosenmiiller, in Arabic and Latin, 1825, 
and (Idrisii . . . Syria), by J. Gildemeister (Bonn, 1885) (the last 
a Beilage to vol. yiii. of the Zeitschrift d deutsch. Palastina-Vereins) . 
See also M. Casiri, Bibliotheca Arabico-Hispana Escurialensis (2 vols., 
Madrid, 1760-70) ; V. Lagus, "Idrisii notitiam terrarura Balticarum ex 
commerciis Scandinavorum et Italorum . . . ortam esse" in Atti del 
IV Congresso internaz. degli orientalisti in Firenze, p. 395 (Florence, 
x88o) ; R. A. Brandel, "Om och ur den arabiske geografen Idrisi," 
Akad. afhand. (Upsala, 1894). (C. R. B.) 

IDUMAEA, the Greek equivalent of Edom (OIK), a territory 
which, in the works of the Biblical writers, is considered to lie 
S.E. of the Dead Sea, between the land of Moab and the Gulf of 
Akaba. The apparently theophorous name Obed-Edom (2 Sam. 
vi. 10) shows that Edom is the name of a divinity. 

The early history of Edom is obscure ; Egyptian references to 
it are few, and do not give us much light regarding its early 
inhabitants. In the early records of the Pentateuch, the country 
is often referred to by the name of Seir, the general name for the 
whole range of mountains on the east side of the Jordan-Araba 
depression south of the Dead Sea. These mountains were occu- 
pied, as early as we can find any record, by a cave-dwelling abo- 
riginal race known as Horites, who were smitten by the much- 
distussed king Chedorlaomer (Gen, xiv. 6) and according to 
Deut. ii. 22 were driven out by the Semitic tribes of Esau's 
descendants. The Horites are to us little more than a name, though 
the discovery of cave-dwellers of very early date at Gezer in the 
excavations of 1902-1905 has enabled us to form some idea as to 
their probable culture-status and physical character. 

The occupants of Edom during practically the whole period of 
Biblical history were the Bedouin tribes which claimed descent 
through Esau from Abraham, and were acknowledged by the 
Israelites (Deut. xxiii. 7) as kin. That they intermarried with 
the earlier stock is suggested by the passage in Gen. xxxvi 2, 
naming, as one of the wives of Esau, Aholibamah, daughter of 
Zibeon the Horite (corrected by verse 20). Among the pecu- 
liarities of the Edomites was government by certain officials 
known as o^Vn > which the English versions (by too close a 
reminiscence of the Vulgate duces) translate "dukes." The now 
naturalized word "sheikhs" would be the exact rendering. In 
addition to this Bedouin organization there was the curious insti- 
tution of an elective monarchy, some of whose kings are cata- 
logued in Gen. xxxvi. 31-39 and i Chron. i. 43-54. These kings 
reigned at some date anterior to the time of Saul. No deductions 
as to their chronology can be based on the silence regarding them 
in Moses's song, Exodus xv. 15. There was a king in Edom (Num. 
xx. 14) who refused passage to the Israelites in their wanderings. 

In later times by the constant westward pressure of the eastern 
Arabs, which (after the restraining force of the great Mesopo- 
tamian kingdoms was weakened) assumed irresistible strength, 
the ancient Edomites were forced across the Jordan-Araba de- 
pression, and with their name migrated to the south of western 
Palestine. In i Maccabees v. 65 we find them at Hebron, and this 
is one of the first indications that we discover of the cis-Jordanic 
Idumaea of Josephus and the Talmud. 

Josepbus used the name Idumaea as including not only Goba- 
litis, the original Mount Seir, but also Amalekitis, the land of 
Anlalek, west of this, and Akrabatine, the ancient Acrabbim, S.W. 
of the Dead Sea. Jerome describes Idumaea as extending from 
Beit Jibrin to Petra, and ascribes the great caves at the former 
place to cave-dwellers like the aboriginal Horites. Ptplemy's 
account presents us with the last stage, in which the name Idumaea 
is entirely restricted to the cis-Jordanic district, and the old 
trans-Jordanic region is absorbed in Arabia. (R. A. S. M. ; X.) 



IDUN or IDUN A, in Scandinavian mythology, the goddess of 
youth and spring, daughter of the dwarf Svald, wife of Bragi, was 
keeper of the golden apples, the eating of which preserved to the 
gods their eternal youth. Idun personifies the year between March 
and September, and her myth represents the annual imprisonment 
of spring by winter. 

IDYL or IDYLL, a short poem of a pastoral or rural char- 
acter, in which something of the element of landscape is pre- 
served or felt. The earliest commentators of antiquity used the 
term to designate a great variety of brief and homely poems, in 
which the description of natural objects was introduced, but the 
pastoral idea came into existence in connection with the Alexan- 
drian school and particularly with Theocritus, Bion and Moschus, 
in the 3rd century before Christ. It appears, however, that 
cMuXXtov was not, even then, used consciously as the name of a 
form of verse, but as a diminutive of eWos, and merely signified 
"a little piece in the style of" whatever adjective might follow. 
Thus the idyls of the pastoral poets were cJSuXXm a7roX*ai, 
little pieces in the goatherd style. We possess ten of the so-called 
"Idyls" of Theocritus, and these are the type from which the 
popular idea of this kind of poem is taken. The word was revived 
at the Renaissance. In 1658 the English critic, Edward Phillips, 
defined an "idyl" as "a kind of eclogue," but it was seldom used 
to describe a modern poem. The general use, or abuse, of the word 
in the second half of the iQth century, both in English and 
French, arises from the popularity of two works, by two eminent 
poets. The Idylles heroiques (1858) of Victor de Laprade and 
the Idylls of the King (1859) of Tennyson enjoyed a success in 
either country which led to a wide imitation of the title among 
those who had, perhaps, a very inexact idea of its meaning. On 
the whole, it is impossible to admit that the idyl has a place 
among definite literary forms. 

IESI (anc. Aesis), a town and episcopal see of the Marches, 
Italy, province of Ancona, 17 m. W. by S from Ancona town by 
rail, 318 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1921) i5>759 (town), 25,949 
(commune). It lies on the left bank of the river Aesis (mod. 
Esino). It still retains its picturesque mediaeval town walls S. 
Marco is an interesting ijth century church. The Palazzo del Co- 
mune is a fine, simple, early Renaissance building (1487-1503) by 
Francesco di Giorgio Martini The courtyard with its loggie was 
built by Andrea Sansovino in 1519. The picture gallery con- 
tains some good pictures by Lorenzo Lotto. The castle was built 
by Baccio Pontelii (1488). lesi was the birthplace of the emperor 
Frederic II. (1194), and also of the composer Giovanni Battista 
Pergolesi (1710-1736). The silk spinning industry is of consider- 
able importance. The Aesis formed the boundary of Italy proper 
from about 250 B.C. to the time of Sulla (c. 82 B.C.); and, in 
Augustus' division of Italy, that between Umbria (the 6th region) 
and Picenum (the 5th). 

See L. Marinelii in Cronache d'Arte iv. (1928) "Le Mure di lesi." 

IFFLAND, AUGUST WILHELM (1750-1814), German 
actor and dramatic author, was born at Hanover on April 19, 
1759. At 18 the boy ran away to Gotha in order to prepare 
himself for a theatrical career. He was taught by Hans Ekhof, 
and in 1779 was engaged at the Mannheim theatre, then rising 
into prominence. In 1796 he settled in Berlin, where he became 
director of the national theatre of Prussia; and in 1811 he was 
made general director of all representations before royalty. Iffland 
produced the classical works of Goethe and Schiller with con- 
scientious care; but the kind of play in which he was most at 
home, both as actor and playwright, was the domestic drama, the 
sentimental play of everyday life. Among his best-known plays 
are Die Jdger, Dienstpflkht, Die Advokaten, Die Mundel and 
Die Hagestolzen. In 1798-1802 he issued his Dramatische Werke 
in 1 6 volumes, to which he added an autobiography (Meine the- 
atralische Laufbahn). In 1807-09 Iffland brought out two vol- 
umes of Neue dramatische Werke. Iffland died at Berlin on Sept. 
22, 1814. 

See K. Duncker, Iffland in seinen Schriften ah Kiinstler, Lekrer, und 
Direktor der Berliner Buhne (1859) ; W. Koffka, Iffland und Dalberg 
(1865) ; and Lampe, Studien uber Iffland als Dramatiker (Celle, 1899). 
Iffland's interesting autobiography, Meine theatralisehe Laufbahn, was 
republishcd by H. Holstein in 1885. 

IGARA, a people closely resembling the Yoruba, inhabiting 
the provinces of Munshi and Nassarawa, Northern Nigeria, and 
who speak a Yoruba dialect. 

See Meek, The Northern Tribes of Nigeria (1925). 


IGLESIAS, a town and episcopal see of Sardinia in the 
province of Cagliari, 34 m. W.N.W. from Cagliari by rail, 620 ft. 
above sea-level. Pop. (1921) 11,651 (town), 19,844 (commune). 
It is a mining centre with a school of mines in the southwestern 
mountains. Minerals go by a small railway via Monteponi (with 
its large lead and zinc mine) to Portovesme (15 m. S.W. of 
Iglesias in the sheltered gulf of Carloforte) where they are shipped. 
The cathedral of Iglesias, built by the Pisans, has a good facade 
(restored); the interior is late Spanish Gothic. San Francesco is 
a line Gothic church with a gallery over the entrance, while Sta. 
Chiara and the church of the Capuchins (the former dating from 
1285) are transitional Romanesque Gothic. The battlemented 
town wallb are well preserved; the castle, built in 1325, now con- 
tains a glass factory. 

IGLESIAS POSSE, PABLO (1850-1925), Spanish poli- 
tician was born at El Ferrol on Oct. 15, 1850. On the death 
of his father he was placed in a foundling asylum where after 
repeated attempts at escape he remained for some years. In 
1871 he became secretary of the International Proletarian Federa- 
tion and in 1872 founded the Typographical Societies of which he 
became president in 1885. He helped form the first Spanish 
Socialist group in 1879 and was elected to the House of Deputies 
in 1910. In 1923, when Primo de Rivera overthrew the con- 
stitution and closed the doors of the Cortes, he was chief of the 
Parliamentary Socialist Party. He became editor of El Socialista, 
the organ of the Spanish labour movement in 1886. For activi- 
ties on behalf of the workers he served eight terms of imprison- 
ment He died in Madrid on Dec 8, 1925 

See Melid, Pablo Iglesia* Posse. Rasgos de su vtda intima (1926). 

1908), Russian diplomatist, was bom at St Petersburg (Lenin- 
grad) on Jan 29, 1832 At 17 he became an officer of the Guards 
His diplomatic career began at the Congress of Paris, after the 
Crimean War, where he took an active part as military attach^ 
in the negotiations regarding the rectification of the Russian 
frontier on the Lowci Danube Two years later (1858) he was 
sent with a small escort on a dangerous mission to Khiva and 
Bokhara. The khan of Khiva laid a plan for detaining him as a 
hostage, but he returned, safely, after concluding with the khan 
of Bokhara a treaty of friendship He was Russian envoy at 
Peking when the Chinese Government was terrified by the advance 
of the Anglo-French expedition of 1860 and the burning of the 
Summer Palace; he used the occasion to secure for Russia not 
only the left bank of the Amur, the original object of the mission, 
but also a large extent of territory and sea-coast south of that 
river. Ignatiev was ambassador at Constantinople from 1864 till 
1877. Here his chief aim was to liberate from Turkish domination 
and bring under the influence of Russia the Christian nationalities 
in general and the Bulgarians in particular. His diplomacy led up 
to the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78, at the close of which he 
negotiated with the Turkish plenipotentiaries the treaty of San 
Stefano. Ignatiev then retired in semi-disgrace. After the ac- 
cession of Alexander III in 1 88 1, he was appointed minister of 
the interior to carry out a nationalist, reactionary policy, but 
was dismissed in 1882 He died on July 3, 1908. 

IGNATIUS ('lyyATios), bishop of Antioch, a father of the 
Church. Our only trustworthy information is derived from the 
letters which he wrote to various churches on his last journey 
from Antioch to Rome, and from the short epistle of Polycarp 
to the Philippians For the complicated controversy over the 
three recensions of the letters of Ignatius the reader is referred 
to the authorities quoted in the bibliography. The general con- 
sensus of opinion appears to be that the letters contained in the 
Medicean ms at Florence, addressed to the Ephesians, Mag- 
nesians, Trallians, Romans, Philadelphians, Smyrnaeans and to 
Polycarp are genuine, and that they were written in the reign of 
Trajan. Harnack placed them in the latter years of Trajan or 



possibly 117-125. Most scholars date them a few years earlier 

The letters of Ignatius unfortunately, unlike the Epistles of St. 
Paul, contain scant autobiographical material. We are told ab- 
solutely nothing about the history of his career. The fact that 
like St. Paul he describes himself as an ^/crpoj/xa (Rom. 9), and 
that he speaks of himself as "the last of the Antiochene Chris- 
tians" (Trail. 13; Smyrn. xi ), seems to suggest that he had been 
converted from paganism somewhat late in life and that the 
process of conversion had been abrupt and violent. He bore the 
surname of Theophorus, ie. t "God-clad" or "bearing God." 
At the time when the Epistles were written he had just been 
sentenced to death, and was being sent in charge of a band of 
soldiers to Rome to fight the beasts in the amphitheatre. The 
fact that he was condemned to the amphitheatre proves that he 
could not have been a Roman citizen. We lose sight of him at 
Troas, but the presumption is that he was martyred at Rome. 

But if the Epistles tell us little of the life of Ignatius, they 
give us an excellent picture of the man himself, and are a mirror 
in which we see reflected certain idealb of the life and thought 
of the day. Ignatius, as Schaff says, "is the incarnation of three 
closely connected ideas: the glory of martyrdom, the omni- 
potence of episcopacy, and the hatred of heresy and schism" 

Zeal for martyrdom in later days became a disease in the 
Church, but in the case of Ignatius it is the marl: of a hero. The 
heroic note runs through all the Epistles; thus he says: 

I bid all men know that of my own free will I die for God, unless 
ye should hinder me . . . Let me be given to the wild beasts, for 
through them I can attain unto God. I am God's wheat, and I 
am ground by the wild beasts that I may be found the pure bread 
of Christ Entice the wild beasts that they may become my sepulchre 
. . . ; come fire and cross and grapplinps with wild beasts, wrench- 
ing of bones, hacking of limbs, crushings of my whole body; only 
be it mine to attain unto Jesus Christ (Rom. 4-5). 

Ignatius constantly contends for the recognition of the author- 
ity of the ministers of the church. "Do nothing," he writes to the 
Magnesians, "without the bishop and the presbyters." The "three 
orders" are essential to the church; without them no church is 
worthy of the name (cf. Trail. 3) "It is not lawful apart from 
the bishop either to baptize or to hold a love-feast" (Smyrn. 8). 
Respect is due to the bishop as to God, to the presbyters as the 
council of God and the college of apostles, to the deacons as to 
Jesus Christ (Trail. 3). These terms must not, of course, be 
taken in their developed modern sense. The "bishop" of Ignatius 
seems to represent the modern pastor of a church. As Zahn has 
shown, Ignatius is not striving to introduce a special form of 
ministry, nor is he endeavouring to substitute one form for an- 
other. His particular interest is not so much in the form of 
ministry as in the unity of the church. Centrifugal forces were at 

Ignatius was resisting this fatal tendency which threatened 
ruin to the faith. The only remedy for it in those days was to 
exalt the authority of the ministry and make it the centre of 
church life. It should be noted that (i) there is no trace of the 
later doctrine of apostolical succession; (2) the ministry is never 
sacerdotal in the letters of Ignatius As Light foot puts it: "The 
ecclesiastical order was enforced by him (Ignatius) almost solely 
as a security for doctrinal purity. The threefold ministry was 
the husk, the shell, which protected the precious kernel of the 
truth" (i. 40). 

Ignatius fights most vehemently against the current forms of 
heresy. The chief danger to the church came from the Docetists 
who denied the reality of the humanity of Christ and ascribed 
to him a phantom body. Hence we find Ignatius laying the utmost 
stress on the fact that Christ "was truly born and ate and drank, 
was truly persecuted under Pontius Pilate . . . was truly raised 
from the dead" (Trail. 9). "I know that He was in the flesh even 
after the resurrection, and when He came to Peter and his com- 
pany, He said to them, 'Lay hold and handle me, and see that I 
am not an incorporeal spirit'" (Smyrn. 3). Equally emphatic is 
Ignatius's protest against a return to Judaism. "It is monstrous to 
talk of Jesus Christ and to practise Judaism, for Christianity did 
not believe in Judaism but Judaism in Christianity" (Magn. 10). 

As far as Christology is concerned, there are two points to be 
noted: (i) Ignatius is the earliest writer outside the New Testa- 
ment to describe Christ under the categories of current philos- 
ophy; cf. the famous passage in Eph. 7. "There is one only 
physician, of flesh and of spirit (crapKLKOs OIK Trpeu/zartKos), 
generate and ingenerate (yevvrjT6s Kal &yevvrjTOs) , God in man, 
true life in death, son of Mary and son of God, first passible and 
then impassible" (TTP&TOV iraOijTfa /cat dTraflifa). (2) Ignatius is 
also the first writer outside the New Testament to mention the 
Virgin Birth, upon which he lays the utmost stress. "Hidden 
from the prince of this world were the virginity of Mary and her 
child-bearing and likewise also the death of the Lord, three mys- 
teries to be cried aloud, the which were wrought in the silence of 
God" (Eph. 19). Here, it will be observed, we have the nucleus 
of the later doctrine of the deception of Satan. In regard to the 
Eucharist also later ideas occur in Ignatius. It is termed a 
jjivaTrjpiOV (Trail. 2), and the influence of the Greek mysteries is 
seen in such language as that used in Eph. 20, where Ignatius 
describes the Eucharistic bread as "the medicine of immortality 
and the antidote against death." 

When Ignatius says, too, that "the heretics abstain from 
Eucharist because they do not allow that the Eucharist is the 
flesh of Christ," the words seem to imply that materialistic ideas 
were beginning to find an entrance into the church (Smyrn 6). 
Other points that call for special notice are: (i) Ignatius's rather 
extravagant angelology. In one place, for instance, he speaks of 
himself as being able to comprehend heavenly things and "the 
arrays of angels and the musterings of principalities" (Trail. 5). 
(2) His view of the Old Testament In one important passage 
Ignatius emphatically states his belief in the supremacy of Christ 
even over "the archives" of the faith, i.e., the Old Testament: 
"As for me, my archives my inviolable archives arc Jesus 
Christ, His cross, His death, His resurrection and faith through 
Him" (PhUadel 8). 

See T. Zahn, Ignatius von Antiochien (Gotha, 1873) ; J. B. Lightfoot, 
Apostolic Fathers, part ii. (London, 2nd ed , 1889) ; F. X. Funk, 
Die Rchtheit der i^nat. Briefe (Tubingen, 1892) ; A Harnack, Chro- 
nologic der alt christ lichen Litteratur (Leipzig, 1897). There is a good 
bibliography in G. Kriiger, Early Christian Literature (Eng. trans , 
1897, pp. 28-29) ; Rackl, Die Christologie des heil. Ignaz von Antiochien 
(1914). Sec also APOSTOLIC FATHERS. 

IGNIS FATUUS, the name applied to the pale flame, also 
called will-o'-the-wisp and jack-o'-lantern, sometimes seen flick- 
ering over marshy ground and, it is said, over churchyards. No 
entirely satisfactory explanation has been put forward but it is 
generally believed that the effect is due to the spontaneous ig- 
nition of gases (especially methane or marsh gas, CH 4 ) pro- 
duced by the disintegration of dead plant and, possibly, animal 

IGNORAMUS, properly an English law term for the endorse- 
ment on the bill of indictment made by a grand jury when they 
"throw out" the bill, i.e., when they do not consider that the case 
should go to a petty jury. The expression is now obsolete, "not a 
true bill," "no bill," being used. The expressions "ignoramus 
jury/' "ignoramus Whig," etc., were common in the political 
satires and pamphlets of the years following on the throwing out 
of the bilf for high treason against the 2nd earl of Shaftesbury in 
1681. The application of the term to an ignorant person dates 
from the early part of the iyth century. This term, in a legal 
sense, is not in use in the United States. 

IGNORANCE. In the law among the English-speaking 
peoples, as in Roman law, ignorance of the law is, in general, 
no ground for avoiding the consequences of an act. As regards 
criminal offences, the maxim as to ignorantia juris admits of no 
exception, even in the case of a foreigner temporarily in Eng- 
land, who is likely to be ignorant of English law. In Roman law 
the harshness of the rule was mitigated in the case of women, 
soldiers and persons under the age of 25, unless they had good le- 
gal advice within reach (Dig. xxii. 6. 9), while in England judges 
often inflict mitigated sentences when a criminal did not and could 
not reasonably be expected to know the law, especially if it be 
very recent. Ignorance of foreign law is ignorance of fact. A 
compromise of claims, doubtful in law, is good and cannot be 



upset, by subsequent solving of the doubt (Stewart v. Stewart 6 
Cl. and F. 911). Ignorance of a matter of fact may in general 
be alleged in avoidance o/ the consequences of acts and agree- 
ments, but such ignorance cannot be pleaded where it is the 
duty of a person to know, or where, having the means of know- 
ledge at his disposal, he wilfully or negligently fails to avail him- 
self of it. (See CONTRACT.) 

In logic, ignorance is that state of mind which for want of evi- 
dence is equally unable to affirm or deny one thing or another. 
Doubt, on the other hand, can neither affirm nor deny because 
the evidence seems equally strong for both. (For Ignoratio 
Elenchi [irrelevant conclusion] see FALLACY.) 

IGNORANTINES, a name sometimes given to the Brothers 
of the Christian Schools, owing to a clause in the constitution of 
the order forbidding the admission of priests with a theological 

IGOROT, a tribe of Luzon, in the Philippines, calling itself 
Ifugao: a name used separately also for a subtribe of Igorot and 



the linguistic equivalent of apayao, a name used for a member of 
the other group of Luzon tribes, which includes the Ilocano, Tin- 
guian and Kalinga groups. (See TINGUIAN.) Their political unit 
is a village State, divided into wards with separate buildings for 
the unmarried of either sex, regulated by the old men, and having 
a graded nobility of wealth. Irrigated rice is cultivated, buffalos, 
pigs, fowls and dogs are kept, the latter being eaten. Marriage is 
forbidden to first cousins and monogamy prevails. Tattooing is 
practised, the sun being tattooed on the back of the hand (cf. 
KAREN). The spear and axe are the weapons used; gold, copper 
and iron are mined, smelted and worked, the piston-bellows being 
employed, and metal cast by the cire perdue process. The dead 
are dried in a sitting posture and are placed on their backs in 
graves or caves, wooden figures being made to accommodate the 
soul. Near each village is a spirit tree. Souls dying natural deaths 
are also believed to go to a home of the dead under ground, while 
those dying in battle or child-birth ascend to heaven (cf. DAFLA), 
the abode of Lumawig, who is worshipped as a Creator and cul- 
ture hero. Rich men are buried in terraces. Head-hunting (q.v.) 
is practised (cf. NAGA, and ASIA: Ethnology). 

See Jenks, Bontoc Igorot (1905). 

IGUALADA, a town of north-eastern Spain, in the province 
of Barcelona, on the left bank of the river Noya, a right-hand 
tributary of the Llobregat, and at the northern terminus of the 
Igualada-Martorell-Barcelona railway. Pop. (1*920) 12,512. Igu- 
alada is the central market of a rich agricultural and wine-produc- 
ing district. The local industries, chiefly developed since 1880, 
include the manufacture of cotton, linen, wool, ribbons, cloth, 
chocolate, soap, brandies, leather, cards and nails. The famous 
mountain and convent of Montserrat or Monserrat (q.v.) is 12 
m. east. 

IGUANA, the name strictly applicable to the lizards of the 
family Iguanidae; the same name, or its corruption "goanna," 

is sometimes misapplied to the monitors (family Varanidae). 
With three exceptions all the genera (numbering about 50 and 
containing over 400 species) belong to the New World; the ex- 
ceptional genera are Brachylophus in the Fiji islands and Hoplurus 
and Chalarodon in Madagascar. The family can be regarded 
as the New World analogue of the Old World Agamidae, which 
family it closely resembles in its structure and in the modifica- 
tions which its members have undergone The only absolute dis- 
tinction between the two families is in the position of the teeth; 
in the Agamidae they are fused to the crest of the jaw bones 
and in the Iguanidae attached to the inner slope below this crest. 
In many, however, the teeth are peculiar in being blade- or spear- 
shaped, with the upper cutting edges strongly serrated. As a 
rule the iguana* are clothed with small scales and have a large 
dewlap, a pouch situated beneath the head and neck, and often 
a crest from the nape of the neck to the extremity of the tail; 
this crest is composed of narrow, elongate scales which gradu- 
ally diminish in size posteriorly. The tongue is short and not 

Perhaps the best known species is the common iguana (Iguana 
tuberculatd) which occurs throughout tropical Central and South 
America. Reaching a length of as much as 6 ft., this animal is 
much sought for as an article of diet, the flesh being greatly 
esteemed; in habits it is arboreal, its favourite haunts being 
trees which overhang water, into which it will unhesitatingly 
plunge if disturbed. Like most of the arboreal species, the ground 
colour is greenish, relieved in this particular case by brown bands 
which, though indistinct on the body, form regular annuli on the 
tail. The food consists largely of tender leaves and fruits but 
the lizards are by no means averse to a mixed diet and will 
readily eat small birds and mammals. Another semi-arboreal 
genus is the likewise tropical American Basiliscus, whose mem- 
bers exhibit some curious modifications. The body is compressed 
from side to side, the tail very long and whip-like, the hinder 
part of the head produced into a flat lobe like a cock's comb 
and the outer edges of the toes provided with a wide fringe of 
elongate scales; the males of all species have a crest along the 
back but in two species (B. basihscus and B. plumifrons) this 
is enormously developed, being as deep as the body, supported 
by rays like the fins of a fish, and covered with very thin scales. 
In addition to these structural peculiarities they have the power, 
shared only by a few other forms of this family, of being able 


to run across the surface of water; if disturbed near the water 
they scutter across it on their hind-limbs, the body being held 
almost upright with the tail raised as a counterpoise and the 
fore-limbs folded against their sides BaMi$cus itself does not 
dive, but the related Derioptyx of Cuba rushes across the sur- 
face in the; same way and in some quiet corner dives to the 
bottom, where it remains until the alarm has passed. Ambly- 
rhynchus has achieved fame as the only marine lizard. Its aquatic 
nature has usually been exaggerated, however, and actually it 
seldom takes to the water. Large herds of these lizards used to 

7 6 


frequent the rocky shores of the Galapagos islands feeding on the 
sea-weeds between tide-marks. 

The terrestrial species of the family are usually duller in colour 
than the arboreal ones and the body is, as a rule, depressed rather 
than compressed; this depression has been carried to an extreme 
in the so-called horned toads (Phrynosoma) of the deserts of the 
United States and Mexico. As well as being depressed, they 
have, like many desert dwelling animals, developed an armour 
of spines the largest of which occur on the back of the head and 
neck and are relatively huge. This lizard offers a very close 
analogy to the Australian moloch lizard, an agamid which under 
similar conditions has developed a very similar appearance. An 
unique characteristic of the members of this genus is their ability 
to squirt a fine jet of blood from the eye; this extraordinary 
phenomenon, which has never been satisfactorily explained, only 
occurs under stress of great emotion, fright or anger. The 
lizard puffs itself up until the eyes bulge and then a very fine 
stream of blood is shot out of the eye, sometimes to a distance 
of five feet. No special mechanism for this discharge has been 
found and the eye does not appear to be injured. 

Another peculiarly modified genus is Anolis which occurs 
throughout the warmer districts of both North and South America 
and which is particularly abundant among the West Indian 
islands. Many of the lizards of this genus have the basal joints 
of their fingers and toes dilated and covered with transverse 
lamellae like those of a gecko and these adhesive pads, together 
with the powerful claws, render the animals excellent climbers. 
They have wonderful powers of changing colour, rivalling in this 
respect the chamaeleons ; in fact they are frequently called 
"American chamaeleons." The males often have enormously de- 
veloped dewlaps which may be brilliantly coloured and can be 
expanded and contracted at will, like a fan. 

Most iguanids reproduce by means of eggs though a few species 
are ovoviviparous. (H. W. P.) 

IGUANODON, a large extinct amphibious reptile. Its re- 
mains were first discovered in the Wealden (Lower Cretaceous) 
estuarine deposits of Sussex by O. A. Mantell, who named it 
Iguanodon, in allusion to the resemblance between its teeth and 
those of the lizard Iguana of tropical America In 1877 several 
nearly complete skeletons now in the Royal Museum of Natural 
History at Brussels, were found in the Wealden rocks near Mons, 
Belgium. More recently another nearly complete skeleton, now 
in the British Museum, was found by R. W. Hooley in the same 




rocks at Atherfield in the Isle of Wight I^uanodon is interesting 
as being the first gigantic extinct reptile which it was attempted 
to restore by comparison with a modern lizard. Man tell 's early 
restoration proved a failure, because it was unknown at the time 
that this reptile belonged to an extinct order, Dinosauria (q.v.), 
which differed from all modern reptiles in having limbs adapted 
for supporting the body when at rest, and in having more than 
two vertebrae fused together to form a sacrum above the hind- 
limbs like the sacrum of birds and mammals. Like nearly all the 
more active dinosaurs, it had comparatively large and heavy hind 

quarters, passing into a long tail; and footprints show that it 
walked only on its hind limbs, using the tail for balancing the 

The typical species, /. mantetti, is from 5 to 6 metres long, and 
must have measured about 4 metres in height when standing up- 
right. The largest known species seem to have been sometimes 10 
metres long. The head is relatively large, laterally compressed, 
and about twice as long as deep. Its long axis is bent downwards 
for cropping its vegetable food The front of both jaws is tooth- 
less and must have been covered with a horny beak. The lower 
half of the beak is supported by a separate "predentary" bone. The 
edge of each jaw further back bears a single row of teeth, which 
differ from those of all existing reptiles in being often worn down 
to stumps by mastication. Under the teeth actually in use are 
numerous successional teeth. The neck and front half of the back 
are made flexible by ball-and-socket joints between the verte- 
brae. The front half of the tail is deep and laterally compressed, 
evidently for swimming. The small fore-limbs must have been 
very mobile, and the thumb in the five-fingered hand is reduced to 
a bony spur. The supporting bones of the hind-limbs are much 
like those of ostriches, though they differ in never being fused into 
one mass. The three toes of the heavy, hind-foot are so much 
like those of birds that the fossilized footprints were originally 
mistaken for those of birds. The body lacks armour, but the 
skin was hardened with a close covering of small irregular tu- 
bercles. Footprints are common on the Wealden sandstones of 
Sussex, and several series have been observed without any trace 
of the forefeet and rarely a mark of the tail. 

Nothing is satisfactorily known about the possible ancestors of 
Iguanodon, and few of its closely allied contemporaries have 
been discovered. The comparatively small Hypsilophodon, which 
occurs with it in the Wealden of the Isle of Wight, differs in 
having the teeth extending to the front of each jaw. The equally 
small Psittacosaurus, from rocks of nearly the same geological age 
in Mongolia, has the toothless front of the jaws shaped almost 
like the beak of a parrot. The successors of Iguanodon, the Tra- 
chodontidae, in the Upper Cretaceous, were more adapted for 
aquatic life, and their toothless beak was shaped almost like the 
end of the bill of a duck. The side of each jaw bore a powerful 
grinding dentition, several rows of teeth being in use at one time. 
Many of the trachodonts were peculiar in exhibiting a bony crest 
on the top of the head. 

See L. Dollo, Bull. Mus. Roy. d'Hist. Nat. Bruxelles (1882-84) ; 
R. W. Hooley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. (1925) ; also a special Guide 
published by the Royal Museum of Natural History, Brussels. 

(A. S. W.) 

IGUVIUM (mod. Gubbio, q.v.), a town of Umbria, among 
the mountains, about 23 m. north-north-east of Perusia and con- 
nected with it by a by-road, which joined the Via Flaminia 
near the temple of luppiter Appenninus, at the modern Scheggia. 
It appears to have been important in pre-Roman times, both 
from its coins and from the celebrated tabulae Iguvinae (see 

We find it in possession of a treaty with Rome, similar to 
that of the Camertes Umbri; and in 167 B.C. it was used as a 
place of safe custody for the Illyrian King Gentius and his sons. 
After the Social War, in which it took no part, it received full 
citizen rights and was included in the tribus Clustumina. Under 
the empire we hear almost nothing of it. Silius Italicus mentions 
it as subject to fogs. A bishop of Iguvium is mentioned as early 
as A.D. 413. It was taken and destroyed by the Goths in 552, 
but rebuilt with the help of Narses. The Umbrian town had 
three gates only, and probably lay on the steep mountain side 
as the present town does, while the Roman city lay in the lower 
ground. Here is the theatre, restored by Cn. Satrius Rufus in 
the time of Augustus. The diameter of the orchestra is ;6i ft. 
and of the whole 230 ft.; the stage is well preserved and so are 
parts of the external arcades of the auditorium. Not far off are 
ruins probably of ancient baths, and the concrete core of a large 
tomb with a vaulted chamber within. 

Iguvine Tables. The famous Iguvine (less correctly Eugu- 
bine) Tables, were discovered at Iguvium in 1444, bought by 



the municipality in 1456, and are still preserved in the town hall. 
They were originally nine in number, and two of the nine were 
taken to Venice in 1540 and never reappeared. The existing seven 
were first published in 1724. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Otfried Mtiller (Die Etrusker, 1828), pointed out 
that though their alphabet was akin to the Etruscan their language 
was Italic. Lepsius, in his essay De tabulis Eugubmts (1833), finally 
determined the value of the Umbrian signs and the received order 
of the Tables, pointing out that those in Latin alphabet were the 
latest. He published what may be called the etlitw prince p$ in 1841. 
The first edition, with a full commentary based on scientific principles, 
was that of Aufrecht and Kirchoff in 1849-51, and on this all subse- 
quent interpretations are based (Breal, Paris, 1875; Bucheler, Umbrica, 
Bonn, 1883, a reprint and enlargement of articles in Fleckeisen's 
Jahrbuch, 1875, pp. 127 and 313). The text is everywhere perfectly 
legible, and is excellently represented in photographs by the marquis 
Ranghiasci-Brancaleone, published with B rial's edition. See also 
R. S. Conway, Italic Dialect*, 1897. 

IHNE, WILHELM (1821-1902), German historian, was 
born on Feb. 2, 1821, at Furst and was educated at Bonn. In 
1843 he came to England as a private tutor, and after two years 
of teaching at Elberfeld (1847-49), became headmaster of a 
school at Liverpool. In 1863 he returned to his native country, 
and ten years later, was appointed professor at Heidelberg, 
where he died on May 22, 1902. Ihne's chief publications are: 
Forschungen auf dcm Gebiet der rom Verfassungsgeschichte 
(1847, Eng. trans. 1853); Plea for the Emperor Tiberius (1856), 
and Rom. Geschichte (8 Bde., 1868-90). 

IJAW 5 a people inhabiting the provinces of Owerri and Warri. 
Southern Nigeria. No tribal organization exists; hereditary chiefs 
in the towns have civil and religious functions, aided by councils 
of elders. Extended family groups live side by side. Marriage is 
permitted between near relations. When the bride-price is high, 
the wife cannot leave her husband, and children belong to the 
father; when it is small, divorce is possible and children belong to 
the mother. The brother inherits. They practise agriculture and 
arboriculture, are animists, have secret societies and age classes. 
There are slight indications of totemism. 

See P. Amaury Talbot, The Peoples of Southern Nigeria (1926). 

IJOLITE, in petrology an igneous rock composed essentially of 
nepheline and an alkaline pyroxene, usually aegirine-augite. The 
rock was originally described from Russia where it occurs in 
various parts of the Kola Peninsula. Typically the pyroxene is 
well crystallized, the nepheline allotriomorphic. Accessory minerals 
include melanite-garnet, titanite, apatite, cancrinite and calcite. 
This rock is the plutonic equivalent of the volcanic nephelinites 
and hypabyssal nepheline dolerites. Ijolites are also known from 
Norway (Fen district) and British Columbia (Ice river), but 
they are quite rare. The rocks known as urtite and mclteigitc are 
essentially similar assemblages. In the former nepheline largely 
preponderates, while melteigite is a melanocratic variant with 
excess pyroxene. 4 (C. E. T.) 

IKHNATON (sometimes spelt AKHENATON), the name as- 
sumed by Amenhotep IV. of Egypt. 

An adequate understanding of the origins and the history 
of the religious revolution carried through by this earliest known 
idealist is impossible without some knowledge of the histori- 
cal and political situation of his generation. When he rame to 
the throne (c. 1375 B.C.) there were plenty of men still living 
whose fathers had fought in the great wars of Thutmose III , 
who consolidated the conquests of his ancestors and united the 
contiguous regions of Asia and Africa into the first stable empire 
in history. His genius and his far reaching victories made him 
the first character of universal aspects, the first world hero. 
Such a towering personality inevitably affected the thought of 
the early world. The earliest gods of Egypt had been nature- 
gods. As the great Pharaonic State arose, the impressive figure 
of the sovereign profoundly influenced religion; the forms of the 
State passed over into human conceptions of the gods, and the 
Sun-god, the greatest of them all, was conceived as a pharaoh 
ruling the other divinities. 

When therefore the power of the Pharaohs was extended to 
include a world empire, this greatly expanded arena of action 
deeply affected Egyptian conceptions of the Sun-god's realm. In 

the career of Thutmose III. the idea of universal power, of a 
world-empire was personalized and visibly bodied forth. This 
first great human personality of world wide aspects began to 
affect Egyptian ideas of divine personality. Men began to feel 
the thrill of imiversalism, expressed, it should be observed, in 
terms of political power Other relations with the outside world 
beyond the limits of the Nile valley had not clearly disengaged 
for the Nile-dwellers the "world idea" as we may call it. For 
example, a net-work of commercial connections with surrounding 
countries had arisen centuries earlier and had resulted in a litera- 
ture of adventure in far-off countries, as illustrated by such tales 
as the shipwrecked sailor or the story of the wandering hero, 
Sinuhe; but such knowledge of distant lands had done little 
toward bringing the great world without into the purview of 
Egyptian thinking. Neither did the universal power of natural 
laws, everywhere visibly active in uniform operation, suggest to 
these early men the world idea. Many a merchant had seen 
a stone fall in distant Babylon precisely as it did in Egyptian 
Thebes, but it had not occurred to him or to any man in that 
far-off age, that the same natural force reigned in these widely 
separated countries. It was universalism expressed in terms of 
imperial power which first caught the imagination of the think- 
ing men of the Egyptian empire, and disclosed to them the uni- 
versal sweep of the Sun-god's dominion as a physical fact In 
the ancient East monotheism was but imperialism in religion. 

The Sun-god A ton. As early as 1400 B c. under the mag- 
nificent emperor, Amenhotep III., great-grandson of Thutmose 
III., the expanded conception of the Sun-god's power was gain- 
ing currency. In order to give this magnified Sun-god a new 
identity, not embarrassed by older and more limited conceptions, 
"Aton," an ancient name for the physical sun, was employed to 
designate him. When Amenhotep III died (c. 1375 BC ), his son 
and successor, Amenhotep IV., was closely associated with the 
new ideas He assumed the office of the High Priest of Aton, 
with the same title, "Great Seer," as that of the high priest of 
'he old Sun-god Re at Heliopohs It is clear therefore, that the 
new movement was clostly connected with the old Solar theology 
and probably with its organized priesthood likewise. 

The new and transformed Sun-god was obviously conceived 
as far more than the merely material sun It is evident that 
the young Pharaoh was deifying the light of the sun or its vital 
heat, which he found accompanying all life Light or heat plays 
an important part in the new faith, similar to that which we 
find it assuming in the early cosmogonic philosophies of the 
Greeks. In harmony with this conception the god is constantly 
stated to be everywhere active by means of his "rays." It is 
perfectly certain that in an age so early in the development of 
natural science the king could not have had the vaguest notion 
of the physico-chemical aspects of his assumption that all life 
issued from the rays of the sun, any more than had the Greeks 
in dealing with a similar thought. Yet the fundamental idea is 
surprisingly true, and as we shall see surprisingly fruitful. 

With the international arena of his empire in view the Pharaoh 
devised a new symbol for the new god. It depicted the sun as 
a disk from which diverging rays radiated downward, each ray 
terminating in a human hand. As suggesting a power issuing 
from its celestial source and putting its hand upon the world 
and the atfairs of men, it was a masterly symbol. It broke 
sharply with tradition, and for that very reason it was capable 
of practical introduction into the many countries making up 
the empire; for it could be understood by a foreigner at a glance, 
and this was far from being the case with any of the traditional 
symbols of the old Egyptian religion. To indicate the imperial 
power of Aton, however, Amenhotep IV did employ an Egyptian 
device. He now enclosed the god's full name, as already intro- 
duced by the king's father, in two royal cartouches identical with 
those of the Pharaoh, thus suggesting for the god an earthly 
dominion like that of the Pharaoh. 

Conflict Between Amon and Aton. The king's zeal for 
the new cult was evident from the beginning. To Thebes, the 
imperial capital he gave the new name, "City of the Brightness 
of Aton," its temple quarter was called, "Brightness of Aton 


the Great/' while the new Aton sanctuary itself was designated 
as "Gem-Aton," a term of unknown meaning. The priesthood of 
Amon who had long been the State god at Thebes, was a rich 
and influential body, and the high priest of Amon was head of 
a national sacerdotal organization including all the priesthoods 
of the country. Politically this Amonite priesthood had gained 
great power. A bitter conflict thus broke out, at first probably, 
chiefly between Amon and the intruder Aton, but eventually 
also between Aton and the older gods. The struggle eventually 
rendered Thebes intolerable to the young revolutionary. He 
broke with all the old priesthoods and began a drastic persecu- 
tion to make Aton the sole god of the empire, not merely in the 
king's own thought, but in very fact. As far as their visible and 
external manifestations were concerned, this extermination of the 
old gods could be and was accomplished Even the word "gods," 
the plural of the common noun "god," was carefully expunged 
from the monuments. In the tomb of Ramose, his father's old 
prime minister, a tomb still surviving in the Theban cemetery, 
Amenhotep IV.'s emissaries hewed out the word "gods" no less 
than nine times, clearly indicating their intentions, notwithstanding 
three untouched occurrences of the word which escaped their 
notice and which we still find in out-of-the-way corners of this 
marvellously sculptured tomb 

The persecution of Amon was especially severe and to-day 
the splendid monuments of Thebes are still dotted with unsightly 
holes where the hated god's name once stood. The young icono- 
clast was even involved in the expungement of his own father's 
name, Amenhotep, for it contained the name of (he hostile god. 
Living as he probably was, in his father's splendid Theban palace, 
the wreckage of which is still visible, he finally brought himself 
to disfigure its sumptuous wall and ceiling decorations with un- 
sightly blemishes where he blotted out his own father's name. 
With regard to his own name he was himself in the same em- 
barrassing predicament, bearing as he also did, the illustrious 
throne name "Amenhotep," meaning "He in whom Amon is con- 
tent." The king therefore cast off his old name, with all its tra- 
ditional associations of power and splendor, and chose another 
of similar significance, "Ikhnaton," which means "Aton L satis- 
fied," or "He in whom Aton is satisfied " 

The New Capital, Akhetaton. It is evident that this terri- 
ble revolution, violating all that was dearest and most sacred 
in Egyptian life and traditions, must have been a devastating 
experience for the young sovereign. Thebes became an impos- 
sible place of residence. His father's palace was disfigured by 
his own hand and the towering pylons and obelisks of Karnak 
and Luxor were a continual reminder of all that his fathers had 
contributed to the glory of Amon and the old gods He therefore 
determined to forsake the capital and imperial residence of his 
ancestors. In each of the three great divisions of the empire, 
Egypt, Nubia and Asia, he built a city consecrated to Aton, and 
in the Egyptian Aton city he took up his own residence. He 
chose as its site a spacious bay in the Nile cliffs about 160 m. 
above the Delta and nearly 300 m. below Thebes. He called 
it "Akhetaton," which means "Horizon of Aton" and it is known 
in modern times as Tell el-Amarna. The city thus established 
was designated as the real capital of the empire In the sixth 
year of his reign and shortly after he had changed his name, we 
find the young king living in his new residence. 

The evidence indicates that all that was devised and done 
in the new city and in the development and propagation of the 
Aton faith, was the work of the king himself. Everything bears 
the stamp of his individuality. The men about him must have 
been irresistibly swayed by his unbending will, for he was evi- 
dently not one to stop half way. But Ikhnaton understood enough 
of the old policy of the Pharaohs to know that he must hold 
his party by tangible rewards, and his leading followers enjoyed 
liberal bounty at his hands. Thus one of his priests of Aton and 
at the same time his master of the royal horse, named Eye, who 
had by good fortune happened to marry the childhood nurse of 
the king, states in his tomb inscriptions : "He doubles to me my 
favours in silver and gold." The commander of Ikhnaton's army 
likewise says : "He hath doubled to me my favours like the num- 

bers of the sand. I am the head of the officials, at the head of 
the people; my lord has advanced me because I have carried out 
his teaching, and I hear his word without ceasing. My eyes behold 
thy beauty every day, my lord, wise like Aton, satisfied with 
truth. How prosperous is he who hears thy teaching of life!" 
Although there probably was a nucleus of men who really appreci- 
ated the ideal aspects of the king's teaching, such inscriptions 
make it evident that many were not uninfluenced by "the loaves 
and the fishes." 

A beautiful cliff-tomb hewn in the eastern cliffs by royal crafts- 
men at the king's command was the Pharaoh's most welcome 
demonstration of favour to each one of his followers. The walls 
of such a tomb chapel bore fresh and natural pictures from the 
life of the people in Akhetaton, the new capital, particularly 
incidents in the life of the dead man, and preferably his inter- 
course with the king. Thus the city of Akhetaton is now better 
known to us from its cemetery than from its ruins. 

Throughout these tombs, both in relief and inscription, the 
nobles take delight in reiterating the intimate relation between 
Aton and the king. Over and over again they show the king 
and the queen standing together under the disk of Aton, whose 
enveloping rays terminating in hands, descend and embrace the 
'king's figure. The nobles constantly pray to the god for the 
king, saying that he "came forth from thy rays," or "thou hast 
formed him out of thine own rays"; and interspersed through 
their prayers were numerous current phrases of the Aton faith, 
which had now become conventional, replacing those of the old 
orthodox religion which it must have been very awkward for 
them to cease using On State occasions instead of the old stock 
phrases, with innumerable references to the traditional gods, 
every noble who would enjoy the king's favour was evidently 
obliged to display his familiarity with the Aton faith by a liberal 
use of these now allusions The source of such phrases was really 
the king himself, and something of the "teaching" whence they 
were taken, so often attributed to him, is preserved in these 
"Amarna tombs," as we now commonly call them. 

Hymn to Aton. Among the fragments of the Aton faith 
which have survived in these tombs are two hymns to Aton, 
the longer and finer of which is worthy of being known in modern 
literature. It was probably written by the king himself. In the 
following translation the effort has been chiefly to furnish an 
accurate rendering The headings of the strophes are insertions 
by the present writer, intended to make clear the arrangement 
of the subject matter, especially striking because it is identical 
with that in Psalm civ. of the Old Testament, which is many 
centuries later. 


When thou settest in the western horizon of the sky, 

The earth is in darkness like the dead ; 

They sleep in their chambers, 

Their heads are wrapped up, 

Their nostrils are stopped, 

And none seeth the other, 

While all their things are stolen, 

Which are under their heads, 

And they know it not. 

Every lion cometh forth from his den, 

All serpents, they sting. 

Darkness . . . 

The world is in silence, 

He that made them resteth in his horizon. 


Bright is the earth when thou risest in the horizon. 

When thou shinest as Aton by day 

Thou drivest away the darkness. 

When thou sendest forth thy rays, 

The Two Lands (Egypt) are in daily festivity, 

Awake and standing upon their feet 

When thou hast raised them up. 

Their limbs bathed, they take their clothing, 

Their arms uplifted in adoration to thy dawning 

(Then) in all the world they do their work. 


All cattle rest upon their pasturage, 
The trees and the plants flourish, 
The birds flutter in their marshes, 



Their wings uplifted in adoration to thcc. 

All the sheep dance upon their feet, 

All winged things fly, 

They live when thou hast s?hone upon them. 


The barques sail up-stream and down-stream alike. 
Every highway is open because thou dawnest. 
The fish in the river leap up before thec. 
Thy rays are in the midst ot the great green sea. 


Creator of the germ in woman, 

Maker of seed in man, 

Giving life to the son in the bodv of his mother, 

Soothing him that he may not weep, 

Nurse (even) in the womb, 

Giver of breath to animate every one that he maketh ! 

When he cometh forth from the womb ... on the day of his 


Thou openest his mouth in speech, 
Thou suppliest his necessities. 


When the fledgling in the egg chirps in the shell 
Thou givest him breath therein to preserve him alive. 
When thou hast brought him together (?) 
To (the point of) bursting it in the egg, 
He cometh forth from the egg 
To chirp with all his might (?). 
He goeth about upon his two feet 
When he hath come forth therefrom. 


How manifold are thy works ! 

They are hidden Irom before (us), 

O sole God, whose powers no other posscsseth 

Thou didst create the earth according to thy heart 

While thou wast alone: 

Men, all cattle, large and small, 

All that arc upon the earth, 

That go about upon their feet; 

(All) that arc on high, 

That fly with their wings. 

The foreign countries, Syria and Rush, 

The land of Egypt, 

Thou scttest every man into his place, 

Thou suppliest their necessities. 

Every one has his possession^, 

And his days are reckoned. 

The tongues are divers in speech, 

Their forms likewise and their skins are distinguished. 

(For) thou makest diflcrent the strangeis. 

We may conjecture that this hymn, partially reproduced 
above, was a fragment from the ritual of Aton as it was cele- 
brated from day to day in the Aton temple at Amarna. Un- 
happily it was copied in but one tomb; in the others we have a 
miscellany of current quotations and stock phrases which made 
up the knowledge of the new faith as it had been apprehended 
by the scribes and painters who decorated these tombs. It is our 
misfortune that the fragments of the Aton faith, which have 
survived to us in the Amarna cemetery, our chief source, have 
thus filtered mechanically through the indifferent hands and the | 
starved and listless minds of a few petty bureaucrats on the | 
outskirts of a great religious and intellectual movement. | 

The New Universalism. Nevertheless in this great hymn < 
the new universalism of the empire finds full expression and the | 
royal singer % sweeps his eye from the far-off cataracts of the 
Nubian Nile to the remotest lands of Syria. He was looking be- 
yond the nationalism which had prevailed for over 2,000 years, 
and he was consciously endeavouring to displace it by a world 
religion. Irrespective of race or nationality, he bases the universal 
sway of God upon his fatherly care of all men alike. He calls 
Aton "the father and the mother of all that he has made," and 
the hymn which we have just quoted above is very explicit in 
its insistence that Aton's fatherly care of all men entirely disre- 
gards diversity of speech or difference in colour. To the proud 
and exclusive Egyptian he points to the all-embracing boun f v of 
the common father of humanity, even placing Syria and Nubia 
before Egypt as he catalogues the divisions of his empire. 

Ikhnaton had gained the conception of a world-lord in two 
aspects: first, as the creator of the natural world; and second, 

as a benevolent father actively concerned for the daily mainte- 
nance of all his creatures, even the meanest. His hymns are 
the earliest known expression of deep emotion in the recognition 
of divine goodness and benevolence. Mingled with it is an almost 
ecstatic rapture in the thought of the all-enveloping light in 
which he saw revealed both the beauty and the goodness of the 
natural order. It reminds us of Him who bade us "consider the 
lilies." The picture of the lily-grown marshes, where, as another 
hymn tells us, the flowers are "drunken" in the intoxicating radi- 
ance of Aton, where the birds unfold their wings and lift them 
"in adoration of the living Aton," where the cattle dance with 
delight in the sunshine, and the fish in the river beyond leap ifj> 
to greet the light, the universal light whose beams are even "in 
the midst of the great green sea" ail this discloses a discern- 
ment of the presence of God in nature, and an appreciation of 
the revelation of God in the visible world such as we find cen- 
turies later in the Hebrew psalms, and especially in our own 
poets since Wordsworth. 

While the creative power and the benevolence of his god 
were very explicitly affirmed by Ikhnaton, our sources do not 
show us that he had risen from a discernment of the beneficence 
to a conception of the righteousness in the character of God, nor 
of his demand for this in the character of men. Nevertheless, 
'there is in Ikhnaton's "teaching," as it is thus fragmentarily pre- 
served in the hymns and tomb-inscriptions of his nobles, a con- 
stant emphasis upon "truth" such as is not found before nor 
since The king always attached to his name the extraordinary 
phrase "living in truth," and that this phrase was not meaningless 
is evident as we discern the character of his daily life. 

To him "living in truth" meant sincere acceptance of the daily 
facts of living in a simple and unconventional manner never before 
seen in the life of a sovereign and quite impossible of harmoniza- 
tion with the outward pomp and splendour of an oriental emperor. 
For him what was was right, and its propriety was evident by its 
very existence. Even in public he divested hi? daily round of 
those outward and formal observances which his royal ancestors 
had observed for 2,000 years Thus, his family life was open 
and unconcealed before the people, even in intimate manifes- 
tations of family affection. He took the greatest delight in his 
children and appeared with them and the queen their mother on 
all possible occasions as if he had been but the humblest scribe 
in the Aton-temple. He had himself depicted on the monuments 
while enjoying the most tarniliar and unaffected intercourse with 
his family, and when he drove in his chariot to the temple to 
carry on its formal service, the quern and the daughters she had 
borne him likewise drove thither through the acclaiming multi- 
tudes and shared with the king the temple service. All that was 
natural was to him true, and he never failed practically to ex- 
emplify this belief, however radically he was obliged to disregard 

Effect of the Revolution on Art. These revolutionary 
changes in religion and in the position and character of the head 
of the State were not confined to theology, statecraft or palace 
proprieties. They unavoidably affected also the art of the time, 
and it was the intention of Ikhnaton to modify art in accordance 
with his regard for "truth." His chief sculptor, Bek, appended 
to his title the words, "whom his majesty himself taught." It 
is evident that the artists of Ikhnaton's court were taught by him 
to make the chisel and the brush tell the story of what they 
actually saw. The result was a simple and beautiful realism that 
saw more clearly than any art had ever seen before. They caught 
the instantaneous postures of animal life; the coursing hound, 
the fleeing game, the wUd bull looping in the marsh; for all these 
belonged to the "truth" in which Ikhnaton lived. The exalted 
divinity which for untold centuries had invested the Pharaoh's 
person wi'h inviolable sacredness was strioped away without hesi- 
tation. Ikhnaton's artists represented him as*thev saw him, in 
attitudes of parental affection ns he fondled his little daughters, 
or even as the object of the wifely solicitude of his queen as she 
stands in his presence in affectionate concern for his needs. Such 
is the lovely scene on the back of the famous palace chair, pre- 
served to us in the tomb of Tutankhamun. For the first time in 



the history of art the subject of a great composition was a human 
relationship, and to depict it the artists of the day shook off the 
shackles of immemorial tradition The monuments of Egypt 
and even the furniture and equipment of daily life bore what they 
had never borne before, a Pharaoh depicted in the natural and 
unaffected relations of life, and completely liberated from the 
rigid and conventional posture demanded by both the traditions 
of court propriety and by the venerable teachings of the State 
theology regarding the divinity of the sovereign. It is in this 
extraordinary art, which we commonly call the "Amarna school" 
or "Amarna art,' 1 that the revolution of Tkhnaton is most clearly 
disclosed as the earliest known age of spiritual emancipation. 

Loss of the Empire. A man wholly absorbed in a revolution 
like this found little time or inclination to devote any attention 
to the critical state of the empire For three generations the 
royal house of Egypt had stood in close relations to the kings 
of Western Asia, and especially the kings of Mitanni on the 
Upper Euphrates had given their daughters in marriage to the 
Pharaoh Supported by such alliances Ikhnaton failed to ap- 
preciate the gravity of the new movements which were transform- 
ing the political situation in Western Asia In the north the 
expanding power of the Hittites gradually absorbed all the Pha- 
raoh's vassal States in Syria; while in the south, ie. f in Pales- 
tine, the incoming mercenary bands of nomads were steadily 
taking possession of Palestine, which the Pharaohs had held tor 
centuries. It was this movement of nomadic hordes from the 
desert toward a settled life in the Palestinian towns, which carried 
the Hebrews into Palestine. At Akhctaton, the new and beautiful 
home of the Aton faith, the temple of Aton resounded with hymns 
to the new god of the empire, while the empire itself was no more. 

The storm which had thus broken over Ikhnaton's Asiatic 
empire was not more disastrous than that which threatened him 
in Egypt; but there was no faltering in his steadfast policy At 
his command temples of Aton had arisen all over a land which 
was now convulsed with revolution Some years after Ikhnaton 
had disappeared, his son-in-law, Tutankhamun, left the follow- 
ing description of the hopeless situation of Egypt both at home 
and abroad "The temples of the gods and goddesses were (deso- 
lated] from Elephantine [First Cataract] as far the marshes of 
the delta . . . Their holy places were forsaken and had become 
overgrown tracts . . , their sanctuaries were like that which 
has. never been, and their houses were trodden roads. The land 
was in an evil pass, and as for the gods, they had forsaken this 
land If people were sent to Syria to extend the borders of 
Egypt, they prospered not at all; if men prayed to a god for 
succour, he came not; if men besought a goddess likewise, 

she came not at all " 

Opposition to the New Religion. Ikhnaton had endeav- 
oured to exterminate some of the most cherished beliefs of the 
people, especially those regarding the hereafter Throughout the 
entire cemetery of his new capital not a single tomb contains 
the name of Osiris, upon whom every Egyptian, following the 
faith and practice of his ancestors, expected to depend for pro- 
tection and guidance through the terrible fears and dangers that 
beset the dead in the world beyond the grave This attempted 
banishment of Osiris must have aroused the fiercest opposition 
among the people Eighteen hundred years after Ikhnaton's revo- 
lution, the Christian emperor, Theodosius, endeavoured to banish 
from Egypt the old pagan gods of the people, in an effort to intro- 
duce exclusively the God of the Christians. Long after the death 
of Theodosius the old gods of Egypt continued nevertheless 
to be worshiped by the people of Upper Egypt What the power 
of the Roman emperor failed to accomplish could not of course 
be attained under much less favourable circumstances by Ikhna- 
ton The Aton-faith remained but the cherished theory of the 
idealist Ikhnaton jnd a little court circle surrounding his person; 
it never really became the religion of the people. 

To the secret resentment and opposition of the people we must 
also add the dangerous activities of the dispossessed priesthoods, 
especially the politically powerful former priests of Amon, the 
old State god. Even more dangerous was the disaffection and 
discontent among the leaders of the army as they beheld the 

Egyptian empire in Asia falling to pieces for lack of effective 
military intervention One of these leaders indeed, an officer 
named Haremhab who had long been a favoured partisan of 
Ikhnaton, not only contrived to win the support of the military 
class, but also gained the favor of the priests of Amon, who were 
of course looking for just such a man Thus both the people and 
the priestly and military groups alike were united in plans for 
the overthrow of the hated dreamer in the palace of the Pharaohs, 
of whose thoughts they understood so little, and who incensed 
them with the teaching that both the Asiatics and the Egyptians 
were all children of the same kindly Father. In this dangerous 
situation, having no son to succeed him, he gave his eldest 
daughter in marriage to one of his favourites, and needing sup- 
port, appointed his son-in-law as co-regent with himself His 
position .seems to have been complicated by family troubles in 
these closing days, and we find the name of his queen expunged 
from some of the family monuments at Amarna He survived but 
a short time after arranging the co-regency and about 1358 BC., 
in the i/th year of his reign, when he was probably not yet 30 
years of age, he passed away. 

It must be admitted that Ikhnaton pursued his aims with 
fatuous blindness and feverish fanaticism regardless of the de- 
structive costs There is something hectic and abnormal in this 
extraordinary man, suggesting a mind which may even have been 
diseased Some question has been raised regarding the identity 
of the body found in his coffin; but it should be noted that the 
skull found with this body is one of the largest human crania 
ever found However much we may censure him for the loss 
of his empire, however much we may condemn the fanaticism with 
which he pursued his aim, it must be recognized that there died 
with him a spirit such as the world had never seen before a brave 
soul, undauntedly facing and opposing the momentum of century 
long tradition, in which it had never occurred to any mind before 
his to do anything but thoughtlessly acquiesce. He was the first 
of the long line of revolters against tradition and thoughtless 
acceptance of the past He stepped out of the long line of 
conventionally colourless Pharaohs that he might disseminate 
ideas far beyond and above the capacity of his age to understand 
Among the Hebrews, seven or eight hundred years later, we look 
for such men. We must look back upon him to-day not only as 
the world's first idealist and the world's first individual, but also 
as the earliest monotheist and the first prophet of internationalism 
the most remarkable figure of the Ancient World before the 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The Monuments: N, de G. J)avies, The Rock 
Tombs of Tell el Amarna, Archaeological Survey, Effypt Exploration 
Society (6 vol., 1903 sqq.) ; Theo. M. Davis, The Tomb of Queen Tiyi 
(IQIO), The Tombs of Harmhabi and Touatankhamanou (1912); T 
E. Peet and C. L Woollry, The City of Akhenaton, vol. i (1923); 
Howard Carter and A. C. Mace, The Tomb of Tutankhamen (192 ^) ; 
Miltheilungen der Deutschen Orient-GeseUschaft t Nos. 34, 46, 50, 52, 55 
and 57. 

The Treatises: ]. H Breasted. Development of Religion and Thought 
in Ancient Egypt (1912) and History of Egypt (1912) ; also chaps. $ 
and 6 in vol II , Cambridge Ancient History, from which the above 
article quotes liberally. (J. H BR ) 

IKI, an island belonging to Japan, lying off the north-western 
coast of Kyushu, in 33 45' N. lat. and 129 40' E long. It has a 
circumference of 86 m , an area of 51 sqm , and a population 
of c 50,000. The island is, for the most part, a tableland about 
500 ft. above sea-level The anchorage is at Gonoura, on the 
south-west. A part of Kublai Khan's Mongols landed at Iki when 
about to invade Japan in the i3th century, for it lies in the 
direct route from Korea to Japan via Tsashima 

ILAGAN, a municipality (with administration centre and 57 
barrios or districts), and capital of the province of Isabela, Luzon, 
Philippine Islands, on an elevated site at the confluence of the 
Abuluan and Cagayan rivers, about 200 m. N N E of Manila. 
It was formerly included in the province of Nueva Ecija. Pop. 
(1918), 23,279. The surrounding country is the largest tobacco- 
growing region in the Philippines. Considerable corn is also raised. 
In 1918, it had 7 manufacturing establishments with output valued 
at 44,900 pesos. Of the 21 schools, IQ were public. The language 
spoken is Ibanag. 



ILCHESTER, market town, Somersetshire, England, in the 
valley-of the river Ivel or Yeo, 5 m. N.W. of Yeovil. Pop. (1921) 
449. Ilchester (Cair Pensavelcoit, Ischalis, Ivelccstre, Yevel- 
Chester) was a fortified British settlement, and later a military 
station of the Romans, on the Fosse Way. Its importance con- 
tinued in Saxon times, and in 1086 it was a royal borough with 
107 burgesses. In uSo a gild merchant was established, and 
the county gaol was completed in 1188. Henry II. granted a 
charter, confirmed by John in 1203, which gave Ilchester the 
same liberties as Winchester, and its bailiffs are mentioned before 
1230. The borough was incorporated in 1556. Ilchester was 
the centre of the county administration from the reign of Edward 
III. until the iQth century, when the change from road to rail 
travelling completed the decay of the town, and the corporation 
was abolished in 1886. Parliamentary representation began in 
1208, and the town continued to return two members until 1832 
The Wednesday market dates from before the Conquest. It pos- 
sesses almshouses founded in 1426 and an ancient mace of the 
former corporation. 

ILE-DE-FRANCE, an old district of France, forming a 
kind of an island, bounded by the Seine, the Marne, the Beuv- 
ronne, the Theve and the Oise. In this sense the name is not 
found in written documents before 1429; but in the second half 
of the 1 5th century it designated a wide military province of gov- 
ernment, bounded on the north by Picardy, on the west by Nor- 
mandy, on the south by Orleanais and Nivernais, and on the east 
by Champagne Its capital was Paris From the territory of lle- 
de-France, were formed under the Revolution the department 
of the Seine, together with the greater part of the Seine-et-Oise, 
Seine-et-Marne, Oise and Aisne, and a small part of Loiret and 
Nievre. (The term Ile-de-France is also used for Mauritius, q v ) 

Set A. Longnon, "L'fJe-de-France, son origine, scs limitcs, ses 
Kouverneurs," in the Mentoires dc la Socittt de I'histotre de Parn et 
dc I' tie-de-France, vol. i. (1875). 

ILERDA, CAMPAIGN OF (49 B.C.). On Dec 17 Julius 
Caesar, the leader of the democratic party in the Second Civil 
War, crossed the Rubicon and in sixty days was master of Italy. 
As he failed however to shut Pompey up in Brundisium, this gen- 
eral sailed for Dyrrachium. The problem which now confronted 
Caesar was a complex one. He was without a fleet, and though the 
aristocratic party was no longer in the ascendant, Italy was 
still at Pompey's mercy because he could cut her off from her 
grain supplies in Egypt, Sicily and Sardinia. In Greece Pompey 's 
resources were great both in men and money, and that he would 
there increase the strength of his already powerful army wa.s 
certain. In Spain he still possessed seven legions who threatened 
Gaul, and might be brought to Italy Caesar determined to strike 
at weakness rather than at strength. Abandoning any idea of 
moving through Illyria against Pompey, and trusting that the 
dilatory nature of his antagonist would enable him to gain time, on 
March 9, 49 B c , he left Rome for Massilia with the intention of 
disposing of Pompey's legions in Spain before he turned on 
Pompey himself. 

Pompey's generals in Spain were Afranius and Petreius, their 
total forces numbering some 70,000 men, to which Caesar could 
oppose but 40,000, including three legions under Fabius which he 
forthwith sent from Narbo across the Pyrenees. At Herd:, on the 
river Sicoris which flows into the Ebro, Fabius found Afranius 
strongly encamped, and entrenched himself within three miles of 
him. Shortly after, Caesar arriving, active operations were at once 
begun by moving the camp close up to the enemy's so as to 
restrict the movement of his foragers. In order to cut Afranius off 
from the bridge at Ilerda, Caesar attempted to occupy a ridge 
which lay between the camps, but the XIV. legion was driven 
back. Counter-attacking with the IX. legion he drove a large party 
of the enemy into Ilerda and then tried to assault this city by 
forcing his way up a ravine ; here he nearly met with a disaster, 
and had much difficulty in extricating himself. 

Two days after this battle, which reflected no great credit on 
Caesar, his bridges over the Sicoris were swept away by a flood, 
and his communications with Gaul severed; worse still, his con- 
voys could no longer reach him. Learning that he was expecting 

a large convoy, Afranius crossed the bridge at Ilerda with three 
legions and all his cavalry and attacked it. The attack, however, 
failed, and Caesar building a boat bridge 22 miles north of his 
camp enabled his convoy to cross, and his cavalry to attack 
Afranius 's foragers. 

In order further to restrict his enemy, by running the river into 
a number of artificial channels he created a ford near his camp 

attack on Convoy 


1 1 


? ^ ILERDA 49B.C 



which forced the Pompeians to transport two legions over the 
Sicoris to protect their communications, and then, on June 23, 
still holding the bridge they crossed their whole army over to the 
left bank, and set out towards the Ebro Caesar having now dis- 
lodged his encmv, his next step was. not to defeat him but to force 
him to surrender Not only would this save him casualties but 
augment his army, as all prisoners would be incorporated in it. 
He wished to gain his object by manoeuvring rather than by 
fighting Sending his Gallic cavalry over the ford, these nimble 
horsemen greatly impeded the enemy's march, and gained time 
for Caesar to cross his infantry The manoeuvres now carried 
out were remarkable, and are shown on the plan, (i) Caesar 
rapidly followed Afranius and forced him to form front; (2) 
Afranius retired skirmishing, Caesar following; (3) Afranius de- 
cided to retire on Octogesa, Caesar pretending to withdraw, and 
Afranius made towards the defile; (4) Caesar counter-marched 
and cut him off from the defile; (5) Afranius reverted to retire* 
ment on Octogesa; Afranius was now strategically beaten, and 
Caesar could have annihilated him but refused to do so; (6) 
Afranius made for the Sicoris to obtain water; (7) Caesar headed 
him off; (S) Afranius attempted to regain Ilerda, but was forced 
to surrender on July 2 The result of these masterly and blood- 
less manoeuvres were, that not only did Pompey lose Spain but 
also his oldest and best legions, and simultaneously Caesar at 
little loss added immensely to his own strength. Of their kind the 
manoeuvres of Ilerda have seldom been rivalled and never sur- 
passed. See PHARSALUS (J F. C. F.) 

ILETSK, a settlement in the province of Orenburg in the 
R.S.F.S.R, in 51 10' N. and 55 E-, 48 m. S. of the town of 
Orenburg by the railway to Tashkent, near the llek river, a tribu- 
tary of the Ural Pop. (1926) 11,058 Rock-salt is worked here 
to the extent of about 100,000 tons annually. The place is re- 
sorted to for its salt, mud and brine baths, and its koumiss cures 

ILFELD, a town in the Prussian province of Hanover, at 
the south foot of the Harz, at the entrance to the Bahrethal, 8 
m. N. from Nordhausen by the rail to Wernigerode. Pop. 1,9-25. 
Ilfeld, as a town, dates from the i4th century, when it sprang 


up round a Benedictine monastery It manufactures parquet- 
flooring, paper and plaster of Paris, and has coal mines 

ILFORD (GREAT ILFORD), an urban district of Essex, Eng- 
land, on the Roding, 7 m E.N.E. of London by rail. Pop. (1901) 
41,234; (1921) 85,194. A portion of Hainault Forest lies within 
the parish. The hospital of St. Mary and St. Thomas, founded 
in the 12th century as a leper hospital, now contains almshouses 
and a chapel Claybury Hall is a mental hospital (1893) of the 
London County Council. There are large photographic material 
works and paper-mills. LITTLI; ILFORD is a parish on the opposite 
(west) side of the Roding. The church of St. Mary retains 
Norman portions. 

ILFRACOMBE, a watering-place of Devonshire, England, 
on the Bristol channel, 225 m. W. by S of London by rail. Pop. of 
urban district (1926) 11,772. In the late i3th century it obtained 
a grant for holding a fair and market, and in the reign of Edward 
HI it supplied six ships and 96 men for the expedition against 
Calais During the Civil War, it was in 1644 captured by the 
Royalists, but in 1646 it fell into the hands of Fairfax The old 
town is built on the cliffs above the harbour. Behind it rise the 
terraces of a more modern town. Wooded heights form a semi- 
circle round the town, which is protected from sea winds by Cap- 
stone hill. The restored church of Holy Trinity dates originally 
from the I2th century 

ILG, PAUL (1875- ), Swiss poet and dramatist, was 
born at Salenstein (Thurgau) on March 14, 1875. He was engaged 
in business down to 1899, since when he has been an author and 
editor. Among his chief novels arc Dcr Lcbcnsdrang (1906), Dcr 
Landstortzer (1909), Das Menschlein Matthias (1913), Der 
Starkc Mann (1916) and Probus (1922). He has also written the 
dramas Der Fhkrcr (1919), Dcr Mann Gottes (1924), Der Kampf 
mit dem Drachcn (1927) and Ga Llama (1928). llg belongs to 
the realistic school, and his writing is strong and direct. 

ILHAVO, a Portuguese seaport on the lagoon of Aveiro 
(q.v.). Pop. (1920) 12,691. Ilhavo is inhabited chiefly by fisher- 
men, but has a celebrated manufactory of glass and porcelain, 
the Vista-Alegre, at which the art of glass-cutting has reached a 
high degree of perfection. Salt is largely exported. Ilhavo is 
celebrated for the beauty of its women. 

ILI, a river of Central Asia, flowing for the greater part of its 
course through the Kazakstan A S S R. The head-stream, called 
the Tekez, rises at an altitude of 11,600 ft. east of Lake Issyk-kul 
in 82 25' E and 43 23' N.. on the west slopes of mount Kash- 
katur. At first it flows eastward and north-eastward, until, after 
emerging from the mountains, it meets the Kungez, and then, as- 
suming the name of Hi, it turns westwards and flows between 
the Temurlik-tau and Trans-Hi or Kungei Ala-tau mountains on 
the south and the Borokhoro and Talki ranges on the north for 
about 300 m. to Iliysk. The valley between 79 30' and 82 E 
is 50 m. wide, and the portion above the town of Kulja (Old 
Kulja) in east Turkistan is fertile and populous, Taranchi vil- 
lages following each other in rapid succession, and the pastures 
being well stocked with sheep, cattle and horses. At Iliysk the 
river turns north-west, and after traversing a region of desert and 
marsh falls by at least seven mouths into the Balkash lake, the 
first bifurcation of the delta taking place about 115 m. up the 
river. But it is only the southern arm of the delta that perma- 
nently carries water. The total length of the river is over 900 m. 
From Old Kulja to New Kulja the Hi is navigable for at most 
only two and a half months in the year, and even then consider- 
able difficulty is occasioned by the shoals and sandbanks. From 
New Kulja to Iliysk (280 m ) navigation is easy when the water 
is high, and practicable even at its lowest for small boats. At 
Iliysk there is a ferry on the road from Kopal to Alma-Ata 
(Vyernyi). The principal tributaries of the Hi are the Kash, 
Chilik and Charyn. Many streams flow towards it from the 
mountains on both sides, but most of them are used up by the 
irrigation canals and never reach their goal. The wealth of coal 
in the valley is said to be great, and when the Chinese owned 
the country they worked gold and silver with profit. Fort Hi or 
Iliysk, a modern Russian establishment, must not be confounded 
with Hi, the old capital of the Chinese province of the same 

name. The latter, otherwise known as Hoi-yuan-chen, New Kulja 
(Gulja), or Manchu Kulja, was formerly a city of 70,000 inhab- 
itants, but now lies completely deserted. Old Kulja, Tatar Kulja 
or Nin-yuan, is now the principal town of the district. The 
Chinese district of Hi formerly included the whole of the valley 
of the Hi river as far as Issyk-kul, but now only its upper part. 
It belongs administratively to the province of Sinkiang or East 
Turkistan. (See KULJA.) 

ILION, a village of Herkimer county, N.Y., U.S.A.; i2m. S.E. 
of Utica, on the Mohawk river and the State Barge canal. It is 
served by the New York Central and the West Shore railways. 
The population in 1925 was 10,426. It has notable manufactures, 
including the Remington typewriters, cash registers and firearms, 
as well as office furniture. The factories employ over 5,600 per- 
sons and their annual output is valued at nearly $28,000,000. As 
early as 1816 a store was established here, but permanent settle- 
ment began on the completion of the Erie canal in 1825. The 
village was known by several different names in its earlier years. 
It was incorporated in 1852. In 1828 Eliphalet Remington (1793- 
1861) established a small factory for making firearms. He 
invented, and with the assistance of his sons (Philo, Samuel, and 
Eliphalet) improved the famous Remington rifle, which was used 
in great quantities by the U S. army and adopted by several for- 
eign governments. In 1856 the company began making farm tools, 
in 1870 sewing-machines, and in 1874 typewriters. 

ILIPA, BATTLE OF, 206 B.C. This was the culminating 
battle of the campaigns by which Publius Cornelius Scipio (qv.), 
afterwards named Africanus, overthrew the Carthaginian power 
in Spain, and thereby paved the way for his subsequent campaign 
in Africa which ended in the defeat of Hannibal at Zama (q.v.) 
and the capitulation of Carthage. In military history Ilipa ranks 
with Gaugamela and Cannae as one of the supreme tactical mas- 
terpieces in the military history of the ancient world, and indeed 
outshines any as an example of a victory ensured by the disloca- 
tion of thought and will produced in the mind of one commander 
by the other before even the fighting troops came into contact. 
After suffering a series of defeats since Scipio's opening seizure of 
Cartagena (q.v.) in the spring of 206 B c. the Carthaginians 
made their last great effort. Hasdrubal Cisco, encouraged by 
Mago, Hannibal's brother, raised and armed fresh levies, and with 
an army of 70,000 foot, 4,000 horse and 32 elephants marched 
north to Ilipa (or Silpia), which was not far from where Seville 
stands to-day. Scipio moved south from Tarraco to meet the 



ROMAN roor 




Carthaginians, collecting auxiliaries on his way. Advancing to 
the neighbourhood of Ilipa with a total force, Romans and allies, 
of 45,000 foot and 3,000 horse, he came in sight of the Cartha- 
ginians, and encamped on certain low hills opposite them. It de- 
serves notice that his advance was on a line which, in the event 
of victory, would cut them off from the nearest road to Gades, 
this road running along the south bank of the Baetis River. 

The two camps lay facing each other across the valley between 
the two low ridges. For several successive days Hasdrubal led 
his army out and offered battle. On each occasion Scipio waited 


until the Carthaginians were moving out before he followed suit. 
Neither side, however, began the attack, and towards sundown 
the two armies, weary of standing, retired to their camps the 
Carthaginians always first. One cannot doubt, in view of the 
upshot, that on Scipio's side the delay had a special motive. On 
each occasion also the legions were placed in the Roman centre 
opposite to the Carthaginian and African regulars, with the Span- 
ish allies on the wings of each army. It became common talk in 
the camp that this order of battle was definite, and Scipio waited 
until this belief had taken firm hold 

Then he acted He had observed that the Carthaginians made 
their daily advance at a late hour, and had himself purposely 
waited still later, to fix this habit on his opponent's mind. Late 
in the evening he sent orders through the camp that the troops 
should be fed and armed before daylight, and the cavalry have 
their horses saddled. Then, while it was scarcely yet daylight, 
he sent on the cavalry and light troops to attack the enemy's 
outposts, and himself followed with the legions. This was the 
first surprise change, and its eflect was that the Carthaginians, 
caught napping by the onset of the Roman cavalry and light 
troops, had to arm themselves and sally torth without a meal 
It further ensured that Hasdrubal would have no time to alter his 
normal disposition even should the idea occur to him; for the 
second surprise change was that Scipio reversed his former order 
of battle, and placed the Spanish in his centre and the legions on 
the wings. The Roman infantry made no attempt to advance for 
some hours, the reason being Scipio's desire and design to let his 
hungry opponents feel the effects of their lost breakfast There 
was no risk to his other surprise change by so doing, for once 
drawn up in order of battle, the Carthaginians dared not alter 
their array in face of a watchful and ready opponent. 

It was about the seventh hour when he ordered the line to 
advance, but the Spanish centre only at a slow pace On arriving 
within 800 yards of the enemy, he himself, leading the right 
wing, wheeled to the right, and made an oblique advance out- 
wards. The left wing executed a similar movement Advancing 
rapidly, so that the slow-moving centre was well refused, the 
Roman infantry cohorts wheeled successively into line as they 
neared the enemy's line, and fell directly on the enemy's flanks, 
which but for this manoeuvre would have overlapped them. 
While the heavy infantry thus pressed the enemy's wings in 
front, the cavalry and light infantry, under orders, wheeled out- 
wards again, and, sweeping round the enemy's flanks, took them 
in enfilade. This convergent blow on each wing, sufficiently dis- 
locating because it forced the defenders to face attack from two 
directions simultaneously, was made more decisive in that it fell 
on the Spanish irregulars To add to Hasdrubal's troubles, the 
cavalry flank attacks drove his elephants, mad with fright, in 
upon the Carthaginian centre, spreading confusion. All this time 
the Carthaginian centre was standing helplessly inactive, unable 
to help the wings for fear of attack by Scipio's Spaniards, who 
threatened it without coming to close quarters Scipio's calcula- 
tion had enabled him to "fix 1 ' the enemy's centre with a minimum 
expenditure of force, and thus to concentrate the maximum for 
his decisive double manoeuvre. 

Hasdrubal's wings destroyed, the centre, worn out by hunger 
and fatigue, fell back, at first in good order; but gradually under 
relentless pressure they broke up and fled to their entrenched 
camp A drenching downpour, churning the ground in mud under 
the soldiers' feet, gave them a temporary respite and prevented 
the Romans storming the camp on their heels During the night 
Hasdrubal evacuated his camp, but as Scipio's strategic advance 
had placed the Romans across the line ot retreat to (iades, Has- 
drubal was forced to retire down the western bank towards the 
Atlantic. Nearly all his Spanish allies deserted him 

Scipio's light troops were evidently alive to the duty of main- 
taining contact with the enemy, for he got word from them as 
soon as it was light of Hasdrubal's departure. He at once followed 
them up, sending the cavalry ahead, and so rapid was the pursuit 
that, despite being misled by guides in attempting a short-cut to 
get across Hasdrubal's new line of retreat, the cavalry and light 
infantry caught him up. Harassing him continuously, by attacks 

in flank or in rear, they forced such frequent halts that the legions 
were able to come up. "After this it was no longer a fight, but 
a butchering as of cattle/' till only Hasdrubal and 6,000 half- 
armed men escaped to the neighbouring hills, out of 70,000 odd 
who had fought at Ilipa. 

Military history contains no more classic example of general- 
ship than this battle of Ilipa Frederick's "oblique order" ap- 
pears immature beside Scipio's double oblique manoeuvre and 
envelopment, which effected a crushing concentration of strength 
igainst weakness while the enemy's centre was surely "fixed " 
Scipio left the enemy no chance for the change of front which 
cost Frederick so dear at Kolin Masterly as were his battle 
tactics, still more remarkable perhaps were the decisiveness and 
rapidity of their exploitation, which had hardly an equal in mili- 
tary history until Napoleon came to develop the pursuit as the 
vital complement of battle and one of the supreme tests of 
generalship (B. H L H ) 

ILKESTON, market town, municipal borough, Ilkeston parlia- 
mentary division, Derbyshire, England, 9 m. north-east of Derby 
on the L M S. and L.N E. railways. Pop. (1921) 32,266. It is 
situated on a bill commanding fine views of the Erewash valley. 
The church of St Mary ib Norman and Early English, and has a 
fine chancel screen (nth century). The manufactures are prin- 
cipally hosiery, lace and various kinds of stoneware; coal and iron 
are wrought in the neighbourhood An alkaline mineral spring 
was discovered in 1830. The (.own is mentioned in Domesday, ob- 
tained a grant for a market and fair in 1251, and received its 
charter of incorporation in 1887. 

ILKLEY, an urban district in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 
England, 16 m. N W. from Leeds on the L.M S. and L N E. rail- 
ways, in Middle Wharfcdale and extending to Ilkley moor Pop 
(1921), 0,098 It is a health resort and has several hydropathic 
establishments The remains of Bolton abbey lie in the Wharfe 
valley 5 m above Ilkley Camdcn was the first authority to recog- 
nize llklcy as a Roman site, and associated it with Olicana. Little 
excavation work and few discoveries were made until the iQth 
century, when Roman objects were found A systematic excava- 
tion of the fort began in July 10,19 Much of the site has been 
destroyed since Roman times From the structure of the rampart 
and from finds from deep levels, it is inferred that the fort was 
established before the end of the ist century and that a civil 
settlement sprang up around it Occupation continued, with 
breaks, into the 4th ccntary, but the exact date of the final with- 
drawal of Roman garrisons is still in dispute. 

ILL, a river of France, entirely within the departments of Ras- 
Rhin and Haut-Rhin. It ri^cs on a north foothill of the Jura, 
south-west of Basel, and flows north-north-east, parallel with the 
Rhine, which it enters from thr left, 9 m below Strassburg Its 
course lies for the most part" through low meadowland; and the 
stream, which is 1.3 m long, receives numerous small affluents, 
whkh pour out of the short narrow valleys of the Vosges. It is 
navigable from Ladhof near Colmar to its confluence with the 
Rhine, a distance of 5g m. It is on this river, and not on the 
Rhine, that the principal towns of Upper Alsace are situated, c % , 
Mulhouse, Colmar, Schlcstadt and Strasbourg The 111 feeds 
two important canals, the Rhinc-Marne canal and the Rhine- 
Rhone canal, both starting from the ne'ghbc urhood of Strasbourg 

ILLAWARRA, a frrtilc district of New South Wales, Aus- 
tralia, extending irom about 33 m S of Sydney, along the coast 
southwards for 40 m to Shoalhaven It is thickly populated, 
and supplies Sydney with the greater part of its dairy produce 
There are also numerous collieries, and iron ore, fireclay and 
freestone are plentiful The Iliawarra Lake, a salt lagoon, 9 m 
long and 3 m. wide, js encircled by hills and is connected with 
the sea by a narrow channel; quantities of fish are caught and 
wild fowl are abundant along its shores. The chief towns in 
the district are Bulli, Wollongong, Kiama and Geringong. 

ILLE-ET-VILAINE, a maritime department of north- 
western France, formed in 1790 out of the eastern part of the old 
province of Brittany. Pop. (19-26) 561,688. Area 2,699 sq.m. 
It is bounded X by tru English Channel, the Bay of St. Michel 
and the department of Manchc; E by Mayenne; S. by Loire- 


Inferieure; and W. by Morbihan and C6tes-du-Nord. The de- 
partment consists of the basin of the upper Vilaine, with those of 
its tributaries (all navigable), the Ille from the north, the Seiche 
from the east, and the Meu from the west, and the coastland north 
of the low watershed from the estuary of the Ranee on the west to 
that of the Coucsnon on the east. The Vilaine is navigable as 
far north as Rcnnes, which is connected by canal via the Ille with 
Evran on the Ranee. The rich Marais de Dol, protected by dykes 
from the sea, occupies most of the north coastal plain The coast 
is rocky and dangerous. The climate is oceanic, temperate and 
rainy, with fogs in spring and autumn. The soil, originally poor, 
has been improved by the use of artificial manure. Cereals are 
grown, chiefly wheat, buckwheat, oats and barley. Potatoes, beet- 
root, early vegetables, flax and hemp are also largely grown, and 
tobacco is cultivated in the arrondissement of St Malo Orchards 
are abundant, especially near Dol Stock-raising and dairying are 
important. Lead mines and quarries of slate, granite, etc., are 
worked. There are boat-building yards, iron and copper foundries 
and forges, and a widespread tanning industry. Sail-cloth, rope, 
pottery, boots and shoes (Fougeres), farming implements, paper 
and furniture are also made. The chief ports are St. Malo and 
St. Servan Fishing is very active on the coast, and St. Malo, St. 
Servan and Cancale send fleets to the Newfoundland codbanks. 
There are also important oyster-fisheries in the Bay of St. Michel, 
especially at Cancale. Dinard is the chief of a group of fashion- 
able bathing-resorts. Exports include agricultural products, but- 
ter, mine-posts and dried fish; imports, live-stock, coal, timber, 
building materials and wheat The department is served by the 
Ouest-fitat railway. Ille-et-Vilaine is divided into the arrondisse- 
ments of Fougeres, St. Malo, Redon and Rennes, and it consists 
of 43 cantons and 360 communes The chief town is Rennes, 
which is the seat of an archbishop and of a court of appeal, head- 
quarters of the X army corps, and the centre of an academic 
(educational division). 

ILLEGITIMACY, the state of being of illegitimate birth 
(from Lat. illegitimtis, not in accordance with the law, hence 
born out of wedlock). Illegitimacy may be measured in various 
ways, the most common being by stating the proportion of illegi- 
timate to total births. Another method, claimed as being a better 
one, is to relate illegitimate births to the total unmarried, widowed 
and divorced women of conceptive age in the population under 
review. The superiority of this latter method is very doubtful, 
for it is difficult to say what accurate conclusions can be drawn 
from it. Were illegitimacy an index of either morality or con- 
tinence in any given community this second method would have a 
decided value, but no one who has studied the subject would 
be likely to advance such a claim. A fall in the illegitimate rate 
calculated in either way may merely indicate a spreading familiar- 
ity with the use of contraceptives/ By relating the illegitimate 
to total births we do get a reliable measure of the contribution 
made to the population by the "unmarried mother," and con- 
sequently of the proportion of the population which is of illegiti- 
mate birth. 

Factors Affecting. The factors which are alleged to affect 
illegitimacy are many and varied, but the evidence in regard to a 
large proportion is extremely contradictory. 'Those which may be 
reckoned to be based upon indisputable statistical evidence are 
relatively few. The most important of these is undoubtedly habit 
and custom, or, in other words, the presence or absence of social 
stigma attached to the unmarried mother or the illegitimate child. 
If in any country the social status of the unmarried mother or 
the illegitimate child does not differ materially from that of the 
wife and her legitimate offspring the rate of illegitimacy will be 
high, and the greater the social obloquy incurred by bearing an 
illegitimate child the lower that rate will be. The factor second 
in importance is the extent of legal disability incurred by parent 
or offspring; then the existence or non-existence of barriers (legal, 
social, economic) to early or easy marriage and, finally, .the for- 
malities prescribed for subsequent legitimation or the total ab 
sence of these Each one of these has its effect, in varying degree, 
on the illegitimate rate 

Two other alleged factors are religion and climate, but these 

must be reckoned doubtful if not disproven. It is stated, for ex- 
ample, that Roman Catholic countries show a lower rate than 
those of other cults, and the fact that in Ireland the rate of 
illegitimacy is little more than half that of England and Wales 
and about one-third that of Scotland is invariably put forward as a 
convincing proof. But Roman Catholic Austria had an illegiti- 
mate birth-rate three times that of England and Wales and 50% 
above that of Hungary. On the climatic side, it has been more or 
less generally accepted that the warmer countries of southern 
Europe had a higher proportion of illegitimates. But the highest 
rates are found in the more northern countries, in Denmark and 
in Sweden, whilst in Iceland the rate is higher still. Another pop- 
ular idea is that the great cities have a higher illegitimate rate 
than the rural districts, but on this point also the available evi- 
dence is contradictory. The rural districts of England and Wales 
have a much higher illegitimate birth-rate than has London, while 
on the mainland of Scotland the rural rate is considerably above 
that for the towns. On the other hand, in the Netherlands the pro- 
portion of illegitimate to total births rises steadily with the de- 
gree of urbanization, being lowest in the towns or villages with 
fewer than 5,000 inhabitants and highest in the great cities. The 
same holds good of Finland, where the town rate of illegitimacy 
is double that of the rural areas. 

Variation. The extent to which illegitimacy prevails in any 
given country shows relatively slight variations during the course 
of the last half-century, but the variation from country to coun- 
try is very wide. Thus in England and Wales the proportion of 
illegitimate births to 1,000 total births, which was 48 in the quin- 
quennium 1876-1880, was 43 in 1921-25, a decline of 10%. In 
Scotland the fall in the same period was more marked, being from 
85 to 64. In Germany, however, the rate rose from 87 in 1876- 
80 to no in 1921-25, in Sweden from 100 to 145. Here the widest 
variation in any country is one of 45%. But in the last quin- 
quennium under review the rates in European countries varied 
from 19 in the Netherlands to 106 in Denmark, no in Germany 
and 145 in Sweden. Going outside Europe, we find within the 
confines of the British empire an illegitimate birth-rate of about 
20 per 1,000 in Ireland and of over 700 per r,ooo in Jamaica. In 
the following table the rates are given for certain European coun- 
tries and also for Australia and New Zealand for alternate quin- 
quennia from 1881-85 to 1921-25, the period 1916-20, which was 
directly affected by the World War, being dealt with separately. 
In dealing with these rates it must be borne in mind that, where 
some disability is incurred by illegitimacy, there is an obvious 
motive for non-registration of such a birth, and that the. figures 
may be affected to some extent by the efficiency or otherwise of 
the registration system in operation at the time 

TABLE I. Illegitimate Births per 7,000 ttirlhs 






England and 


















1 06 







France . 
















































New Zealand 






This table shows clearly that there is no general trend in the 
illegitimate birth-proportion in the countries shown, England 
and Wales, Scotland, Germany and Switzerland show declines up 
to the third quinquennium, Italy to the fourth, the Netherlands 
and Norway throughout. In Denmark the rise and fall are erratic, 
in France there is a persistent rise, in Sweden one much more 
marked up to the end of the fourth, in Australia and in New 
Zealand a marked rise up to the end of the third period. Com- 
paring the first with the last, we find that in six of the 13 coun- 


tries the rate in the last period is lower than in the first, while 
in the other seven it is higher. England and Wales, Scotland, 
Italy, the Netherlands, Norway and Switzerland have the maxi- 
mum rate in 1881-85, Denmark and Sweden in 1911-15, Australia 
in 1901-05, Finland and Germany in 1921-25. 

Influence of the World War. During the quinquennium 
1916-20, the period most directly affected by the war, the pro- 
portions of illegitimate to total births in the belligerent countries 
shown in Table I were as follows : England and Wales 54, an 
increase of 25% over the rate for the preceding quinquennium; 
Scotland 76, an increase of 5%; Finland 83, an increase of 6%; 
France 120, an increase of 33%; Germany 113, an increase of 
13%; Italy 45, a decrease of 4%; Australia 51, a decrease of 
7%; New Zealand 45, an increase of 5%. England and Wales, 
France and Germany show marked increases in the proportions of 
illegitimate to total births; in Scotland, Finland and New Zealand 
the increase is insignificant, while in Italy and Australia there was 
an actual decrease. The rise in the proportion may, of course, 
have been due either to an actual increase in the number of 
illegitimate births or to the fall in illegitimate births being less 
marked than the general fall in births during this period. To 
make the position clear, the average annual numbers of the 
illegitimate births in some of these countries in the three quin- 
quennia 1911-15, 1916-20; 1921-25 are given in Table II. 

II. A verage Number vf Illegitima f c 11 irths per A nnunt 




England and Wales 








Finland .... 














New Zealand 




seven in Wyoming to 84 in South Carolina; the difference from 
State to State being mainly determined by the proportion of the 
coloured to the white population, The illegitimate proportions in 
the white population are analysed according to the country of 
birth of the mother, with the following result. 

All white mothers 14 per T,OOO total births. 

Mothers born in United States rfi ,, ,, ,, ,, 

,, ,, Canada i ^ ,, 

M Germany u ,, ,, ,, 

,, Gt Britain 10 5 

,, Ireland lo-.t ,, ,, 

ft > Italy 2 ,, ,, ,, ,, 

Possibly the most interesting feature of this analysis is the fact 
that, under similar social condition*, the rate of illegitimacy is 
practically identical for mothers born in Great Britain and in 
Ireland, although the illegitimacy rate for Ireland itself is only 
about half that of England and Wales and one-third that of 

Extra-European Rates. In the European countries with 
which we have dealt and in those inhabited by European stocks, 
it is evident that the illegitimates form a comparatively insignifi- 
cant fraction of the total population. The same remark holds good 
for Japan as the following figures show. 

Illegitimate Birtl^ Per 1,000 Total Births 
Japan: 1891-95. 116; 1899-1905: 91; 1921-25: 78. 

Here the decline in the proportion of illegitimate to total births 
has been marked and continuous. A different picture is presented 
by the Central and South American countries for which the fig- 
ures are available, these being given in Table 111. 

TABLE ITT. lUegitinmte Births to 1,000 Tola! Births 

In looking at these figures it may be explained that those for 
France and for Italy are omitted because they deal with different 
populations, and while rates may be given without departing from 
substantial accuracy, numbers would prove entirely misleading. 
Those for Germany for 1921-25 should be increased by some 
10% to compensate for the loss of population entailed by the 
cession of territory to France and Poland; which would bring 
them up close to the pre-war level. The only case in which an 
actual increase in the numbers of the illegitimate births is shown 
is in England and Wales, so that any rise in the proportion of 
illegitimates in the other countries was due, not to a numerical 
increase, but to the fact that the proportional decline in illegiti- 
mate births was smaller than that for legitimate during the war 
period. That this was not the case in England and Wales was, 
presumably, due to the presence of comparatively large numbers 
of troops from the British dominions. 

From the rates shown in the last column of Table I., it would 
appear that the post-war effects are inconsiderable, the only 
countries showing any marked increase in the illegitimate rate 
over that obtaining in the immediate pre-war period being Finland 
and Germany. 

In England and Wales, France and Italy, the rates for these 
two periods are identical, in Scotland and Australia the latter 
rate is lower, in New Zealand the rise is too slight to admit of 
any valid inference being drawn. 

United States. Owing to the fact that in the United States 
the system of birth registration has been of gradual growth, it has 
not been possible to give comparative figures as to illegitimacy as 
in Table I. Of more recent years, however, the figures covering 
some 70% of the total population are available, and show the 
position with reliable accuracy. For the triennium 1921-23, the 
proportion of illegitimate to total births was at the rate of 24 per 
1,000. There was, however, a very marked difference for the 
white and the coloured populations; for the former it was only 
14, for the latter 126. In the coloured population, therefore, 
there were nine illegitimates to one among the whites. The illegiti- 
mate proportion in the various States under review varied from 

Period. Chile 

Period < qta 

Period. Cuba 

Period. Rquador 

igo.i-os $S7 
W \ is 37,5 
IQ21-JJ ,*<M 

i88< 85 188 
1911 n 2^7 

igoo-os 342 
i)i i 13 2 37 

K)2i 25 34 n 

Period Aiex- 

Period. Pan- 

Period. Sal- 

Period. Uru* 

1895 Q7 376 
1910 423 

1912-16 689 
1921-25 710 

l8go 1905 510 
10 11 1.4 S>^ 
1921 25 590 

1806 1905 259 
1911-13 251 
1921-25 288 

It is quite evident from these figures that illegitimacy is looked 
upon in these countries in a light very different from that in 
which it is regarded in those peopled mainly by Europeans; as in 
Jamaica and other ot the West Indian islands the population is 
largely recruited trom the unmarried Indeed, in Salvador and 
1'anama those of legitimate birth constitute the smaller fraction 
of the population, and in several of the others the proportion of 
illegitimates shows a rising tendency. (S. DE J.) 

ILLER, a tributary ot the Danube. It rises in the Algauer 
Alps, flows northward through Upper Bavaria for 103 m., and, 
after passing Immcnstadt and Kempton, joins the Danube near 
Ulm. (See DANUBE ) 

ILLINIUM, In 1926, B S. Hopkins definitely identified the 
chemical element of atomic number 61 and gave it this name. 
In the same year Corke, James and Fogg independently ob- 
tained it and measured the lines of its X-ray spectrum. (See 
RARE EARTHS ) Certain Italian chemists claimed priority in this 
discovery and named the element florentium (q.v.). 

ILLINOIS (H'i-noi or il'I-noiz), the Prairie State, one of 
the north central group of the United States of America, situated 
between 37 and 42 30' N. lat. and 87 35' and 91 31' W. 
longitude. It is bounded on the north by Wisconsin, east by 
Lake Michigan and Indiana, south-east and south by the Ohio 
river, which separates it from Kentucky, and south-west and west 
by the Mississippi river, which separates it from Missouri and 
Iowa. The enabling act of Congress, which provided for the organ- 
ization of Illinois territory into a State, extended its jurisdiction 
to the middle of Lake Michigan and the Mississippi river. The 



Mate's greatest length is 379] and its extreme width is 211 
miles The total area of the State, exclusive of its Lake Michigan 
jurisdiction, is 56,65osq m of which s6,o43sq.m. are land. 

Physical Features.- The State, except the extreme southern 
point, lies wholly in the great prairie region. The southern point 
touches the Coastal Plain Belt at its northward extension along 
(he Mississippi river The surface of the State is an inclined 


\1lClilGA N 


1 Rockfurd 

2 Elgin 

3 Oak Park 

4 Chicago 

5 Molme 

6 Rock Island 

7 Johet 

8 GalesburR 

9 Peona 

10 Bloommgton 

11 Quincy 

12 Oecatur 

13 Danville 

14 Alton 

15 E St Louis 

16 Belleville 

1 7 Mount Vernon 

18 Mount Carmel 

19 Murphysboro 

20 Marion 

21 Cairo 

2? Metropolis 


plane whose general slope is toward the south and south-west. 
Illinois is the most level State in the Union with the exception of 
Louisiana and Delaware The average elevation above sea-level 
is about 6ooft ; the highest elevation is Charles Mound (i, 257ft ), 
on the Illinois-Wisconsin boundary lines, one of a group of hills 
in the north-western part of the State, in Jo Daviess, Stephenson, 
Winnebago, Boonc and McHenry counties An elevation from 15 
to 4om. wide, most of the way about 2om , crosses the southern 
part of the State from Grand Tower, in Jackson county, on the 
Mississippi, to Shawneetown, in Gallatin county, on the Ohio, the 
highest point being i,o6^ft above the sea; from Grand Tower 
northward along the Mississippi to the mouth of the Illinois there 
is a slight elevation, and there is another elevation of minor im- 
portatue along the Wabash Many of the river bluffs rise to an 
unusual height, Starved Rock, near Ottawa, in La Salle county, 
being isoft above the bed of the Illinois river. The country 
south of the elevation (mentioned above) between Grand Tower 
and Shawneetown was originally covered with forests. 

The drainage of Illinois is far better than its low elevation and 
comparatively level surface would suggest. There are nearly 500 
streams in the State, grouped in two river systems, one having the 
Mississippi, which receives three-fourths of the waters of Illinois, 
as outlet, the other being tributary to the Wabash or the Ohio 
river. The most important river, is the Illinois which is formed 
by the junction of the Des Plaines and the Kankakee in the 

north-western part of Grundy county. It has a course of 'nearly 
50om., crossing the north-central and western portions of the 
State, draining 24,726 square miles. At some points, notably at 
Lake Peoria, it broadens into wide expanses resembling lakes. 
The Kaskaskia, in the south, notable for its variations in volume, 
and the Rock, in the north, are the other important rivers empty- 
ing into the Mississippi; the Embarrass and Little Wabash, the 
Saline and Cache in the cast, are the important tributaries of the 
Wabash and Ohio rivers. The Chicago river naturally flowed into 
Lake Michigan, but by the construction of the drainage canal it 
was turned in 1900 so that it flows into the Mississippi 

The soil of Illinois is remarkable for its fertility. The surface 
soils are largely composed of drift deposits, varying from 2 to 
looft. in depth; they are often overlaid with a dark coloured loam 
loin or more deep, and in a large portion of the State there is a 
subsoil of mottled clay. The soil of the prairies is darker and 
more granular than that of the forests, but all differences dis- 
appear with cultivation. The soil of the river valleys is alluvial 
and especially fertile, the "American Bottom," extending along 
the Mississippi from Alton to Chester, having been in cultivation 
for more than 200 years Along the river bluffs there is a deposit 
of loess, well suited to the cultivation of fruits and vegetables 

Drainage has proved an important feature in the agricultural 
development of Illinois. Of the State's 237,180 farms in 1920, 
99,248, or 41-8% were reported as provided with drainage, and 
33,731 were reported as in need of drainage The greatest portion 
of the land in drainage enterprises was in the eastern and the 
northern parts of the State, though there were many projects in 
the central and south-eastern parts and along the Mississippi. The 
organized drainage undertakings within the State in 1920 con- 
trolled 4,82om. of ditch and 3,634111 of tile drains. 

Climate. The climate of Illinois is notable for its extremes 
of temperature. The warm winds which sweep up the Mississippi 
valley from the Gulf of Mexico are responsible for the extremes 
of heat, and the arctic winds of the north, which find no moun- 

85.7 <fc of the 

Total Land Area of Illinois 

was in Farms in 1925 

Average Value 
of Farmland per 
Acre m 1925 



Illinois U S. 


tain range to break their strength, cause the extremes of cold. 
The mean annual temperature of Winnebago, near the northern 
border, is 4/F, and it increases to the southward at the rate of 
about 2 for every degree of latitude, being 52? at Springfield, 
and 58F in Cairo, at the southern extremity. The lowest tem- 
perature ever recorded in the State was 32? in Feb. 1905, at Ash- 
ton in the north-west and the highest was iisF in July 1901, at 
Centralia, in the south, making a maximum range of 147 degrees. 
The range of extreme is somewhat greater in the north than in 
the south. The mean annual precipitation is about 4jin. in the 



southern counties, but this decreases to the northward, being 
about *36in. in the central counties and 34m. along the northern 
border. The mean annual snowfall increases from ly^m. at the 
southern extremity to more than 32111. in the northern counties. 
In the north the precipitation is 44-8% greater in spring and sum- 
mer than it is in autumn and winter, but in the south only 36-17% 
greater. At Cairo the prevailing winds are southerly during all 
months except February, and as far north as Springfield they are 
southerly from April to January; but throughout the northern 
half of the State, except along the shore of Lake Michigan, where 
they vary from north-east to south-west, the winds are mostly 
from the west or north-west from October to March and are 
variable for the remainder of the year. Tornadoes are not un- 
known to Illinois, one of the most severe on record having visited 
southern Illinois on March 18, 1925. The property loss was esti- 
mated at $16,500,000 and 742 persons were killed and 2,756 
were injured. 

Government. Illinois has been governed under two terri- 
torial acts of Congress and three Constitutions, the Territorial 
Constitution Acts of 1809 and 1812, and the three State Con- 
stitutions of 1818, 1848 and 1870 (subsequently amended). A new 
Constitution, submitted to the people on Dec. 12, 1922, was de- 
leated by a vote of 921,398 to 185,298. Amendments may be 
made by a Constitutional Convention or a two-thirds vote of all 
members elected by each house of the legislature, ratification by 
the people being required in either instance A Constitutional 
Convention may be called by the general assembly when two-thirds 
of the members of each house concur and their action, when sub- 
mitted to the people, is approved by a majority of 'the votes cast. 

The Constitution provides for an executive department con- 
sisting of a governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of State, 
auditor of public accounts, treasurer, attorney-general and super- 
intendent of public instruction, all elected for four years, with 
the exception of the treasurer, whose term of service is two 
years. Despite the difficulty of modifying long-established laws, 
far-reaching changes have been made. By the Consolidation Act 
of 1917, over 100 State boards, bureaux and offices, paid and 
unpaid, created to execute various acts or to supervise the various 
State debt institutions, were Consolidated into nine departments 
finance, agriculture, labour, mines and minerals, public works and 
buildings,, public welfare, trade and commerce, registration and 
education and public health. Reorganization of governmental 
machinery was begun in 1909 with the abolition of separate 
boards for the various State charitable institutions and the estab- 
lishment of one central board of control possessing also certain 
powers over private charitable institutions In addition to this 
board a supervisory State charities commission was created. In 
19:5, the legislature created a department of purchases and con- 
struction and a department of conservation The heads of these 
various departments, who are appointed by the governor and 
senate, have acted as a cabinet for the governor. 

Changes in the State's system of appointments were effected 
by the Act of 1911, which extended the civil service system to the 
greater part of the State's employees. Civil service now covers 
all State appointees except those appointed by the governor and 
confirmed by the senate, the scientific and academic staff of the 
University of Illinois and the normal schools, and a few others 
All examinations are competitive, although for some scientific 
posts "unassembled examinations" are given which consist of 
questions as> to training and experience. By an amendment of 
1917 all appointees may be removed by the appointing authority, 
but are allowed an appeal to the State civil service commission 
on allegation that the removal is due to race, politics or religion. 

Members of the legislature arc chosen by districts, three repre- 
snitatives and one senator from each of the 51 districts, 18 of 
which are in Cook county. Regular sessions of the legislature 
meet on the first Wednesday after the first Monday in January in 
odd-numbered years. The term of senators is four years, that of 
representatives two years; and in the election of representatives 
since 1870 there has been a provision for "minority" representa- 
tion, under which by cumulative voting each voter may cast as 
many votes for one candidate as there are representatives to be 

chosen, or he may distribute his votes (giving three votes to one 
candidate, or one and one-half votes each to two candidates, or 
one vote each to three candidates), the candidate or candidates 
receiving the highest number of votes being elected. A similar 
system of cumulative voting for aldermen may be provided for 
by ordinance of councils in cities organized under the general State 
law of 1872. Special legislation is prohibited when general laws arc 
applicable, and special and local legislation is forbidden in any of 
23 enumerated cases, among which are divorce, changing of an 
individual's name or the name of a place, and the grant to a cor- 
poration of the right to the name of a place. The general assem- 
bly may pass an act over the governor's veto by a two-thirds vote 
of all the members elected to each house. 

The judicial powers are vested in a supreme court, appellate 
courts, circuit courts, county courts, justices of the peace, police 
magistrates, and such courts as may be created by law in and 
for cities and incorporated towns The supreme court is com- 
posed of seven members elected from districts for a term of nine 
years. The four appellate courts are distributed one for Cook 
county (which has also two branch appellate courts, both the 
court and the branches being presided over by three judges 
appointed by the supreme court) and three other districts, each 
with three judges appointed in a like manner. The State outside 
of Cook county is divided into 17 circuits in each of which three 
judges are elected for a term of six years. The Constitution pro- 
vides for separate courts in Cook county. The county has a su- 
perior court consisting of 29 judges elected for six years, a circuit 
court consisting of 20 judges elected for a like term, a criminal 
court, a county court and a probate court. The City of Chicago 
has a municipal court composed of 36 judges and a city court con- 
sisting of 27 members Each county has a county court consisting 
of one judge who serves for four years; in some counties probate 
courts have been established, and In counties of more than 500,000 
population juvenile couits for the trial and care of delinquent chil- 
dren are provided for Each county has a State attorney elected 
for a term of four years 

The local government of Illinois includes both county and town- 
ship systems. The earliest American settlers came from the South- 
ern States and naturally introduced the county system: but the 
increase of population from the New England and Middle States 
led to a recognition of township organization in the Constitution 
of 1848, and this form of government, at first prevalent only in 
the northern counties, is now found in most of the middle and 
southern counties Cook county, although it has a township sys- 
tem, is governed, like those counties in which townships arc not 
found, by a board of commissioners, elected by the townships and 
the City of Chicago A general law of T.S;2 provides for the or- 
ganization of municipalities, only cities and villages being re< og- 
nized, though there are still some u to\\ns" which have failed to 
reorganize under the new law In 1927 there were 232 cities, 29 
towns and 839 villages in the State City charters are granted only 
to such municipalities as have a population of at least 1,000. Re- 
quircments for suffrage are age of 21 years or more, citizenship 
in the United States, and residence in the State for one year, in 
the county 90 days, and in the election precinct 30 days preceding 
the exercise of suffrage Disfranchisement is brought about by 
conviction for bribery, felony or infamous crime, and an attempt 
to vote after surh conviction is a felony 

The relation of the State to corporations and industrial prob- 
lems has been a subject of important legislation The Constitu- 
tion declares that the State's rights of eminent domain shall never 
be so abridged as to prevent the legislature from taking the 
property and franchises of incorporated companies and subjecting 
them to the public necessity in a way similar to the treatment 
of individuals In 1903 the legislature authorized the municipal 
ownership of public sen ice corporations Railways organized 
or doing business in the State are lequired by the Constitution 
to have a public ottice where books for public inspection are kept, 
showing the amount of stock, its owners, and the amount of the 
road's liabilities and assets No railway company may now issue 
stock except for inonev labour, or property actually received and 
applied to purposes for which the corporation was organized. 


An anti-trust law of 1893 exempted from the definition of trust 
combinations those formed by producers of agricultural products 
and live-stock, but the United States Supreme Court in 1902 
declared the statute unconstitutional as class legislation. Accord- 
ing to a revised mining law of 1899 (subsequently amended), all 
mines are required to be in charge of certified mine managers, 
mine examiners, and hoisting engineers, when the services of the 
engineers are necessary, and every mine must have an escape- 
ment shaft distinct from the 
hoisting shaft. The employment 
of children under 14 years of age 
in factories or mines, as well as 
working employees under 1 6 years 
of age for more than 48 hours a 
week, is forbidden by statute. 

Population. The population 
of Illinois at certain selected 
census periods was as follows: 
12,282 in 1810; 157,445 in 1830; 
1,711,951 in 1860; 3,077,871 in 
1880; 4,821,550 in 1900; 5,638,- 
591 in 1910; and 6,485,280 in 
1920 The rate of increase 1910- IN I92 

20 was 15^ as compared with 14-9% for the whole United States 
The population as on July T, 1927, was estimated to be 7,296,000. 
Tn 1870 and 1880 Illinois was fourth among the States of the 
Union in population, but in 1890 it ranked third, a position it 
has since maintained Of the population in 1920, 97-1% was 
white, and 80-8% was native born. The principal foreign elements 
were Germans (205,491), Poles (162,405), Russians (117,899), 
Swedes (105,577), Italians (94,407), and Irish (74,274). The 
density of population increased from 100-6 per square mile 
in 1910 to 115-7 per square mile in 1920 The increase of 1910-20 
was urban, the rural population continuing to decline. In 1920 
the percentage of urban population in towns and cities of 2,500 
or over was 67 9% and 41-7% of the total population lived in 
the City of Chicago In 1920, 52-5% of the Stated population 
was in cities greater than 25,000 Population in villages of less 
than 2,500 declined from 12% in 1910 to 10-5% in 1920. Purely 
rural population fell from 264% in 1910 to 21-6% in 1920 

Population of Cities of over 40,000 in 1Q20 

47 7% in Chtc*|o 

26 2% in 
of 2500 

321% in 









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Finances. Expenditure authorised by the legislature for the 
bienmutn 1927-29 amounted to $263,295,763 Of the appropria- 
tions for (he biennium, $102,025,000 was for highway construc- 
tion and maintenance and $13,854,420 for interest and retire- 
ment of highway bonds, making a total of $115,879,420 for high- 
way purposes To meet this expenditure, $60,000,000 was ex- 
pected from highway bond issues, and the balance from general 
income, ie, receipts other than taxes, including automobile 
licences, which amounted in the preceding biennium to $26,800,- 
452 Among other more important items of appropriation were: 
public welfare department including State charitable, penal and 
reformatory institutions, $39,655,686; omnibus bill, $83,397,459; 
State treasurer, retirement of and interest on bonds, $24,578,640; 
public schools, $16,001,500; University of Illinois, $10,725,000; 
State normal schools, five in number, $3,241,176; agricultural 
department $5,077,258, health department $1,289,284 The sys- 
tem of revenue is based upon the general property tax; the local 
assessment of all real and personal property is required, with 
(he aim of recording all kinds of property upon the assessment 
rolls Among other sources of revenue are an indirect tax on 
corporations, motor-vehicle licence fees, an inheritance tax, 7% 

of the annual gross earnings of the Illinois Central railway, 
Federal aid, and various miscellaneous fees. The Constitution 
prohibits the State from lending its credit or making appropria- 
tions in aid of any corporation, association or individual, and 
from constructing internal improvements, and the counties, town- 
ships and other political units cannot incur indebtedness in excess 
of 5% of their assessed property valuation. The legislature may 
not contract a debt of more than $250,000 except to suppress 
treason, war or invasion unless approved by a vote of the people 
The State's outstanding bonded indebtedness on Jan. i, 1928, 
was $145,296,000. 

All general banking laws must be submitted to the people for 
ratification. The northern part of Illinois lies in the 7th Federal 
Reserve district and the southern part in the 8th, with head- 
quarters respectively in Chicago and St Louis. In 1927 there 
were 490 national banks in Illinois with aggregate capital stock 
of $99,662,000, aggregate surplus of $72,601,000 and total re- 
sources of $1,839,001,000. Of these banks 35 are located in 
Chicago, having resources amounting to $1,201,548,000. Side 
by side with the national banks is the system of State banks 
created by the Act of 1887, and operating under the supervision 
of the auditor of public accounts In 1927 there were 1,353 
State banks with a total capital of $173,570,500, and aggregate 
resources of $2,778,863,449 Of the State banks 188 were in Chi- 
cago, having resources amounting to $1,997,593,629. 

Education. Public education in Illinois had its genesis in 
the land of the North-west Territory reserved for educational 
purposes by the ordinance of 1787. The first school law, which 
provided for State taxation for public schools, was enacted in 
1825 Only a few schools were established under this act as the 
section providing for taxation was soon repealed. Free schools 





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supported by the sale of land reserved for education and by local 
taxation were established as early as 1834. In 1855 a second 
school law providing for a State school tax was enacted, and this 
is the foundation of the existing public school system; the Con- 
stitution of 1870 also requires the legislature to provide a thor- 
ough and efficient system of public schools. 

The public schools of the State are free to all between the 
ages of six and 21 years, and school attendance is compulsory for 
all children from seven to 16 years of age. Of the population of 
school age (6-21) in 1925, 1,343,430, or 69% were enrolled in 


ihe public schools. In addition to the public schools there were, 
in 1925, 1,036 private schools with 214,728 pupils. The distribu- 
tion of public school enrolment was 1,115,285, or 83% in the kin- 
dergarten and elementary schools and 228,145, or 17% in high 
schools. The high school enrolment represents an increase of 
1 68% during a period of ten years. The total number of teachers 
in 1925 was 43,865 in elementary schools and 9,531 in high schools. 



School revenue is derived chiefly from local taxation. The net ex- 
penditure, including new grounds and buildings, in 1924 was $115,- 
677,000, or a per caput, based on total population, of $16 82. This 
is an increase of $46,319,000 over the $69,358,000 expended in 
1920. The average length of the school term in 1924 was 8-3 
months. A notable development in the public educational system 
was the growth in the number of township high schools, and the 
number of community high schools following the legislation of 
1917. Under the township high-school law some 200 high schools 
were organized. Acts of 1913 and 1915 directed the payment by 
local school authorities of tuition for children who wished to at- 
tend high school elsewhere when there was none in their district. 
During one year, 1920, 232 community high schools were or- 
ganized, and at the close of the year 1927 the number had risen 
to 287. The total number of four year high schools in 1925 was 
673. With the rapid growth in the number of high school 
graduates (25,606 in 1925) there was a corresponding increase in 
the enrolment in the universities and colleges of the State 

The State provides for higher education in the University of 
Illinois at Urbana and five teachers' colleges situated at Normal, 
Carbondale, Charleston, De Kalb and Macomb The university 
was founded in 1867, through the U.S. land grant of 1862, as 
the Illinois Industrial university, and received its present name 
in 1885; since 1870 it has been co-educational. The expansion of 
the university through the acquisition or organization of new 
colleges and schools began in 1896 when the Chicago College of 
Pharmacy became the University of Illinois School of Pharmacy. 
Since that date important changes have been made The univer- 
sity in 1928 consisted of a college of liberal arts and sciences, a 
college of commerce and business administration, a college of 
education, a college of engineering, a college of agriculture, a 
college of law, the graduate schools, a library school, a school of 
journalism, and a school of music at Urbana and a college of 
medicine, a college of dentistry and a school of pharmacy at 
Chicago. An agricultural experiment station, an engineering ex- 
periment station and the bureaux of educational research and of 
business research are connected with the university. The faculty 
in 1927-28 numbered 1,360, and the total enrolment of students 
for that academic year was 14,071. The five teachers' colleges 
have an annual enrolment in excess of 12,000. 

In addition to the State institutions of higher education in 1927 

ing and one private normal school within the State. Th'e most 
important of these are the University of Chicago, Northwestern 
university at Evanston, Illinois Wesleyan university at Blooming- 
ton, Knox college at Galesburg, Illinois college at Jacksonville, 
and Lake Forest college at Lake Forest. 

Charities and Corrections. The department of public wel- 
fare is charged with the administration of all charitable and penal 
institutions in the State. To accomplish this purpose the depart- 
ment has been separated into a number of divisions and in turn 
each institution is under a manager appointed by and under the 
direction of the department In 1925 there were 26 State institu- 
tions under the department's supervision Of these, nine were 
hospitals for the insane located at Elgin, Kankakee, Jackson- 
ville, Anna, Watertown, Peoria, Chester, Chicago and Alton. 
There were two institutions for the feeble-minded, the Lincoln 
State school and colony at Lincoln and a State hospital at Dixon 
The State maintained a school for the blind and a school for the 
deaf at Jacksonville, an industrial home for blind at Chicago, a 
training school for girls at Geneva and a like institution for boys 
at St Charles Charitable institutions included a home for soldiers 
and sailors at Quincy, a soldiers' orphans home at Normal, a home 
for soldiers 1 widows at Wilmington, a research and educational 
hospital connected with the college of medicine of the University 
of Illinois, and an eye and ear infirmary at Chicago. The State's 
penal institutions were: a State penitentiary and a woman's prison 
at Juliet, a reformatory at Pontiac, a State farm at Vandalia and 
the Southern Illinois penitentiary at Menard. The division of 
child welfare exercises supervision over all orphanages situated 
within the State Poor relief IK administered by the counties 
usually through the maintenance of alms-houses. By a law of 
1905 all employees in State institutions were put on a civil service 
basis. The appropriations for the department of public welfare 
for the biennium 1927-29 was $39,655,686. 

Industry, Trade and Transportation. While the census of 
manufactures shows Illinois to be an industrial rather than an 
agricultural State, there has been no absolute decline in iu 
farming. According to the census of 1920 Illinois was second only 
to Iowa among the States in agricultural importance. Based on 
crop values, in 1926, Texas was first, Iowa second, California 
third and Illinois fourth with farm crops amounting to $389,- 
957,000 This production is considerably under the enormous 
crop of 1924 which had a value of $554,965,000 The land in 
farms in 1925 was 3o,73i,947ac., or 85-7% of the total land area. 
This figure shows a decline from 90-7% of the total area in 1910 
and 89*1% in 1920. The total number of farms has shown a corre- 
sponding decline, the numbers being 251,872 in 1910, 237,181 in 
1920 and 225,601 in 1925. The average size for farms during the 
above period showed a slight increase; the 129-iac. average for 
1910 increased to \^6-2ac in 1925. The value of farm property 
increased enormously in the decade 1910-20 but declined sharply 
after the latter date; the total value of all farm property in 1925 
being $4,628.344,531 a* compared with $6,666,767,235 in 1920. 
Tenantry showed a slight decrease between 1920-25 but the 
number paying cash showed a marked decrease because of de- 
pressed market values for farm products. 

Cereals are still the main crop and corn (maize) is the leading 
product The largest maize crop on record was that of 1912 
when 426,3 2o,ooobu. were produced from io,658,oooac. or an 
average of 4obu per acre. The maize crop of greatest value was 
that of 1917, which had a value of $459,800,000. In 1926 the 
crop of 3i2.979,ooobu was exceeded by that of Iowa only. In 
1926, 4i,o34.ooobu of wheat were produced on 2,283,oooac., a 
production which gave Illinois the rank of fifth among the States. 
The production of oats in 1926 showed a sharp decrease from 
the average for the 20 years previous; the product being 123.- 
5i6,ooobu., a total exceeded by Iowa and Minnesota only. Rye, 
barley and sweet corn for canning, are other important cereals. 
Hay in 1926, had a commercial value second only to that of 
maize, the production for that year being 3,665,000 tons valued 
at $58,640,000. Apples, peaches, cherries, plums and other fruits 
are widely grown but are little produced for market. The large 



valuable In 1924 milk and other dairy products had a value of 
$62,828,092 In the same year i i3,O2O,993doz eggs and 32,203.- 
8n chickens were produced with an aggregate value of 
$60,645,711. In live-stock, Illinois, on Jan i, 1926, with 1,039,000 
milch cows, ranked fifth among the States; and in all cattle, 
numbering 2,368.000, ranked seventh. In the number of swine, 
4,631,000 and the number of horses, 985,000, Illinois ranked 
second only to Iowa. Mules, 169,000, and sheep 689,000, were 
of minor importance as compared with other States. The esti- 
mated total value of all live-stock within the State on Jan. i, 
1926, was $289,950,000 

The growth of manufacturing in Illinois, due largely to the de- 
velopment of her exceptional transportation facilities, was the 
most rapid and remarkable in the industrial history of the United 
States In 1850 the State ranked fifteenth, in 1870 sixth, and in 
1880 fourth, the same relative position it held in 1923. In 1905 
the product of the manufactures was valued at $1,410,342,129, 
in 1919 the value was $3,366,452,969, and in 1923 the total value 
had risen to $5,041,113,314. The manuiactures in 1923, employed 
645,627 wage-earners, working in 14,345 establishments The 
most important industry was wholesale slaughtering and the pack- 
ing of meats, which yielded T 2.279;, of the total manufactured 
product of the State in 1923 Illinois has long held first rank 
in this industry; the product for 1923 exceeded more than twice 
that of any other State The manufacture of iron and steel prod- 
ucts, and of products depending upon iron and steel as raw ma- 
terial, is second in importance. The iron for these industries is 
secured from the Lake Superior region, the coal and limestone 
from mines within the State. The position of Illinois in the heart 
of the agricultural section and her bountiful supply of iron has 
caused the State to become the chief producer of agricultural 
implements. The ten most important industries with the values 
of their respective products in 1923 were as follows: slaughter- 
ing and meat packing (wholesale) $606,320.553; foundry and 
machine shops, $275,955,047; iron and steel, steel works and roll- 
ing mills, $213,671,552, electrical machinery and supplies, $211,- 
366,206; clothing, men's, $186.683,333; cars, steam road (not 
built in repair shop), $159,364,227; printing and publishing, book 
and job, $138,227,215; printing, publishing, newspaper, etc., $132,- 
^88,355; cars and general construction, steam, $118,604,362; 
bread and other bakery products, $105,289,516. 

The tendency in manufacturing was toward large-scale pro- 
duction and corporate ownership. Of the 18,593 establishments 
in the State in 1919, the 799 producing $1,000,000 or over, turned 
out some 75% of the products. In these industries 389,686 wage- 
earners were employed Chicago, with its tributary manufactur- 
ing suburbs of Maywood, Harvey, Cicero, Blue Island, Chicago 
Heights, and, in Indiana, Hammond and Gary, is the greatest 
manufacturing centre of the State. A lesser manufacturing centre 
has grown up in the net of railways that centre at East St. Louis, 
Collinsville, Granite City and Edwardsville. The third centre is 
formed by Moline and Rock Island with Davenport, Iowa. Joliet 
and East St Louis were second and third respectively to Chicago 
in the value of products in 1919. Manufactures in Chicago are 
generally diversified. The same is usually true in the smaller 
centres, although a few cities are noted for their special products. 
Thus, Rockford is best known for its furniture manufactures, 
Kcwanee for boilers, Elgin for watches, Moline for farm imple- 
ments and automobiles. 

In mining and allied interests Illinois occupies an important 
place. In 1919 the State ranked third in the total number of per- 
sons engaged in the mining industries and fourth among the States 
in the value of products. In the total value of products for 1925 
($231,658,604), the State ranked seventh, the relative decline in 
importance being due chiefly to increased petroleum production in 
other States. Coal constitutes the State's chief product. The 
great central coal-field of North America extends into Illinois 
from Indiana as far north as a line from v Grundy county to Rock 
Island, west from Rock Island to Henderson county, then south- 
west to the southern part of Jackson county, where it runs south 
into Kentucky, including 54 counties and approximately 35,000 
sq.ra. of the land surface of the State. During 1926, 69,813,255 

, short tons were mined with a value equal to 57% of the State's 
total mineral product This amount was exceeded only by Penn- 
sylvania and by West Virginia. Clay products were second in im- 
portance with an output valued at $33,591,368. Petroleum, the 
mineral third in importance, was long known to exist within the 
State but was not seriously exploited until 1906 when the annual 
production (4,397,050^)! ) for the first time exceeded 1,000,000 

r 'Of the 14,431,000,000 
' Net Tons of Bituminous \ 
Coal Mined in the US x 







1921 1927 


barrels In 1924 the production was 8,081, ooobbl valued at $14,- 
220,000, an output somewhat under that of previous years The 
producing area covers about 4,50osq m. in 16 counties in the 
south-eastern part of the State. Limestone, sandstone, sand, fluor- 
spar, lead and zinc were other leading products. The quarrying 
industries were well distributed throughout the State and fur- 
nished not only stone for construction work, but also limestone for 
the iron industry, and sandstone from which a large part of the 
U.S silica supply is derived Illinois has ranked as the leading 
State in the Union since 1842 in the production of fluor-spar, the 
product in 1924 being 62,067 short tons valued at $1,288,310 

Transportation facilities have been an important factor in the 
economic development of Illinois The first settlers used the 
waterways, some coming by way of the Great Lakes while others 
used the Ohio river. The first improved transportation facilities 
were the turnpikes and canals, undertaken in whole or part by the 
State. The task of connecting Lake Michigan and the Mississippi 
river was accomplished by the State's building the Illinois and 
Michigan canal to La Salle, at the head of the navigation on the 
Illinois river, a work begun in 1836 and completed in 1848. In 
1890 the sanitary district of Chicago undertook the construction 
of a canal between Chicago and Lockport, where the new canal 
joins the Illinois and Michigan canal. This work was opened in 
1900, providing a waterway with a depth of 2oft. for navigation 
between the above places; but from Lockport to Utica, on the 
Illinois river, a distance of 62m. there was no adequate means of 
water transportation. A legislative Act of 1919 provided for the 
issue of bonds to the amount of $20,000,000 for the construction 
of an 8ft. channel, "The Illinois Waterway," connecting the points 
mentioned, but little actual progress had been made up to 1925. 
The Federal Government completed in Oct. 1907 the construction 
of a new canal, the Illinois and Mississippi, from Hennepin to 
Roce river. It had a channel 7ft. deep, 52ft. wide at the bottom 
and Soft, wide at the water-line. These waterways are not ex- 
tensively used to-day. Illinois's most important water transporta- 
tion system is that of the Great Lakes. Receipts of grain at Chi- 
cagb by lake have steadily declined of late years, although the 
lakes are still the usual route for shipment of wheat to eastern 
points. Iron ore is still shipped to Chicago and South Chicago by 
way of the Great Lakes. 

Steam railways are by far the State's chief means of trans- 
portation. With 1 2,03 7m. of main line she was in 1924 second only 
to Texas. For over 30 years little new main line road has been 
built. The important extension has been in double-tracking and 


improvement of the right-of-way and terminals. The field of pas- 
senger and light freight and coal transport, since 1900, has been 
invaded by the electric lines, which in 1924 operated 3,555111. of 
track. The Illinois traction system operates a ramification of elec- 
tric lines across the State from Danville to East St. Louis and radi- 
ating throughout central Illinois; on certain runs it uses sleeping 
and parlor cars. 

The improvement of roads in the State of Illinois has been 
given marked attention. A State highway commission was created 
in 1905, and in 1914 State appropriations for hard roads were 
made from the proceeds of automobile licence fees. Actual con- 
struction was begun in 1914. Road building in Illinois is carried 
on under four distinct systems the township, the State aid, the 
State bond issue and the Federal aid systems. There is an over- 
lapping of mileage among these. Acts of Congress in 1916 and 
1919, apportioning Federal aid in behalf of roads, allotted to Illi- 
nois $3,300,000 and $8,700,000 respectively. The question of is- 
suing $60,000,000 in bonds based on automobile licence fees for 
the construction of 4,8oom. of hard roads was submitted to the 
voters of the State in Nov. 1918 ami was approved by them. A 
bond issue of $100,000,000 providing for the continuance of a 
State-wide system of hard-surface roads was approved by the 
people at the general election of 1924. The mileage under the 
$60,000,000 bond issue system, according to the last report at the 
end of 1926, was 4,794 miles. Tho mileage under the $100,000,000 
bond issue of 1924 is estimated at approximately 5,ooom. so that 
the two systems will provide approximately 9,800 miles. The total 
net paved mileage in the State under all four systems of con- 
struction, excluding city streets, on Jan. i, 1927, was approxi- 
mately 5,90om. of which 5,466m. were concrete. 

History. The first Europeans to visit the region now known 
as Illinois were the French. In ^1659 Pierre Radisson and Medard 
Chouart des Groseillicrs seem to have reached the upper Mis- 
sissippi. It is certain that in 1673 part of the region known as the 
Illinois country was explored to some extent by two Frenchmen, 
Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit father. Marquette, 
under orders to begin a mission to the Indians, and Joliet, who 
acted under orders of Jean Tjlon, intcndant of Canada, ascended 
the Fox river, crossed the portage between it and the Wisconsin 
river, and followed that stream to the Mississippi, which they 
descended to a point below the mouth of the Arkansas. On their 
return journey they ascended the Illinois river as far as Lake 
Peoria; they then crossed the portage to Lake Michigan, and in 
1675 Marquette founded a mission at the Indian town of Kaskas- 
kia, near the present Utica, Illinois. In 1679 the explorer La Salle, 
desiring to find the mouth of the Mississippi, ascended the St. 
Joseph river, crossed the portage separating it from the Kan- 
kakee, which he descended to the Illinois, and built in the neigh- 
bourhood of Lake Peoria a fort which he called Ft. Crevecoeur. 
The vicissitudes of the expedition, and opposition in Canada to his 
plans prevented him from reaching the mouth of the Illinois 
until Feb. 6, 1682. After such preliminary explorations, the 
French made permanent settlements, which had their origin in 
the missions of the Jesuits and the bartering posts of the French 
traders. Chief of these were Kaskaskia, established near the 
mouth of the Kaskaskia river, about 1720; Cahokia, a little below 
the mouth of the Missouri river, founded at about the same time ; 
and Ft. Chartres, on the Mississippi between Cahokia and Kas- 
kaskia, founded in 1720 to be a link in a chain of fortifications 
intended to extend from the St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico. 
A monument of the labours of the missionaries is a manuscript 
dictionary (c. 1720) of the language of the Illinois, with catechism 
and prayers, probably the work of Father Le Boulanger. 

In 1712 the Illinois river was made the northern boundary of 
the French province of Louisiana, which was granted to Antoine 
Crozat (1655-1738), and in 1721 the seventh civil and military 
district of that province was named Illinois, which included more 
than one half of the present State, the country between the Arkan- 
sas river and the line 43 N. lat, as well as the country between 
the Rocky mountains and the Mississippi; but in 1723 the region 
around the Wabash river was formed into a separate district. 
The trade of the Illinois country was now diverted to the settle- 

ments in the lower Mississippi river, but the French, although 
they were successful in gaining the confidence and friendship of 
the Indians, failed to develop the resources of the country. By 
the Treaty of Paris, 1763, France ceded to Great Britain her 
claims to the country between the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, 
but on account of the resistance of Pontiac, a chief of the Oltawas, 
who drew into conspiracy most of the tribes between the Ottawa 
river and the lower Mississippi, the English were not able to take 
possession of the country until 1765, when the French flag was 
finally lowered at Ft. Chartres. 

The policy of the British Government was not favourable to 
the economic development of the newly acquired country, since 
it was feared that its prosperity might react against the trade 
and industry of Great Britain. But m 1769 and the succeeding 
years of English control, this policy was relaxed, and immigration 
from the seaboard colonies, especially from Virginia, began. In 
1771 the people of the Illinois country, through a meeting at 
Kaskaskia, demanded a form of self-government similar to that 
of Connecticut. The petition was rejected by Gen. Thomas Gage; 
and Thomas Legge, earl of Dartmouth (1731-1801), secretary of 
State for plantations and president of the Board of Trade, drew 
up a plan of government for Illinois in which all officials were 
appointed by the Crown. This, however, was never operative, 
for in 1774, by the famous Quebec Act, the Illinois country was 
annexed to the Province of Quebec, and at the same time the 
jurisdiction of the French civil law was recognized. These facts 
explain the considerable sympathy in Illinois for the colonial 
cause in the War of Independence. Most of the inhabitants, 
however, were French, and these were loyalists. The English 
authorities instigated the Indians to make attacks upon the 
frontiers of the American colonies, and this led to one of the 
most important events in the history of the Illinois country, the 
capture of the British posts of Cahokia and Kaskaskia in 1778, 
and in the following year of Vincennes, Ind , by George Rogers 
Clark ((/.v.), who acted under orders of Patrick Henry, governor 
of Virginia. These conquests nad much to do with the securing 
by the United States of the country west of the Alleghanies and 
north of the Ohio in the Treaty of Paris, 1783. 

The Virginia house of delegates, in 1778, extended the civil 
jurisdiction of Virginia to the north-west, and appointed Capt. 
John Todd (1750-82;, of Kentucky, governor of the entire ter- 
ritory north of the Ohio, organized as "The County of Illinois." 
This government was confined to the old French settlements and 
was entirely inefficient. In 1787, Virginia and the other States 
having relinquished their claims to the country west of the Alle- 
ghanies, the North-west Territory was organized by Congress by 
the famous ordinance of 1787 Two years later St. Clair county 
was formed out of the south-west part of the Illinois country, 
while the eastern portion and the settlements around Vincennes, 
Ind., were united into the county of Knox, and in 1795 the 
southern part of St. Clair county was organized into Randolph 
county, with Kaskaskia as the seat of administration. In 1800 
the Illinois country was included in the Territory of Indiana, 
and in 1809 the western part of Indiana from Vincennes north to 
Canada was organized as the Territory of Illinois; it included, be- 
sides the present State, all of Wisconsin except the northern part 
of the Green bay peninsula, a large part of Michigan, and all of 
Minnesota east of the Mississippi. In 1812, by permission of 
Congress, a representative assembly was chosen, a territorial con- 
stitution was adopted, and the territorial delegate in Congress was 
elected directly by the people. 

In i Si 8 Illinois became a State of the American Union, the en- 
abling act fixing the line 42 30' as the northern boundary, in- 
stead of that provided by the ordinance of 1787, which passed 
through the south bend of Lake Michigan. The reason given for 
this change was that if the Mississippi and Ohio rivers were the 
only outlets of Illinois trade, the interests of the State would 
become identified with those of the Southern States; but if an 
outlet by Lake Michigan were provided, closer relations would be 
established with the Northern and Middle States, and so "addi- 
tional security for the perpetuity of the Union" would be afforded. 

Throughout the territorial period there was conflict between 

French and English land claims In 1804 Congress established 
land offices at Kaskaskia and Vincennes to examine existing claims 
and to eliminate conflict with future grants; in 1812 new offices 
were established at Shawneetown and Edwardsville for the sale 
of public lands; and in 1816 more than 5oo,oooac. were sold. In 
1818, however, many citizens were in debt for their lands, and 
"squatters" invaded the rights of settlers. Congress therefore 
reduced the price of land from $2 to $T 25 per acre and adopted 
the policy of pre-emption, preference being given to the claims 
of existing settlers The Indians, however, resisted measures look- 
ing toward the extinguishment of their claims to the country. 
Their dissatisfaction with the treaties signed in 1795 and 1804 
caused them to espouse the British cause in the war of 1812, 
and in 1812 they overpowered a body of soldiers and settlers who 
had abandoned Ft Dearborn (see CHICAGO) For a number of 
years after the end of the conflict, the Indians were comparatively 
peaceful; but in 1831 the delay of the Sacs and Foxes in with- 
drawing from the lands in northern Illinois caused Governor John 
Reynolds (1788-1865) to call out the militia The following year 
Black Hawk, a Sac leader, opened an unsuccessful war in northern 
Illinois and Wisconsin (the Black Hawk War); and by 1833 all 
Indians in Illinois had been removed from the State. 

The financial and industrial policy of th State was unfortunate. 
Money being scarce, the legislature in iSiq chartered a State bank 
which was authorized to do business on the credit of the State. 
This bank never operated and a second was chartered in 1820. 
In a few years the bank failed, and the State in 1831 borrowed 
money to redeem the depreciated notes issued by the bank. A 
second State bank was chartered in 1835; two years later it sus- 
pended payment, and in 1843 the legislature provided for its 
liquidation The State also undertook to establish a system of 
internal improvements, granting a loan for the construction of the 
Illinois and Michigan canal in 1836, and in 1837 appropriating 
$10,000,000 for the building of railroads and other improvements. 
The experiment proved unsuccessful; the State's credit declined 
and a heavy debt was incurred, and in 1840 the policy of aiding 
public improvements was abandoned. Through the efforts of 
Governor Thomas Ford (1800-50) a movement to repudiate the 
State was defeated, and a plan was adopted by which the entire 
debt could be reduced without excessive taxation, and by 1880 
practically the entire debt was extinguished. 

A notable incident in the history of the State was the immi- 
gration of the Mormons from Missouri, about 1840. Their prin- 
cipal settlements were in Hancock county. They succeeded in 
securing favours from the legislature, and their city of Nauvoo 
had courts and a military organization that was independent of 
State control Political intrigue and claims of independence from 
the State, as well as charges of polygamy and lawless conduct, 
aroused such intense opposition to the sect that in 1844 a civil 
war broke out in Hancock county which resulted in the murder of 
Joseph Smith and the removal of the Mormons from Illinois 
in 1846. 

The slavery question, however, was the problem of lasting po- 
litical importance Slaves had been brought into the Illinois 
country by the French, and Governor Arthur St. Clair (1734- 
1818) interpreted the article of the ordinance of 1787, which for- 
bade slavery in the North-west Territory, as a prohibition of the 
introduction of slaves into the territory, not an interference with 
existing conditions The idea arose that negroes could be held 
as indentured servants, and such servitude was recognized in the 
Indiana code of 1803, the Illinois Constitution of 1818, and 
statutes of 1819; indeed, there would probably have been a recog- 
nition of slavery in the Constitution of 1818 had it not been feared 
that such recognition would have prevented the admission of the 
State to the Union. In 1823 the legislature referred to the people 
a resolution for a Constitutional Convention to amend the Con- 
stitution, The aim, not expressed, was the legalization of slavery. 
Although a majority of the public men of the State, indeed prob- 
ably a majority of the entire population, was either born in the 
Southern States or descended from Southern people, the resolu- 
tion of the legislature was rejected, the leader of the opposition 
being Governor Edward Coles (1786-1868), a Virginia slave- 

holder, who had ireed his slaves on coming to Illinois. The'oppo- 
sition to slavery, however, was at first economic, not philan- 
thropic. In 1837 there was only one abolition society in the State, 
but chiefly through the agitation of Elijah P. Lovejoy (see 
ALTON), the abolition sentiment grew. In 1842 the moral issue 
had become political, and the Liberty Party was organized, which 
in 1848 united with the Free Soil Party; but as the Whig Party 
approved the policy of non-extension of slavery, these parties did 
not succeed so well united as under separate existence In 1854, 
however, the Liberty and Free Soil Parties, the Democrats op- 
posed to the Kansas-Nebraska bill, and some Whigs united, se- 
cured a majority in the legislature, and elected Lyman Trumbull 
U.S. senator Two years later these elements formally organized 
as the Republican Party and elected their candidates for State 
offices. This was the first time that the Democratic Party had 
been defeated, its organization having been in control since the 
admission of Illinois to the Union. An important influence in this 
political revolution was a change in the character of the popula- 
tion Until 1848 the Southern element predominated in the popu- 
lation, but after that year the immigration from the Northern 
States was greater than that from the South, and the foreign ele- 
ment also increased. The influence of immigration and section- 
alism upon Illinois politics is well illustrated by the fact that the 
first six governors (1818-38) were born in the Southern States, 
six of the eight U.S. senators of that period were also Southern 
born, and all of the representatives, with one exception, also came 
to Illinois from the Southern States. After 1838 the Eastern 
States began to be represented among the governors, but until 
1901 no governor was elected who was a native of Illinois. See 
E B. Greene, Sectional Forces in the History of Illinois (Publica- 
tions of the Historical Library of Illinois, no. 8, 1903) 

The opposition to slavery continued to be political and eco- 
nomic rather than philanthropic The Constitution of 1848, which 
abolished slavery, also forbade the immigration of slaves into the 
State. In 1858 occurred the famous contest for the office of U.S 
senator between Stephen A. Douglas (Democrat) and Abraham 
Lincoln (Republican). Douglas was elected, but the vote showed 
that Illinois was becoming more Northern in sympathy, and two 
years later Lincoln, then candidate for the presidency, carried the 
State. The policy of Illinois in the early period of secession was 
one of marked loyalty to the Union; even in the southern part of 
the State the majority of the people had no sympathy with the 



pro-slavery men in their efforts to dissolve the Union. The legis- 
lature of 1861 provided for a war fund of $2,000,000; and Capt. 
James H. Stokes (1814-90) of Chicago transferred a large amouni 
of munitions of war from St. Louis, where the secession sentiment 
was strong, to Alton. The State contributed 255,092 men to the 
Federal armies. From 1862-64, however, there was some oppo- 
sition to a continuance of the war. This was at first political; the 
legislature of 1862 was Democratic, and for political purposes that 
body adopted resolutions against further conflict, and recom- 
mended an armistice, and a national convention to conclude peace. 



The same year a convention met to revise the Constitution. 
Among its acts was the assumption of the right of ratifying a pro- 
posed amendment to the Constitution of the United States which 
prohibited Congress from interfering with slavery within a State, 
although the right of ratification belonged to the legislature. The 
convention also inserted clauses preventing negroes and mulattoes 
from immigrating into the State and from voting and holding 




office; and although the Constitution as a whole was rejected by 
the people, these clauses were ratified In 1863 more pronounced 
opposition to the policy of the National Government developed. 
A mass meeting, which met at Springfield in July, at the instance 
of the Democratic Party, adopted resolutions that condemned 
the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, endorsed the doctrine 
of State sovereignty, demanded a national assembly to determine 
terms of peace, and asked President Lincoln to withdraw the 
proclamation that emancipated the slaves, and so to permit the 
people of Illinois to fight only for "Union, the Constitution and 
the enforcement of the laws " The Knights of the Golden Circle 
(</.v.), and other secret societies, whose aims were the promulga- 
tion of State sovereignty and the extension of aid to the Con- 
federate States, began to flourish, and it is said that in 1864 there 
were 50,000 members of the Sons of Liberty in the State. Capt. 
T. Henry Hines, of the Confederate army, was appointed by 
Jefferson Davis to co-operate with these societies For a time his 
headquarters were in Chicago, and an elaborate attempt to liberate 
Confederate prisoners in Chicago (known as the Camp Douglas 
conspiracy) was thwarted by a discovery of the plans In the 
elections of 1864 the Republicans and Union Democrats united, 
and after an exciting campaign they were successful. The new 
legislature was the first among the legislatures of the States to 
ratify (Feb. i, 1865) the i.^th amendment 

From the close of the Civil War until the end of the iqth cen- 
tury the Republican Party was generally dominant, but the trend 
of political development was not without interest In 1872 many 
prominent men of the State joined the Liberal Republican Party, 
among them Governor John M. Palmer, Senator Lyman Trum- 
bull and Gustavus Koerner (1809-96), one of the most prominent 
representatives of the German element in Illinois. Economic de- 
pression gave the Granger movement considerable popularity, 
and an outgrowth of the Granger organization was the Inde- 
pendent Reform Party of 1874, which advocated retrenchment of 
expenses, the State regulation of railways and a tariff for revenue 
only. A Democratic Liberal Party was organized in the same 
year, one of its leaders being Governor Palmer; consequently, no 
party had a majority in the legislature elected in 1874. In, 1876 
the Greenback Party, the successor in Illinois of the Independent 
Reform Party, secured a strong following; although its candidate 
for governor was endorsed by the Democrats, the Republicans 
regained control of the State Administration. 

In 1912, as a result of the Progressive secession, the Republican 
Party for the first time in 16 years lost control of the State, the 

Democratic presidential electors winning by a vote of 405,038, as 
against 386,478 for the Progressives and 253,593 for the Repub- 
licans. The Democratic State ticket headed by Edward F. Dunne 
was elected by a somewhat larger plurality. The Democrats, 
however, did not control the general assembly on joint ballot. By 
1914 the normal Republican majority in the State reasserted 
itself, the popular vote for senator in that year being L. Y. Sher- 
man, Republican, 390,661; Roger Sullivan, Democrat, 373403; 
Raymond Robins, Progressive, 203,027. President Woodrow 
Wilson lost the State in the presidential election of 1916 by 
160,000 votes Frank () Lowden, Republican, was elected gov- 
ernor over Edward F. Dunne Len Small succeeded Lowden in 
1921 and was re-elected in 1925 

The relations between capital and labour have at times resulted 
m serious conditions, the number of strikes and lockouts from 
1916 to 1926 having been 1,671. The most noted instance of mili- 
tary interference was in 1894. when President Grover Cleveland 
sent U S. troops to Chicago to prevent strikers and rioters from 
interfering with the transmission of the U S. maiK 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. There is no comprehensive bibliography on the 
literature relating to Illinois; but Richard Bowker's, State Publications, 
part 2 (1902), the chapters of E. B. Greene's, The Government of 
Illinois (1904), and C. E. Carter's, Great Britain and the Illinois 
Country 1763-1774 (1910) contain useful lists of documents, mono- 
graphs and books 

The most comprehensive history of the State is the Centennial 
History of Illinois (published by the State, 1918-20). Older standard 
histories arc J. Moses, Illinois Historiial and Statistical (1889) and 
H Da-'idson and B. Stuve, Complete History of Illinois (1874). 
Edward G Mason's, Chapters from Illinois History (1901) is of 
interest for the French explorations and the colonial period. C. E. 
Boyd in "The Country of Illinois'' (American Historical Review t 
vol. iv), "Record Book and Papers ol John Todd" (Chicago 
Historical Society, Collections, iv ) , R L Schuyler, The Transition 
of Illinois to American Government (1909); W. H Smith. The, St. 
Clair Papers (1882); Solon J Buck, Illinois in 1818 (1917) and the 
Territorial Records cf Illinois (''Publications of the State Historical 
Library," no. are important for the period until 1818. Works on 
special subjects are C. H. Garnctt, State Hanks of Issue in Illinois 
(1898) ; N G Harris, History of Negro Servitude, in Ilhnots (1904) ; 
W W. Lusk, Politics and Politicians of Illinois, the Illinois Consti- 
tutional Convention (1862) ; The Grander Movement in Illinois t and 
Illinois Railway Legislation and Commission Control (Univ. of III , 
Studies), See also the Illinois Historical Collections and the Journal 
of the Illinois State Historical Society. 

Constitutional and administrative problems are discussed in Elliott 
Anthony, Constitutional History of Illinois; E. B. Greene, The Govern- 
ment of Illinois (1904); Walter F. and S H Dodd, Government in 
Illinois (192,0 ; John A. Fairhe, "Government Reorganization in 
Illinois" (American Pohtual Science Review, vol ix , no. 21) ; Reports 
of the Efficiency and Economic Commission (1914-15); and the 
publications of the legislative reference bureau. The Blue Book of 
the State of Illinois is the best source of current information about 
officials and administrative organization 

Information concerning population, economic conditions, etc , may 
be found in the Fourteenth Census of the United States, State Com- 
pendium; Illinois. Consult also the reports of the various State 
departments and officials and the Bulletins of the Illinois Geological 
Survey. (D. K.) 

ILLINOIS, THE UNIVERSITY OF, an institution of 
higher learning situated in Urbana, 111. It arose out of the passage 
of the Morrill Land Grant Act in 1862, whereby the National 
Government gave each State in the Union scrip for 50,000 ac of 
public land for each senator and representative in Congress "for' 
the endowment, support and maintenance of at least one college 
whose leading object shall 'be, without excluding other scientific 
and classical studies and including military tactics, to teach such 
branches of learning as arc related to agriculture and the mechanic 
arts ... in order to promote the liberal and practical education 
of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions 
of life.' 1 

The State of Illinois accepted this gift and in Feb. 1867 granted 
a charter to the Illinois Industrial university. The institution 
was put under the control of a board of trustees appointed by the 
governor, excepting two members ex-ojficio, the governor and the 
State superintendent of public instruction. In 1887 the board was 
made elective except for the two cx-officio members. The uni- 
versity was situated in Urbana-Champaign county, but has ex- 
tended across the city line into Champaign city, the two cities 



being adjacent. In 1885 the name of the institution was changed 
to The University of Illinois. 

The administrative head of the university was known at first 
as regent. In 1894 the title was changed to president. The uni- 
versity includes at Urbana-Champaign: colleges of liberal arts 
and sciences, agriculture, engineering, commerce, education, law; 
schools of library science, music and journalism, and the graduate 
school. The colleges of medicine, dentistry and the school of 
pharmacy are in Chicago. A summer session is held at Urbana- 
Champaign each year. Other great departments are military, 
physical welfare and health service. 

The university has 74 principal buildings in Urbana and 
Chicago, besides numerous smaller service buildings and 2,298 
ac of land of which 1,925 ac. are devoted to agriculture. The 
libraries of the university aggregate about 760,000 volumes. The 
teaching and administrative staff numbered 1,232 in 1928. The 
student enrolment for the year 1927-28 was 14,071. Of these, 
the largest group, about 4,200, were in the college of liberal arts 
and sciences. 

In addition to the instructional work of the university, much 
research is carried on The agricultural and engineering experi- 
ment stations are devoted to research in their respective fields. 
In all other departments of the university research is carried on 
either individually or co-operatively. Notable discoveries have 
been made in various departments, the most noted, perhaps, being 
the discovery of the element illinium in the chemical laboratory 
of the university in 1925, this being the only chemical element 
discovered in the Western Hemisphere. The work of the experi- 
ment stations is far-flung The engineering station assisted in 
experiments for the ventilation of the New York and New Jersey 
vehicular tunnel under the Hudson river, as well as in other 
projects of a similar character. 

The main financial support of the university is from State 
appropriations. In addition, the university receives certain Fed- 
eral appropriations and has an income from student fees and 
from various other sources. For the biennial period 1925-27 the 
budget income for all purposes aggregated $15,678,560. Of this 
amount $10,529,914 were State appropriations. (D. K.) 

ILLINOIS CENTRAL SYSTEM is the principal north- 
and-south railroad of the United States. It was incorporated in 
1851 to build lines between Cairo and East Dubuque and between 
Centralia and Chicago, in Illinois. Construction was completed 
in 1856. Additional lines were subsequently built or acquired in 
Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, Minnesota, South Dakota, Nebraska, 
Iowa, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mis- 
sissippi, Alabama and Georgia, The system, including the owned 
but separately operated Central of Georgia Railway, consisted in 
1928 of 9,183 m. of line. Three-fourths of the railroad's operating 
revenue is derived from freight traffic, the principal commodities 
being coal, lumber, petroleum, sand, gravel, stone, cement, grains, 
livestock, cotton, fruits and vegetables and miscellaneous manu- 
factured products. Through passenger trains are operated be- 
tween Chicago and St. Louis and Memphis, New Orleans, the 
Mississippi Gulf Coast, Birmingham, Savannah and the Florida 
resorts, and between Chicago and Omaha, Sioux City and Sioux 
Falls. A subsidiary, the Ocean Steamship Company of Savannah, 
operates a fleet of steamships between Savannah and New York 
and Boston. The total investment in property on Dec. 31, 1927, 
was $828,920,000. (L. A. D.) 

ILLITERACY. In the more restricted and technical sense 
of the term an illiterate person is one who is unable to read and 
write his own language. The tests of this ability vary greatly, 
but all are so simple that a person could easily pass them and yet 
be illiterate in the wider sense. 

It has been estimated very roughly that about 60% (820,- 
000,000 persons) of the world's population over 10 years of age 
cannot read or write. For large parts of Africa, Asia and the 
Pacific Islands only rough guesses at the population can be made, 
and illiteracy is considered absolute. In some Catholic countries 
and in all Mohammddan and Asiatic countries the illiteracy of 
the female population greatly exceeds that of the male. In some 
Asiatic countries it is almost complete. The least illiteracy in the 

world is to be found in the countries to the west and north of 
Europe, and in countries settled by them. A reason often given 
for their low percentage of illiteracy is that the Protestant Ref- 
ormation emphasized the reading of the Bible and thus gave the 
first incentive to the education of all classes. Church schools 
initiated such teaching and for a long time retained control of 

Unfortunately statistics of illiteracy are not collected in a 
uniform manner in various countries, nor do given figures repre- 
sent the same age groups, so that much of their value for com- 
parative purposes is lost. To intelligently reveal conditions 
illiteracy should also be classified as to sex, nationality and race. 
Only the first is possible in the table given below. Norway, 
Sweden, Germany and Switzerland claim a negligible amount of 
illiteracy. Germany ceased keeping statistics in 1913 when her 
male percentage as revealed by army recruits was '05. Illiteracy 
statistics for Great Britain were based upon the proportion of 
those signing their names in the marriage register with a mark, 
but even these ceased to be included in the Registrar-general's 
annual report in 1914 when the percentages stood at 0-8% for 
males and 1-0% for females. In 1841-45 the figures had been 
32-6% and 48-9% respectively. For other important countries 
the percentages are given in the following table: 


Sour re 








Cen*. is 

Over ^ yeirs 





, j 











, , 

- S 











/ Total' I 
1 population / 






1 1 

Over 6 years 

























Ci recce 

t , 








t v 




/ Total 
1 population f 

8 7 -4 

98- 1 




Over (> years 





/ Army | 
\ conscripts / 





Ovn ^ years 

>5" ( > 



New Zealand 


,, <; * , 


















11 5 ' 




Union of So- 

viet Social- 
ist Repub- 






United States 


Over 10 years 




*Ccnsus (1920) for Russia in Europe showed 49-8% male and 71-8% 
female illiteracy. 

Illiteracy statistics are most complete in the United States 
(See UNIIED STATES: Population and Social Conditions.) The 
comparatively high percentage of illiteracy there where education 
is compulsory was due chiefly to the adult negro and foreign-born 
populations. The illiteracy of native whites in 1920 was 3-0%, 
of foreign-born whites 13-7%, of children of foreign parents 
0-9% and of negroes 27*4%. The low percentage of illiteracy 
among children of the foreign-born reveals how eagerly the foreign- 
born take advantage of free education. Negro illiteracy was re- 
duced from 30-4 in 1910 to 22-9% in 1920. The illiteracy among 
native whites was found chiefly in the isolated rural districts of 
the older states and in the newer states where the demands of the 
frontier had prevented an older generation from receiving their 
educational inheritance. Illiterates among arriving immigrants 
decreased from 23*5% in 1900-09 to 0-9% in 1926 due to new 
immigration laws. 



Illiteracy in the United States by Geography al Division**, 1920 






foreign - 

Negroes 4 


New England 






Middle Atlantic 






East North Central 






West North Central 






South Atlantic 





*5* 2 

East South Central 






West South Central 





2 5'3 


5' 2 






<>. 7 





ILLORIN, a province of northern Nigeria, British West 
Africa. Area 17,779 sqm; population (1926) 519,627. it lies 
west of the Niger and is bounded west by French territory 
(Dahomey). The province consists mainly of open plains and 
river valleys and is separated from southern Nigeria by a range 
of well wooded, iron stone hills. The chief division is the emirate 
of Illorin, occupying the centre. In the north is the Borgu di- 
vision made up of the emirates of, Kaiama and Bussa. In the 
east are the Pategi and Lafiagi emirates. The prcdferninant 
native race is the Yoruba (q.v.), but in the district* by the 
Niger the Nupe prevail. The province is rich in agricultural and 
sylvan products Among the former are cotton, rice, peppers, 
ground-nuts and kolas. The latter include great quantities of ! 
shea as well as palm-oil and rubber. The Government maintains , 
an experimental farm in the province, where attention is given i 
largely to cotton and ground-nuts ab sources of a big export in- , 
dustry. The capital, also called Tllorin, is 160 m in a direct line ; 
north-north-east of Lagos, and is on the railway from that port , 
to Kano. The town (pop., 1926, 83,669) is surrounded by a mud j 
wall partly in ruins, which has a circuit of some 10 miles. Illorin 
is a great trading centre. A variety of manufactures are carried i 
on, including the making of leather goods, carved wooden ves- ! 
sels, finely plaited mats, embroidered work, shoes of yellow and 
red leather and pottery of various kinds. Before the establish- : 
ment of British rule Illorin middlemen transacted all business 
between the traders from the north, who were not allowed to 
pass to the south, and those from the south On the establish- 
ment of British authority the town was thrown open to all traders 
and a number of European merchants are established there. 
The chief buildings arc the British residency, the palace of the 
emir, the houses of the balo^uns (war chiefs), mosques and 
churches. From the centre of the town roads radiate like spokes 
of a wheel to the various gates Baobabs and other shade trees 
are numerous. 

The town of Illorin was founded, towards the close of the 
1 8th century, by Yoruba, and rose to be the capital of one of 
the Yoruba kingdoms About 1825 the kingdom, which had been 
conquered by the Fula, became an emirate of the Sokoto empire. 
The Fula, however, maintained the Yoruba system of govern- 
ment, which places the chief power in a council of elders. In 
1897 Illorin was occupied by the forces of the Royal Niger 
Company, and the ernir placed himself under the protection and 
power of the company. After the assumption of direct authority 
by the British Government in 1900, Illorin was organized for 
administration on the same system as the remainder of northern 
Nigeria. The Yoruba showed a keen appreciation of education, 
to which the Nupe remained indifferent. (See BORGU and NI- 
GERIA.) (F. R. C.) 

ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS. Illumination, in art, 
is a term applied to the embellishment of written or printed text 
or design with colours or gold and, rarely, with silver. The old 
form of the verb "to illuminate" was "to enlumine," and i3th cen- 
tury laymen who practised the art were called "enlumineurs." 
While the term should be strictly applied to the brilliant book- 
ornamentation which was developed in the middle ages, it has been 
extended, by usage, to the illustration and decoration of early mss. 
in general 

The decisive changes in the history of the book are similarly 

turning points in the art of illumination. (See BOOK.) The produc- 
tion of precious illuminated mss survived the introduction of 
printing by nearly a century. So far as we know, the art of deco- 
rating mss. did not create new forms through a development based 
on writing, but rather it took over pictures and ornaments from 
other forms of art. The written pages appear at first simple and 
unadorned, even where the parchment is coloured and the writing 
is in silver or gold; then simple enlarged initial letters and calli- 
graphic ornament; in the Codices richly adorned title-pages and 
brilliant displays of ornament in the Canon-tables of Gospel mss. 
The form and position of the pictures vary exceedingly. Some- 
times the illustrations are placed haphazard in the picture borders, 
in the text, or as framed pictures in the text ; they may also occupf 
lull pages, or in the form of a running band m the Codex above or 
below the text, or, as in the roll, running in a continuous series of 
pictures from end to end. 

Illumination in Antiquity. The little surviving from the 
first great period in the history of illumination which reached to 
about the 4th century, consists of numerous fragments of papyrus 
rolls. Such fragments include the ancient Egyptian Book of the 
Dead, in whuh the illustrations arc either clashing drawings or 
coloured pictures The only fragmentary examples of illustrated 
rolls of the classical period were found in Egyptian excavations, 
and our knowledge of this period, as a whole, is very slight. The 
most ancient and important of these are the fragmentary copy of 
the Iliad, on vellum, in the Ambrosian library, Milan (variously 
assigned to the 3rd and <;th centuries), of which there are 58 pic- 
tures of various sizes, obviously the remains of a magnificent ms.; 
the small Virgil at the Vatican (Lat 3,225, 4th century) with pic- 
tures set off in a simple frame and inserted in the text, all of which 
are considered to have been based on Augustan models; and the 
later Vatican Virgil (Codex Romanus, Lat. 3,867, 5th or 6th cen- 
tury), the work of an artist who did not understand his model's 
technique in painting ;md was, therefore, unable to copy it. (See 

Illumination of Christian Books in the East. Christian 
illumination dates back to the times to which the few early pro- 
fane illuminated mss in our possession belong. The number of 
ancient Christian illuminated mss in Greek or in oriental languages 
is very small. (Sec BIBLE, MANUSCRIPTS ) 

Other Theological and Profane Manuscripts. Among 
illuminated theological or profane mss which survive in the 
original, the most important is the Dioscorides (early 6th century) 
in Vienna. Few of the manuscripts are dated and localized and 
many important to early Christian art are preserved only in 
mediaeval copies; even those actually written in early Christian 
times may not be originals, but merely copies. Only on this basis 
can we explain why the Viennese Genesis, made up of various series 
of illuminations, is closely allied to the Codex Rossanensis, which 
belongs to another stage in the development of the style. The 
style is determined mainly by paintings of late antiquity based on 
Hellenistic models influenced by indigenous art (Coptic, Syrian, 

Miniatures in the Middle Byzantine Period. The devel- 
opment in Byzantium cannot be traced clearly until after the 
iconoclastic controversy. As art flourished again, the works of 
the Byzantine Renaissance, as it is called, began to be produced. 
To this renaissance belong those Codices which hand on works of 
late antique or early Christian times, partly in accurate copies, 
partly in free imitations (Joshua Roll, Kosmas Indikopleustes), 
Psalters like that at Paris (Grec 139) On the other hand, the 
typical middle Byzantine art modelled its style on monumental 

Although Constantinople decided the trend of artistic produc- 
tion, illumination was also cultivated outside the capital. As 
practised in the monasteries of Athos, its importance was far- 
reaching. From the nth century a school of miniaturists developed 
in Russia, the works of which are, at first, scarcely to be dis- 
tinguished from those of Byzantium. The Menology at the 
Vatican is the only Byzantine ms. in which each miniature is signed 
by the artist. The style in the later works, and especially in the 
productions of the monasteries, became dry, but still it persisted, 


not only through the Latin conquest (1204-61), but it was also 
capable of a rebirth after the restoration of the empire under 
the Palaeologues (1261). 

Western Illumination in Early Christian and Carolin- 
gian Times. Few early Christian illuminated manuscripts of 
Western origin have survived. A comparison between the Quedlin- 
berg Itala fragment in Berlin of this period and the Virgil of the 
Vatican (Lat. 3,225) proves that the scriptoria which produced 
it also executed Christian illuminated mss. The affinity between 
the two is extraordinarily close; the style is clear and simple in 
character; the pictorial conception gives evidence of naturalness 
and it is without a trace of the Byzantine spirit. There is evidence 
ftiat style quickly deteriorated in the West, but the process cannot 
be traced in detail. 

The most important original ms. is St. Augustine's Gospels at 
Corpus Christi, Cambridge (Nr. 286) which was probably exe- 
cuted in Lower Italy. The Ashburnham Pentateuch at Paris is 
of a different type; its 19 miniatures are stylistically and icono- 
graphically unique, and indicate a connection with oriental models; 
they are possibly of Spanish origin These mss. bear witness to a 
survival of late antique and early Christian art in the West. By 
comparison, the mass of the mss produced in the monasteries of 
the Frank and Lombard kingdoms in the 7th and 8th centuries 
have quite a different character. Among the large number pre- 
served only a few have figurative representations. Illuminated Bi- 
bles or Gospels hardly occur at all Ornament, in general, is re- 
stricted to initials and decorated pages, a method of embellishment 
based on the art of the scribe, not of the painter. Compared with 
the simplicity of the text in late antique mss , it is a complete revo- 
lution. Part of the material originated in upper Italy and south 
France, apparently in the early ;th century. Later, the art was 
transplanted to central and northern France. The majority of the 
mss., and especially those richest in decoration, arose in north 
France in the latter half of the 8th century, i.e., not until the 
Irish and Anglo-Saxon arts of illumination were already highly 

In Britain two fundamentally different tendencies must be dis- 
tinguished, the Irish and the English. The development in Eng- 
land was determined by the Roman mission and by the close rela- 
tions kept up between the Italo-Saxon churches and monasteries 
and Rome itself. In the 8th century, from which period a series 
of splendid mss. have been handed down, the artists endeavoured 
to continue the early Christian figurative tradition in stiffly out- 
lined forms, and at the same time displayed rich decorative splen- 
dour in the Irish fashion. The most important works of the Can- 
terbury school are S. Augustine's Psalter with a portrait of David 
(British Museum) and the Codex Aureus in Stockholm. 

Irish Illumination. In spite of numerous contacts with Eng- 
land, Irish illumination is a world apart. It is one of the most 
interesting phenomena in the whole range of mediaeval art. In 
the art of illumination it represents, perhaps, a climax never again 
reached. It is the more remarkable in that it suddenly appears be- 
fore us, fully developed, without any preliminary stages and with 
no source to which it can be traced. The three chief Irish works 
are the Book of Durrow (Dublin, Trinity college, A. 4, 5 ), the 
Book of Kells (ibid. A i, 6) and the Lindisfarne Gospels (British 
Museum Cotton, New D IV.). The Book of Durrow (c. 700) is 
pure Irish in style; the Book of Kells (for which the date 700 has 
been disputed in favour of a later period) shows traces of foreign 
ornamental ideas, and the Lindisfarne Gospels (written soon after 
700), h.ive pictures of the Evangelists, which are not Irish in style, 
but are only explained by the influences of the Italo-Saxon mon- 
asteries The contrast arises from the refusal of the Irish artists 
to attempt naturalistic representation in order to make as free 
play with the figures of a picture as if they were calligraphic de- 
signs, that it is often difficult to see what these plaited figures 
really mean. This anti-naturalistic method of representation 
stands in sharp contrast to the whole range of classical antique art 
ia all its derivations Irish mss show a richness of decoration un- 
paralleled, so far as is known, up to that time. The various Gospels 
are preceded by whole pages with carpet-like designs, and the 
initials at the beginning of the text grow and spread until they, 

too, cover the whole page. 

The Carolingian Renaissance, Simultaneously with the re* 
form of writing, a project of Charlemagne, there arose a number 
of new schools of painting which aimed at restoring the connec- 
tion with antique and early Christian art. The chief works prob- 
ably did not arise before the beginning of the Qth century; they 
include the Gospel-book of Ada (? Charlemagne's sister), at 
Trier, after which we call all these works the Ada-group. These 
mss. include rich Canon-tables, pictures of the Evangelists and 
of their symbols under large arcades, symbolical representations 
of the Church, the Fountain of Life, etc. Obviously there is an 
ancient pictorial tradition, which we can trace back, on the one 
side to Syria, on the other to Italy and England. The colouring is 
varied and splendid, the figures dramatic in movement, the faces 
fine and full of expression, the outlines of the figures rich in style. 
On the whole, the treatment, with its sharp and clear outlining 
of form, shows more of the spirit of drawing than of painting. All 
this points to models of high artistic importance 

Of a group of schools where work is in decided stylistic con- 
trast to the Ada group is the Palatine school of Aix-la-Chapelle. 
Its chief work, the Gospel-book of Charlemagne, is preserved 
among the Crown treasures 1 at Vienna. The treatment is alto- 
gether pictorial, the colouring fine and simple without being too 
varied. The plain style of embellishment, with the greatness of 
conception in the figures and the soft pictorial treatment, point to 
early Christian models. This tendency is continued in the school 
of Hautvillers, where a Gospel-book at Epernay town library was 
made for Ebo of Reims (816-35). Significant changes of style 
have set in however; the broad pictorial technique has made room 
for a hatched treatment, so that it has been supposed that the 
artist had been accustomed to using a drawing-pen. The style 
is that of the Utrecht Psalter, which has great affinity with later 
Anglo-Saxon work, and which subsequently exercised a strong 
influence on development in England. The Utrecht Psalter 
(Utrecht University library), is at once the most magnificent and 
the strangest production of Carolingian art. The composition with 
landscape like stage-scenery reminds one of early Christian models 
(Joshua-roll). Without a doubt, the Utrecht Psalter has some 
connection with early Christian art. Nevertheless, it is an essen- 
tial creation of Carolingian times. The school of Tours was at 
its prime towards the middle of the Qth century under the lay 
abbot, Count Vivian. The Gospel-book destined for the em- 
peror Lothaire is the most important work (Paris B.N., Lat. 266). 
The Tours mss. took over from early Christian models a large 
number of Bible illustrations, and introduced them into mediaeval 
art. A quite distinctive style marks the works of the Franco- 
Saxon school. It shows, unmistakably, a continuation of the Irish 
and Hiberno-Saxon school, enriched by Carolingian elements. Its 
strength is based entirely on ornament and it is notable for having 
spread the art of the initial as developed in England and Ireland. 

Anglo-Saxon Illumination. Anglo-Saxon illumination be- 
gan to flourish once more under King Edgar (c. 960). The new 
style, based on Carolingian art, suddenly makes its appearance 
completely developed, in the works of the Winchester school. It 
is one of the most original and attractive in the whole range of 
mediaeval art. The artist is not satisfied by norma 1 movements 
of the neck or head, so the line of the neck is unnaturally pro- 
longed and curved; the draperies appear as if driven by a gale 
of wind, and end in fluttering points; the seams are broken into 
numberless small folds. From the standpoint of correctness, 
much fault might be found with these figures, but as the expres- 
sion of immense spiritual force they excite our wonder. Anglo- 
Saxon art, too, reaches its climax when it dispenses with painting 
in thick colours and contents itself with sketch-like drawings, 
which may be tinted with various light colours. The chief work 
of the early period is the Benedictional, which Bishop Aethelwold 
(963-984) caused to be written, by the scribe Godeman (Chats- 
worth library). 

One of the most important seats of Anglo-Saxon art was at 
Canterbury. A copy of the Utrecht Psalter (Brit. Mus. Harl. 
603) is supposed to have been executed there. More than three 
hands worked at it, so it must have been made in a large scrip- 




Leaf from a Bible MoraJisee, showing portrait* of Blanche of Castilo and her son, Saint Louis, 
king of Franco. This reproduction is from the original French manuscript, executed in the 
first quarter of the 13th century, now In the Pierpont Morgan library, New York 



torium. The Anglo-Saxon style remained full of life until the 
middle of the nth century. It was not confined to England; 
during the loth century it crossed the Channel. There the style 
appears in many works in such freshness and spontaneity that it 
is likely that Anglo-Saxon artists had emigrated to France. Of 
this type is the Evangeliar (Boulogne library, No. n) written at 
the Abbey of S. Bertin. In northern France there arose, side 
by side with the illuminations influenced by the Anglo-Saxons, 
other mss. which, independent in style, are full of intense 

The Ottoman Renaissance. The Ottonian Renaissance 
flourished in Germany about the same time as the Winchester 
school. Its political background was the renewal of the Holy Ro- 
man Empire by Otto I. Within a few decades an almost inconceiv- 
able abundance of magnificent mss. was produced, which we can 
allot to a number of different schools These schools differ exceed- 
ingly in character, according to whether the artists used Carolin- 
gian models or went back direct to early Christian. Middle Byzan- 
tine art, too, begins to its influence at this period. The 
great number of pictures in the Ottonian mss. springs from these 
various sources. All these schools, on the other hand, are very cre- 
ative in ornament. They used whole page illuminations with a 
purple ground and richly formed initials of golden foliated branch 
work, similar to those found occasionally in Carolingian times, 
especially in the Metz school In all the schools of the Ottonian 
period, painting with thick colours prevails. In the works of the 
golden age of Ottonian art we notice the intention to approach the 
illusionistic conception of the late antique. But these endeavours 
are soon frustrated, and at the beginning of the nth century de- 
cline sets in. The painting becomes more mediaeval in character, 
the background of the pictures is divided up by ornamental and 
coloured stripes, for which occasionally the Byzantine gold back- 
ground is substituted. One of the most prominent centres of 
artistic activity was the monastery of Reichenau, situated on an 
island in Lake Constance. 

Romanesque Illumination in England, France, Germany 
and the Low Countries. Middle nth century illumination 
stands at the parting of the ways. Anglo-Saxon schools and the 
German Ottonian Renaissance were dying out, and so the con- 
nection with antique painting disappears. From now onwards the 
whole of the West is governed by a style based on linear, not 
pictorially treated, outline-drawing, for which colour is used to 
tint the surfaces in the flat, with only slight modelling of forms. 
Art abandons the last reminiscences of the illusionistic manner 
of the late antique, in which the picture was based on a reality 
seen either bodily or in the mind's eye. The mediaeval style, 
which now establishes itself, dispenses with illusion, it gives us 
the different components of the pictures, i.e., the figures and 
whatever else is necessary to understand the action, but releases 
them from contact with natural space. Even the background has 
chiefly an ornamental importance, A gold ground becomes more 
and more popular, or border and background consist of a system 
of frames. This manner of representation permits the artist to 
pack the most complicated ideas into a picture, if only he has 
created the corresponding frame to hold the conceptions together, 
and this tendency now completely dominates the art of illustration. 
A counter movement is only to be seen in Byzantine art which 
never altogether lost contact with the antique, and which preserved 
formulas from the illusionistic age. In the isth and isth centuries 
Byzantine influence penetrated further and further forward into 
Italy and obtained a strong hold in Germany. 

In the West of Europe, especially in northern France and in 
England, Byzantine influence may also be traced, but it was 
powerless to check the development which led to Gothic painting, 
and which was furthered most of all by the art of stained glass. 
For technical reasons, stained glass, with all its beauty of colour, 
can never know real modelling; is based on outline-drawing in 
the proper sense of the word. It had an extremely strong influence 
on the method of painting, described above, in which numerous 
figurative representations are combined within a system of frames. 
Already, in the iath, and especially in the i3th century, many 
illuminated mss. show evident traces of having been imitated from 

stained glass. 

Anglo-Norman Illustration. Soon after iioo we find 
various Anglo-Norman scriptoria at the height of their power. 
Their productions are chiefly enormous Bibles, separate books of 
the Bible with commentaries, and especially the Psalter. The 
style abandons the lightness of Anglo-Saxon times. It is now 
based on stiff linear designs fitted up with opaque pigments of 
harsh colour. The figures are, especially early in the i2th cen- 
tury, heavy and awkward. A little later the style becomes more 
spirited. The initial ornaments are astonishingly rich in invention 
and design, and they are enlivened with numerous fantastic forms 
of men and animals in strange colours. 

Bury St. Edmunds produced the first of the large Bibles so 
characteristic of the i2th century. Winchester again became, 
about the middle of the isth century, the seat of an important 
school. It produced the Psalter of Bishop Henry of Blois (British 
Museum, Nero C. IV.). 

The wave of Byzantine art had now reached England also and 
the deeply agitated style with its singular types is replaced by an 
almost classical conception of art. The chief work of this tendency 
is the Winchester Psalter of the British Museum. Well-propor- 
tioned forms of measured placidity and solemnity of movement 
meet us in these pictures. Of the greatest importance is the latest 
copy of the Utrecht Psalter, which was only finished afterwards in 
Italy (Paris B.N. Lat. 8846), 

Continental Schools. Our knowledge of the history of minia- 
ture in France is altogether much slighter than in England, We 
know of the quick rise and decline of an important scriptorium at 
Citeaux, the founder of which was Abbot Stephen Harding. 
Numerous mss. with most peculiar decoration, especially initial 
letters of quite fantastic formation, emanate from Limoges and 
western France. The productions of monasteries in Belgium and 
northern France are extraordinarily numerous. Many of these 
are dated and indicate the names of the artists. In the eastern 
part of this territory, a style approaching the Rhenish predomi- 
nates, while towards the west, where the narrowness of the straits 
provided a natural connection with England, the Anglo-Norman 
affinities already mentioned make their appearance. 

In these districts, also, we can establish the presence of a strong 
Byzantine influence in the critical period round about 1200. 

In Germany the development of art, after the Ottonian Renais- 
sance, varied in the different territories. In the south-east, the 
Middle Byzantine influence, already perceptible in the early nth 
century, now became permanent. 

In the western and northern districts of Germany Byzantine 
influence was not so powerful in the i2th century. One work, 
however, the famous Ilortus Dcliciarum of the abbess Herrad of 
Landsberg, in Alsace, occupies a position of its own on account 
of the unusual illuminations it contained. (The original perished 
in 1870.) Pure pen-drawing had spread in all directions. On the 
lower Rhine and in north Germany some miniatures were executed 
in opaque pigments. These are clear and calm in style, and at 
times they rise to an extraordinary height of monumental dignity, 
e.g., in the Gospel Book of unknown origin at Paris (B. N. Lat. 
17,325) or the Hildesheim mss. of the i2th century (Hildesheim, 
Ratman Missal, etc.) 

With the beginning of the i^th century Byzantine influence ex- 
tended its power over almost all the country, and its style displays 
great restlessness. In the latter part of the i3th century the desire 
to create original forms and to express passionate feeling was so 
strong that the style was often positively distorted. The Byzantine 
tendency attains its zenith in the Gospel-book of the town hall at 
Goslar, and the Missal (Pierpont Morgan's library), executed in 
the first third of the I3th century. Immediately after the middle 
of the i3th century numerous fine works were produced, especially 
in south Germany, where refined Byzantinesque style predomi- 
nated (Psalter, Munich, Staatsbibl. Lat. 3>9oo). 

Gothic Illumination in France, England, Germany and 
the Lower Countries. In the first half of the i3th century a 
complete change cam* over French illumination which transformed 
the fundamental ideas of book-ornamentation, It is based, to 
begin with, on the cultivation of a refined and dainty styte which 


caused the contrast between miniatures in Gothic mss. and the 
art of monumental painting to appear sharper than ever before 
It rested, moreover, on the closer assimilation of picture and text, 
so that the historiated initial becomes predominant in Gothic 
mss. When the miniature remained independent, it bears the 
character of a small medallion or of a quatrefoil. The initials, 
however, expand more and more until they have twined them- 
selves all round the pages of text. Figures dispersed at random 
in the margin, called drolleries, although they may represent any 
sort of object conceivable, introduced a new style of embellish- 
ment on which all development to 1500 is founded. Paris is re- 
garded as the birth-place of the new style. Several mss. are desig- 
nated as the property of Queen Blanche or of St. Louis, among 
them the Psalter of the Arsenal library in Paris. It is the first 
to show the substitution of medallions for the usual rectangular 
series of pictures From other books it is still clearer that the 
illuminators are keeping very close to the example of stained glass 
windows (see Colour Plate), from which they borrow the com- 
plicated arrangement of the medallions. 

Great as is the advance made by the mss of the Bible moralist 
and the allied mss., they had not yet produced the pure type of 
Gothic ms. Many other miniatures, however, display a strongly 
dramatic and restless style, which has a certain affinity to con- 
temporary German work rather than with French Gothic. A 
number of splendid mss which are supposed to emanate from 
Salisbury, are illustrated in this style. Early English examples 
include the magnificent pictures of the Apocalypse at Trinity 
college, Cambridge A great new style, which was to oust all the 
previous tendencies in France and England, was created under 
the strong influence of monumental art in Paris about the middle 
of the T3th century. Its chief works are the Psalters written for 
St. Louis or other member of the royal family (Paris B N. Lat. 
10,525) and the liturgical mss. executed for the Ste. Chapelle. 
These works combine two qualities, firstly, the greatest simplicity 
of style, in that they work out the pure Gothic line, and secondly, 
a marked attention to reality in ornament and in architectonic 
details, in costume, etc. It is very difficult to distinguish between 
French and English work of this period. In spite of numerous 
English traits we can probably localize in Paris the Psalter of the 
municipal library at Nuremberg and the Psalter of Queen Isabella, 
Edward II. 's wife, at Munich Queen Mary's Psalter at the British 
Museum is, beyond dispute, an early i4th century English master- 
piece. In the work of the East Anglian school can be seen the 
gradual giving up of Gothic outline-drawing for the sake of a 
broader pictorial treatment Its most singular characteristic is 
extravagant richness of ornamentation displayed in the large 
border-frames of the decorated pages, interlaced with figures of 
every shape and kind. Iji Parisian illumination the characteristic 
style of the miniaturist, Jean Pucelle, shows the change unmis- 
takably. From now onwards we can follow in the miniatures of 
the mss. the development of modem painting The fundamental 
revolution in style which takes place during this period can only 
be explained on the assumption of Italian influence arising out of 
the close connection between Italian and French art, based, in 
its turn, on political and dynastic relations and the transference 
of the papal court to Avignon. This may account for the fact 
that one of Pucelle's masterpieces, the Breviary of Queen Jeanne 
of Navarre (Yates Thompson collection), contains certain minia- 
tures that can only be understood as imitating Italian pictures of 
the Trecento. 

From the middle of the I4th century onwards, the naturalistic 
tendency becomes more and more powerful. For this period the 
phrase, "the naturalism of head and hand," has been coined. Its 
influence is seen most clearly in the dedication-pictures, where the 
elements of portraiture in the persons represented, as e.g., Charles 
V., are unmistakable. In religious pictures, however, Gothic 
idealism continued until the beginning of the isth century The 
miniatures executed for Charles V. are often set in Quatrefoil 
frames, and grey monochrome (grisaille) is preferred to painting 
in colours. The decisive change in the direction of modernity 
may best be studied in the mss. illuminated for Charles V.'s 
brother, the duke of Berry. The name of AndnJ Beauneveu, of 

Valenciennes, is given for the Psalter at Paris (B.N. Fr. 13,091), 
that of Jacquemart de Hesdin for the Prayer Books at Paris (B. N. 
Lat. 919) and Brussels (B.R. 11,060-61). In these mss. there 
is a change in the borders, the dainty sprays of ivy, which had 
hitherto sprouted loosely over the margins, now completely fill 
them up, and new motifs add to the wealth of ornament. In the 
miniatures we can see the old Gothic tradition gradually being 
displaced by Italian art, with a rapid progress in naturalism. The 
new art reaches its climax in the second decade of the 15th century 
in two mss. begun for the duke of Berry, which must be classed, 
beyond dispute, among the most magnificent illustrated books of 
all times. The unfinished Prayer Book at Chantilly (called, ac- 
cording! to the Inventory, Tr&s riches H cures du due de Berry), 
was illuminated by Pol de Limbourg and his brothers. Pictures 
which remind us of famous Italian mural paintings stand side by 
side with faithful representations of reality, as e g , the Calendar- 
pictures with the views of the duke's castles or the genre-like 
February snow-landscape We are taken a step further by the 
Prayer Book begun for the duke of Berry, but after his death 
continued for Count William IV. of Bavaria-Holland. In the 
pictures of William IV.'s time the Italian style has been com- 
pletely replaced by a style so near to that of the brothers van 
Eyck that some of the best pictures have been attributed to them. 
The miniatures of the two last-named mss. are invaluable to 
the history of painting. 

Spanish and Italian Illumination in the Middle Ages. 
Spanish and Italian illumination had only a slight share in the 
Renaissance movement on which Carolingian, Ottoman and Anglo- 
Saxon art was based In Spain, as in Italy, tendencies prevailed, 
during this period, which can best be compared with the Franco- 
Saxon school. The Spanish mss. of the 9th to nth centuries dis- 
play a rich, but fantastic decoration in which early Christian and 
Moorish elements are mixed. The figures are anti-naturalistic, 
reminding one of the Irish style. The most singular Spanish crea- 
tion is the great series of illustrations to Bcatus of Liebana's 
Commentaries on the Apocalypse which have survived in many 
copies from the 9th (?) to the i2th centuries (the oldest in the 
Yates Thompson college, a later one in the P. Morgan library). 

The character of Italian illumination varies extremely in the 
different Italian territories, according to their relations with East 
and West A curious blend of contrasting tendencies is to be seen 
in the book-ornamentation of the Benedictines at Monte Cassino 
in the nth and i2th centuries. Here Hiberno-Saxon, Ottoman 
and Byzantine stylistic elements are intimately combined. 
Southern Italy made a speciality of Exultet-rolls, as they are 
called, i.e., mss. adorned with miniatures and written in the form 
of rolls. Various Italian monasteries produced, from the nth to 
the i3th centuries, gigantic Bibles, some of which show a singular 
beauty of initial which was afterwards imitated in the I5th 
century. The origin of these Bibles is partly to be sought in Tus- 
cany, where, in the reign of the margravine Matilda, works of a 
pronounced original character were produced, e.g., the Gospel- 
book which Matilda presented, in 1109, to the Abbey of Polirone 
(P. Morgan library). During the i3th century, Italian illumina- 
tion in the large university towns of northern Italy developed 
freely and in a manner quite its own. Legal text-books, Bibles, 
etc , were executed and taken by the students all over Europe. 
Moreover, the i3th century produced a new type of book, the 
immense choir-book, which was everywhere used at church serv- 
ices. In general, large miniatures are rare in Italian illuminated 
mss. Most have only historiated initials, but these are drawn 
out to great length and spread out over the margins in* branch and 
leaf work. Drolleries were added very early, so that one feels 
inclined to assume that they made their way to the North from 
Italy. All this, however, docs not exhaust the importance of 
Italian miniature. Just as in mural and panel painting, Italy was 
foremost in diffusing the Byzantine style. 

We must not overlook the immediate influence of the Crusades 
in causing an interpenetration of the Western and Byzantine ele- 
ments. In the Latin kingdoms of the Orient, there were executed 
for churches and princes magnificent mss. in which such a mixture 
of styles was inevitable, e .%., the Psalter of Queen Melissenda of 



Jerusalem (British Museum), the Missal of the Holy Sepulchre 
church at Jerusalem (Paris), and many others. Similar works 
probably emanated from those districts of Italy which were partic- 
ularly exposed to Byzantine influence. We may, perhaps, put in 
this class the Missal at Madrid. A similar mixture of style is 
evident, in a much coarser form, in the Epistolary, written in 
1259 at Padua (cathedral treasure). About 1300 a large number 
of Byzantesque illuminations were produced at Bologna, which 
are distinguished by copious border-decoration, with figures in 
(he pseudo-classic style. Splendid works of this kind are the 
Bibles at Paris (B N. Lat. 18) and at the British Museum (Add. 

During the i4th century, throughout Italy's busy scriptoria, as 
at Naples, where French influence is noticeable, numerous mss 
rich in miniatures were produced (Bible, subsequently Leo X.'s, 
now Berlin, Kupferstich-Kabinett). Only rarely can we connect 
miniatures with the artists who painted on panel. A Virgil in 
Milan and the Ufficio di San Giorgio in the archives of S. Peter at 
Rome, are assigned to Simone Martini of Siena. 

Miniature Since the 15th Century. Many illuminated mss 
of the later i$th and i6th centuries surpass in wealth of pictures 
and magnificent embellishment, even the works from the time cf 
the duke of Berry. Their place is finally taken in the i6th century 
by black and white The splendid miniatures of the isth and i6th 
centuries are, like those of the preceding period, chiefly destined 
for princes and great courtiers. Three large centres of production 
are prominent: Flanders (Ghent, Bruges) ; France (Paris, Tours) ; 
Italy (Florence, Ferrara, etc.). Illumination in this period 
acknowledged no restriction on its choice of subject. The Books 
of Hours, indeed, still played an important part, but, besides these, 
there were profane mss. of an incredible variety, among which 
the Chronicles on the one hand, and the Romances on the other, 
are prominent. 

Flanders. In the generation following the van Eycks it can 
only rarely be proved that painters on panel had a hand in illumi- 
nation. We know a number of miniaturists from their works or 
from documents, e g., Jean le Taverriier, Willem Vrelant, Loyset 
Lyedet, Philippe de Mazerolles, the Bening family. About the 
middle of the i6th century the activity of the Flemish scriptoria 
seems to have died out. It is important to note Simon Marmion, 
unsurpassed in landscape (Book of Hours, British Museum Add. 
38,126). A master belonging to the circle of Roger von der 
Weyden is called after the Romance of Girart de Roussillon 
Jean le Tavernier, who adorned the Conquctes de Charlemagne 
executed for Philip the Good (Vienna, Staatsbibl. 2,549). His 
second masterpiece, the Chronicle of Hennegau, is at Brussels. 
(Brussels, B R. 9,066.) 

France. The production of French mss. during the i$th cen- 
tury will not bear comparison with the Flemish. In connection 
with the mss. of the duke of Berry, there is the Bedford Missal 
(British Museum) and the Salisbury Breviary in Paris, with its 
numberless miniatures. About the middle of the isth century 
Jean Fouquet, the most important personality among the French 
miniaturists, makes his appearance. He died about 1480, at Tours, 
where he had lived before and after his journey to Rome (between 
1443-47). Attested works of his are parts of the Antiqidtes 
Judaiqttes at Paris, and the miniatures cut out from the Heures 
d'Etienne Chevalier at Chantilly. Fouquet 's art has a touch of the 
Renaissance which otherwise shows affinities with Flemish natural- 
ism. The miniature survived under Francis I., and even into the 
time of Louis XIV. 

Germany. In Germany, in the isth century, illustration passes 
a humble existence in monasteries and scriptoria which engage in 
large-scale manufacture of mss. (Diebold Lauber in Hagenau), 
In contrast with this mass production, there are the splendid mss. 
of the emperor Maximilian. The finest is the superb border, 
executed by Durer and other great German artists, in a copy of 
the Prayer Book printed by Schonsperger (Munich, Staatsbibl. 
and Besancon). 

Italy. In Italy the renaissance in the mss. begins with the 
introduction of the scrittura umanistica, which goes back to the 
model of the fine Italian mss. of the nth and i2th centuries, 

from which was also taken the scroll-work design in the frames 
enclosing the pages of text. Illumination does not really flourish 
until the middle of the i$th century, when there arose, almost 
always in connection with the luxury of courts, a number of 
studios wliich created a new style and new decorative forms. As in 
Flanders, the artists are seldom identical with the painters on 
panel, although, for example, the great art of Mantegna is reflected 
in miniature. In northern Italy, Milan and Verona were two of 
the centres. A masterpiece is the Book of Hours of Bona of 
Savoy, widow of Galeazzo Moria Sforza, duke of Milan, which 
afterwards came into the possession of Charles V. (British 
Museum Add. 34,924). In the Ferrara school, where a number of 
miniaturists worked for the ducal family of Este, Taddeo Crivelli 
takes the first place (Borso d'Este's Bible, 1455-62, Modena) 
The most important miniaturist under Borso's successor, Ercole 
1 , is Martino da Modena (Ercole I.'s Breviary at Vienna). Min- 
iature-painting in central Italy was chiefly concentrated at Flor- 
ence; Francesco d'Antonio del Cherico, with Attavante degli 
Attavanti, were the two chief miniaturists (See PAINTING; MIN- 

BIBLIOGR \PIIY. The most convenient book of reference is: H. 
Omont, Lhtes de recncil de facsimiles et de reproductions de mss. con- 
sents a la Bibl Nat. (2nd ed , Paris, 1912). Numerous articles of the 
highest importance are scattered through the scientific periodicals. 

1. General. 1. A. Herbert, Illuminated Manuscript * (London, 
1911) ; r. Couderc, Les Enlummures de* Mss. du Moyen-Age (Pans 
1026) ; A. Michel, Ilistoire de I'Art, contributions from Leprieur, 
Haseloff, Millet, Durrieu, Bernath (Paris, 1905 et sfq.) ; M. Bernath, 
Die Malerei des Mittelalters (Leipzig, 1916). 

2. Reproductions Comte dc Bastard, Peintures et Ornements des 
Mss. (Paris, 1832-69) ; G. Leidinger, Meisteriuerke der Buchmalerei aus 
Mss der Bayenschen Staats-bibl. M unc hen (Munich, 1920) ; H. Martin, 
Les Joyauv de I'Enluminure a la Bibl Nat. (Paris, 1926) ; G Warner, 
Illuminated Mss. in the British Museum (1899-1903) ; British Museum 
Reproductions of Illuminated Mss. (1923) ; Schools of Illumination 

Great Britain and Ireland: E. G. Millar, English Manuscripts 
Illumination from the wth to the i$th Century (Paris, 1926) ; English 
Illuminated Manuscripts of the i4th and i$th Century (Paris, 1928) ; 
I. A. Bruun, Celtic Illuminated Mss. (Stockholm, 1897) ; E. G Millar, 
The Lindisfarne Gospels (London, 1923) ; E. Sullivan, The Book of 
Kells (London, P?ris, New York, 1920) ; O. Homburger, Die Anjdnge 
der Malerschule von Winchester (Leipzig, 1912) ; Warner and Wilson, 
The Benedictwnal of St. Aethelivold (Roxburghe Club, 1910) ; M R. 
James, The Trinity College Apocalypse (Roxburghe Club, 1909) ; S. C. 
Cockerell, The Goriest on Pwlter (London, 1907) ; I. van den Gheyn, 
Le Psautier de Peterborough (Haarlem, 1906) ; G. F. Warner, Queen 
Mary's Psalter (London, 1912) ; J. A. Herbert, The Sherborne Missal 
(Roxburghe Club, 1920). 

France. Laucr, La Miniature en France des Origines au 13* Siecle 
(Paris) ; H. Martin, La Miniature en France du itf au i$ c Siecle (Paris, 
1923) ; Les Miniaturistes Fran^ais (Paris, 1906) and Les Peintres des 
Mss. et la Miniature en France (Paris, 1909) ; Oursel, La Miniature du 
12^ Siecle a I'Abbaye de Citeaux (Dijon, 1926) ; Graf Vitzthum, Die 
Pariscr Buchmalerei (Leipzig, 1907) ; Cockerell, A Psalter and Hours 
Executed before 1270 for a Lady connected with St. Louis, probably his 
Sister Isabella of France (London, 1905) ; Comte P. Durriru, Les An- 
tiquites Judaiques et le Peintrc Jean Fouquet (Paris, 1908), and Le 
Boccace de Munich (Munchcn, 1909). 

Low Countries: Byvanck and Hoogewerff, Noord-Ncderlandsche 
Miniaturen (1922-25) , A. W. Byvanck, La Miniature Hollandcuse 
(Paris, in prep ) ; Comte P. Durrieu, La Miniature Flamande (Paris, 
1921) ; F. Winkler, Die ftamische Buchmalerei (Leipzig, 1925) ; Comte 
P. Durrieu, Les Tres Riches Heures de Jean de France Due de Berry 
(Paris, 1904), and Les Heures de Turin (Paris, 1902) ; G. Hulin de Loo, 
Les Heures de Milan (Brussels and Paris, 1911). 

Germany: F. Jacoby, Die Deutsche Buchmalerei (Munich, 1923) ; 
A. Goldschmidt, Die Deutsche Buchmalerei (I. die Karolingische, II. die 
ottonische) (Florence and Munich, 1928) ; M. Bernath, La Miniature 
Allemandt de la Periode des Othons jusqiSau 16* Siecle (Paris, in 
prep.) ; Sauerland u. Haseloff, Der Psalter Erzbischofs Egberts in Trier 
(Trier, 1901) ; G. Swarzenski, Regensburger Buchmalerei (Leipzig, 
1901), and Salzburger Malerei (Leipzig, 1913) ; H. Ehl, Die ottonische 
Kolner Buchmalerei (Bonn u. Leipzig, 1922) ; A. Merton, Die Buch- 
malerei in St. GaUen (Leipzig, 1912); E. F. Bange, Eine Bayerische 
Malerschule (Munich, 1923); A. Haseloff, Eine thuringisch-sa'chsische 
Malerschule (Strasbourg, 1897) ; K. Loftier, Schwabische Buchmalerei 
(Augsburg, 1928) ; K. V. Amira, Die Dresdener Bttderhandschrift des 
SachsenspieRtls (Leipzig, tgoa and 1924). 

Italy: -See also the respective histories of art by Bertaux, Marie, 
Toe'sca, Venturi. P. d'Ancona, La Miniature Italienne du 10* au 16* 



Siicle (Pans, 1924) ; La MtniatHra Fwrentina (Florence, 1914) ; P 
1 Toesca, La I'tttura e la Mimatura nelta Lombardia (Milan, 1912) ; G F 
Warner, The Gospels of Matilda, Counters of Tuscany (Roxburghe 
Club, IQI;), Graf Erbach-Furstenau, Die Manjredbibel (Leipzig, 

Spain: W. S Cook, La Miniature Espagnole (Paris, in prep ) ; W. 
Neuss, Die Katalamsche Buchmaltrei (Bonn u. Leipzig, 1922). 

(A. HF.) 

ILLUMINATI (Lat. illuminare), a designation in use from 
the isth century, and applied to, or assumed by, enthusiasts of 
types distinct from each other, according as the "light" claimed 
was viewed as directly communicated from a higher source, or as 
due to a clarified and exalted condition of the human intelligence 
To the former class belong the altimhrados of Spain Menendez 
Pelayo first finds the name about 1492 (in the form alumwados, 
1498), but traces them back to a Gnostic origin, and thinks their 
views were promoted in Spain through inlluences from Italy 
One of their earliest leaders, born in Salamanca, a labourer's 
daughter, known as La Beata de Piedrahita, came under the 
notice of the Inquisition in 1511, as claiming to hold colloquies 
with our Lord and the Virgin; having high patrons, no decision 
was taken against her (Lo* Heterodoxos Espanoles, 1881, lib. v.) 
Ignatius Loyola, while studying at Salamanca (1527) was brought 
before an ecclesiastical commission on a charge of sympathy 
with the alumbrados, but escaped with an admonition. Others 
were not so fortunate In 1520, a congregation of unlettered 
adherents at Toledo was visited with scourging and imprison- 
ment. Greater rigours followed, and for about a century the 
alwnbrados afforded many victims to the Inquisition, especially 
at Cordova The movement (under the name of Illumines) 
seems to* have reached France from Seville in 1623, and attained 
some proportions in Picardy when joined (1634) by Pierre 
Gurin, cure of Saint-Georges de Royc, whose followers, known 
as Guerinets, were suppressed in 1635 (Hermant, Hist, de* 
heresies, 1717). Another and obscure body of Illumines came 
to light in the south of France in 1722, and appears to have 
lingered till 1794, having affinities with those known contempora- 
neously in this country as "French Prophets," an offshoot of the 
Camisards Of different class were the so-called Illuminati, better 
known as Rosicrucians, who claimed to originate in 1422, but 
rose into notice in 1537; a secret society, combining with the 
mysteries of alchemy the possession of esoteric principles of 
religion. Their positions are embodied in three anonymous trea- 
tises of 1614 (Richard et Giraud, Diet, de la theol. cath.). A 
short-lived movement of republican freethought, to whose ad- 
herents the name Illuminati was given, was founded on May-day 
1776 by Adam Weishaupt (d. 1830), professor of Canon Law at 
Ingolstadt, an ex-Jesuit. The chosen title of this Order or 
Society was Perfectibilists (Perfektibtlisten). Its members, 
pledged to obedience to their superiors, were divided into three 
main classes, the first including "novices," "minervals" and 
"lesser illuminati"; the second consisting of "freemasons," "or- 
dinary," "Scottish" and "Scottish knights"; the third or "mystery" 
class comprising two grades of "priest" and "regent" and of 
"magus" and "king " Relations with masonic lodges were estab- 
lished at Munich and Freising in 1780. The order had its branches 
in most countries of the European continent, but its total num- 
bers never seem to have exceeded two thousand The scheme had 
its attraction for literary men, such as Goethe and Herder, and 
even for the reigning dukes of Gotha and Weimar. Internal rup- 
ture preceded its downfall, which was effected by an edict of the 
Bavarian government in 1785 Later, the title Illuminati was 
given to the French Martinists, founded in 1754- by Martinez 
Pasqualis, and to their imitators, the Russian Martinists, headed 
about 1790 by Professor Schwartz of Moscow; both were Cabalists 
and allegorists, imbibing ideas from Jakob Boehme and Emmanuel 
Swedenborg (Bergier, Diet de thtol'). 

See (especially for details of the movement of Weishaupt) P. 
Tschackert, in Hauck's Realencyklopddie (1901) ; and on the general 
subject, W. T. Whitley, art. "Enthusiasts, Religious/ 1 in Hastings, 
Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. 

denote all applications of natural and artificial light in the service 
of mankind. Progress in Great Britain since 1910 is largely the 

result of the formation (in 1909) of the Illuminating Engineer- 
ing Society, in which makers of lamps and lighting appliances and 
users of light co-operate; all illuminants are represented and all 
aspects of the subject, economic, hygienic and artistic are consid- 
ered. A similar body, the pioneer in this field, has been in existence 
in the United States since 1906, and corresponding bodies have 
been formed in Germany (1913), Austria and Hungary (1925), 
Japan (1915) and Holland (1926) In Germany two additional 
societies operating in Karlsruhe and in the Rhine-Westphalia dis- 
trict have also been created Attention has been paid to illumina- 
tion at many international congresses, thus promoting the ex- 
change of views between experts in different countries. The re- 
organization of the International Photometric Commission, 
founded in igoo, as the International Illumination Commission 
was stopped by the World War, but a fresh start was made in 
1921, and the leading countries are now represented with national 
committees for the respective countries. (See J. W. T. Walsh, 
"International Co-ordination in Illumination," Trans. First World 
Power Congress 11924], vol 3 ) Much has been done towards 
standardization and agreement on common principles. Definitions 
of the main photometric quantities have been adopted, and a 
more extended series of definitions, symbols, etc , framed, while 
sub-committees to deal with lighting legislation, automobile head- 
lights, etc., have been formed. At the sessions held in Geneva in 
1924 and at Bellagio in 1925 further activities were initiated and 
the commission is extending its work to deal with various practi- 
cal problems Evidence of further progress in this direction was 
atforded at the International Illumination Congress held in the 
United States in 1928 

The International Candle. A noteworthy step, dating from 
1909, has been the agreement between France, the United States 
and Great Britain and, recently, also Russia, on an international 
candle so that the same unit of light is now in use in all four 
countries; but in Germany and some other countries the Hefner 
candle (equal to 0-9 international candle) is still in use. Preser- 
vation of the unit of light is now effected by the exchange of 
specially prepared electric lamp-standards between the official 
laboratories in the countries concerned. Meantime experiments 
are being made with a view to evolving an absolute standard of 
light, c.% , one based on the maintenance of a "black body" 
at a specified temperature. 

Progress in illumination has kept pace with this advance on 
the scientific side. Electric lamps, filament and arc, have been 
developed (see ELECTRIC LIGHTING). In the field of gas lighting 
there has been steady progress in design, one instance being the 
smaller and more compact forms of high-pressure gas lamps, now 
rated to give 60 candles per cu ft of gas consumed In low- 
pressure gas lighting the use of superheated clusters of inverted 
mantles has made possible a gain in efficiency estimated at 30%. 
The distribution of the light from a number of smaller mantles 
is considered an advantage, and the smaller types of mantles are 
the most durable Cluster-lamps giving up to 2,oooc.p. are now 

Theory of Radiation. Researches into the theory of radia- 
tion and the principles underlying illuminants provide a clearer 
understanding of the luminous efficiency theoretically obtain- 
able. Thus a light source yielding visible white light and no 
non-luminous vibrations would operate at approximately 26c.p. 
per watt, whilst if the light were confined to the most efficient 
yellow-green section of the spectrum as much as 6oc.p. per 
watt might be obtained. But in the case of new illuminants 
efficiency is not the only consideration; such special qualities as 
the colour of the light (as in the neon lamps) or the nature of 
the supplementary invisible radiation (as in the quartz tube 
mercury vapour lamps) may be of even greater importance. 

Reflectors, etc. -The design of shades, globes and reflectors for 
use with lamps has assumed great importance. By suitable design 
of a reflector the distribution of light from a source may be 
altered within wide limits. Thus extensive, intensive and focusing 
forms of reflectors yielding standard curves of light distribution 
have been designed, and corresponding rules for height and spac* 
ing, designed to give even illumination on the working plane have 



been derived. In mosi cases a shade or reflector is designed to 
direct most of the light downwards, where it is chiefly needed. 
But other cases occur, for example in shop window lighting and 
the illumination of large posters, etc., where reflectors are so 
designed and spaced as to yield an illumination over an extensive 
vertical area. Another function of shades and reflectors is to 
screen the actual source of light from the eye Even when only 
vacuum metal filament electric lamps were available the glare 
from exposed filaments irritated the eye and prevented it from 
registering the full effect of the illumination provided In the case 
of the gas-filled lamps, with their very much brighter filaments, the 
need for scientific screening is yet more evident Hence in the 
leading stores concealed lighting of show-windows, with the light 
thrown on the goods but the sources concealed from the eyes of 
observers, is coming to be regarded as the correct method; and 
it is only in the smaller shops that exposed sources of light are 
still too frequent A special instance of a concentrating reflector 
is to be found in the "floodlighting" units, consisting of an incan- 
descent lamp with a special "bunched" filament at the focus of a 
parabolic mirror. Such units are miniature searchlights and are 
now being used to illuminate the faeces of buildings The design 
and application of such units have been dealt with fully in a 
paper recently read before the Illuminating Engineering Society 
by W. J. Jones. 1 With the searchlight proper, using an arc, the 
dimensions of the source of light can be much reduced and a 
beam of many millions of candle power attained 

Searchlights. A notable advance during the World War 
was the design of searchlights using cooled electrodes leading 
to a yet smaller and more brilliant source and corresponding 
greater concentration The cooling has been effected by two dis- 
tinct methods, a blast of air and a spray of alcohol; in both cases 
a very substantial increase in beam-candle power for a given 
current consumption was obtained. 2 The brightness of the crater 
in such cases has been estimated at 200,000-300,000 candles per, as compared with 85,oooc.p per sq in , in the case of the 
ordinary searchlight In Germany, Lummer, working with an 
arc operating in a chamber under an air-pressure of 22 atmos- 
pheres, is said to have attained the enormous brightness of 1,500- 
ooo candles per sq in But this method has apparently not yet 
reached a practical stage. 3 

An apparatus capable of projecting pure spectrum colours on 
the stage, which is in effect a giant spectroscope, has been de- 
signed. By the Mutochrome projector, 4 a series of superimposed 
patterns can be projected on the screen and the colour of each 
varied at will This is likely to prove of considerable value to 
designers of wallpapers and coloured fabrics, a* well as having a 
possible application for the projection of luminous scenery on the 

Artificial Daylight. Efforts have also been made to provide 
"artificial daylight," ic. t to correct the light from artificial illu- 
minants and render it equivalent to normal daylight for the 
matching of colours Two methods of effecting this correction 
have been applied In the Sheringham unit the light from a gas- 
tilled lamp is reflected from an upper surface coated with a pat- 
tern of green, blue and a small amount of yellow in suitable pro- 
portions In the system usually associated with the name of F. E 
Lamplough the light is filtered through a combination of tinted 
glass In either case the efficiency of the apparatus is necessarily 
low, 60% or more of the original light being lost in making the 
correction But the advantage to firms in the dyeing industry 
and others concerned with delicate colour-matching of having 
an invariable artificial light, independent of the wide variations 
of natural daylight, is very considerable Attention has also been 
devoted to the production of fittings yielding light visually similar 
to average daylight, but less completely corrected. Such light- 
ing units which have a relatively high luminous efficiency are 
recommended for use in picture galleries, shops devoted to 

l lllum. Eng. (Jan. 1927). 

2 "Tbe Sperry Searchlight," gUctrictan (Feb. 2, 1917), Haydn T. 
Harrison, Ilium Eng. (March 1918). 
3 L. Bloch, Lickttechnik (1921). 
4 Illum. EHR< (May 19*5) 

coloured objects, etc., and in cases where daylight requires fre- 
quently to be supplemented by artificial light. It is suggested 
that such light is less fatiguing to the eyes than entirely uncor- 
rected artificial light. 

The psychological and other problems attending the lighting of 
streets, schools, factories, shops, etc. and the avoidance of eye 
strain in cinemas, the importance assigned to proper lighting 
in factories, and the interests of health, safety and efficiency of 
work have been investigated by the Illuminating Engineering So- 
ciety and Home Office committees l Evidence on lighting require- 
ments in factories has been collected from many dilferent sources, 
and records of over 4,000 tests of illumination in different fac- 
tories have been presented. The minimum values of illumination 
in the interests of safety (o:5-o-4ft c ) are established. Recom- 
mendations on the subject of avoidance of glare, flickers and in- 
convenient shadows have been made, and the illumination required 
for carrying out work is demonstrated to be not less than three 
foot-candles for fine work and five foot-candles for very fine 
work. Consultations with various joint industrial councils are 
now proceeding with a view to determining what constitutes 
suitable and adequate lighting for processes in their respective 

In the United States detailed codes of industrial lighting have 
been adopted in various States In principle these follow closely 
the recommendations of the British committee. Methods of grad- 
ing various lighting units according to the degree of "glare" are 
outlined, and the positions which may safely be assigned to such 
units in a workshop arc tabulated. The codes also contain stan- 
dards of the illumination requisite for various processes, a dis- 
tinction being drawn in the most recent codes between the mini- 
mum value desirable and higher values recommended in the in- 
terests of economic production. A considerable amount of re- 
search has been devoted to the relation between conditions of 
illumination and efficiency of work. Thus it has been shown by 
Dr. Ives of the United States public health service that the 
despatching service in post offices was expedited and rendered 
more accurate by better conditions of illumination; 2 tests in lab- 
oratories in Germany have likewise revealed a close connection 
between illumination and many processes involving exact vision 
and manual dexterity. 2 The subject of industrial lighting has 
likewise been studied by the International Labour Bureau of the 
League of Nations in Geneva. 

Particularly difficult cases of industrial lighting also form the 
subject of study by the committee on illumination, working under 
the Department for Scientific and Industrial Research, on which 
eminent architects and medical men. besides lighting experts, are 
represented It has published several informative reports, amongst 
which that dealing with the lighting of printing works has ex- 
cited special interest In this enquiry the important conclusion 
was reached that full efficiency in type-setting by hand is attained 
only with an illumination of the order of 20-25 foot-candles 3 
This committee also deals with all enquiries bearing on illumina 
tion received from the \arious Government departments In con- 
nection with this and other aspects of lighting, increased atten- 
tion is now being devoted to the hygienic side, and at the Inter- 
national Congress for the study of industrial hygiene held in 
Geneva in 1924 a special resolution was passed accepting good 
illumination as of equal importance with heating, ventilation and 
sanitary conditions in the interests of health and safety 

Standardization. Standardization in various fields is being 
dealt with by various sub-committees, working under the British 
Engineering Standards Association, which have prepared speci- 
fications on the performance and dimensions of electric lamps, 
and have also issued standard specifications for portable illumina- 

'Roports of Departmental (Home Office) Committee on Lighting 
in Factories and Workshop, First Report, Cmd 8,000, vol. i and 2 
(1915) ; Second Report, Cmd. 1418 (1921) ; Third Report, Cmd 1686 

EnR. (April 1925). 
3 Thc Relation between Illumination and Efficiency in Fine Work 
(Type-setting bv Hand) ; Joint Report issued by the Industrial 
Fatigue Research Board and the Illumination Research Committee 



tion photometers, 1 reflectors used for industrial lighting, 2 street 
lighting 3 and illuminating glassware. 4 

Traffic and Lighting. Experience during recent years has 
shown that the questions of lighting and transport are closely 
related. With the progressive increase in the volume of fast- 
driven motor traffic the necessity for good public lighting has 
become even more urgent than in the past; and the increase in 
the number of street accidents year by year has drawn public 
attention to the importance of the question. A new problem 
is presented by the lighting of arterial roads connecting cities. 
These routes are primarily intended for fast motor traffic and 
their utility will not be realized fully unless adequate artificial 
lighting is provided, enabling them to be used with safety by 
night as well as by day Special methods of illuminating such 
routes are now the subject of consideration. Light is being used 
to an ever increasing extent as an aid to the guidance of traffic and, 
on the initiative of the Association of Public Lighting Engineers 
a resolution was recently passed advocating standardization of 
traffic signs and signals r> 

Many devices eliminating glare from powerful automobile 
headlights have been suggested, some of the most promising 
based on the limitation of the main portion of the beam below a 
certain horizontal plane so as to avoid the direction of rays into 
the eyes of approaching drivers or pedestrians. But the most 
hopeful solution lies in the provision of better public lighting, 
which would render very powerful headlights unnecessary, Prog- 
ress in these various directions has been aided very greatly by 
the introduction of simple forms of instruments for measuring 
illumination of which quite a variety of types is now available 
The information acquired in this way has been very helpful in 
framing recommendations for the degree of illumination neces- 
sary for various purposes. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. A P. Trotter, Illumination, its Distribution and 
Measurement (1911) ; L. Caster and J. S. Dow, Modern llluminants 
and Illuminating Engineering (1920) ; M Luckicsh, Artificial Light, 
its Influence on Civilisation (1921) , Lichttechmk, cd by Dr. L Blo<h 
and issued by the German Illuminating Engineering Society (Munich, 
1921) ; J. \V. T. Walsh, Elementary Principles of Lighting and 
Photometry (1920 ; see also The Illuminating Engineer (The Journal 
of Good Lighting), official organ of the Illuminating Engineering 
Society, The Transactions of the Illuminating Engineering Society 
in the United State*; and Licht nnd Lampe (official organ of the 
Illuminating Engineering Society in Germany). (L. GA.) 

ILLUSION, the exj>oricncc and the result of misconstruing 
or misinterpreting some real sense stimulus or stimuli, as when a 
wax figure at Madame Tussaud's or similar exhibitions is mistaken 
for a real policeman, or when a piece of suitably modelled plasti- 
cine is rrmtaken for a sausage. Something is actually there to 
.stimulate the senses, and the sense experience itself is produced 
in a normal manner, but, ow'ng to established habits of rapid 
association or the temporary "set" of the mind, the observer 
mistakes the thing for something different Many optical and 
other illusions are perfectly normal and can be experienced by a 
large number of people at the same time. This happens, for 
example, at the familiar entertainments consisting of juggling and 
conjuring tricks, also ordinarily in public places, thanks to the 
luminous "moving" advertisements which make modern civiliza- 
tion so gay and da^zl ng at night. The normality and indeed the 
inevitubleness of so many illusions constitute one of the serious 
pioblems in any attempt to vindicate the validity of human j 
i HOLOC.Y [and the bibliography given there]; KNOWLEDGE, 

See J Sulb\, Illusions (1881). 

ILLUSTRATION, in art, a picture which tells a story. On 
the walls of the temples and tombs in Egypt are many pictures 

British Standard Specification for Portable Photometers, no. 230 

^British Standard Specification for Industrial Reflector Fittings 
for Electric Lighting, no. 232 (1926). 

3 British Standard Specification for Street Lighting, no. 307 (1927). 

4 British Standard Specification for Translucent Illumination Fittings 
for Interior Lighting, no. 324 (1928). 

: 7//ww. Eng. (March 1027) p 85. 

which tell a story. These pictures are bound by conventions to 
such a degree that the individuality of the artist is lost in the 
imposed formula. There is no drama as we understand it. An 
exalted personage is simply represented proportionately larger 
than his fellows. Attitudes and gestures are prescribed. Yet they 
tell a story and to that extent they are illustrations, but they 
are more than that: they tell the story of a whole people, of 
a people's faith and hope and life. They are generic. They 
do not deal with incident. If one finds two people playing a game, 
it is an incident in the whole life of all the people and tells the 
story of that people and a game not of two definite individuals 
at a moment in one special game with the specific incidents that 
attend that particular moment, among all others. An illustration 
is a story-telling picture of a specific incident and its weakness 
lies in this very thing: that the greater idea is often secondary to 
the less. Yet in most illustrations, of fiction especially, the picture 
deals with the lesser idea. 

The illustrator's work is the complement of expression in some 
other medium. A poem can hardly exist which does not awaken 
in the mind at some moment a suggestion either of picture or 
music. The sensitive temperament of the artist or the musician 
is able to realize out of words some parallel idea which can only 
be conveyed, or can be best conveyed, through his own medium 
of painting or music. Similarly, painting or music may, and often 
does, suggest poetry It is from this inter-relation of the emotions 
governing the different' arts that illustration may be said to spring. 
The success of illustration lies, then, in the instinctive trans- 
ference of an idea from one idea to another; the more spon- 
taneous it be and the less laboured in application, the better. The 
mind must be aware of an underlying unity, yet without being 
intellectually conscious of it. 

Greece and Rome. Proceeding another step, to the decora- 
tions on Greek vases, we have a more decided association between 
literature and pictorial art. We have a great legacy of poetry, 
picture and sculpture derived from Greece. There was a great 
theme the heroes, the gods and demi-gods The many legends 
and stories made them living beings, understandable because of 
their human qualities, inspiring because of their magnificence 
These extraordinary myths filled the minds of all the people, 
for the story tellers went about reciting to those who could not 
read All of the people perceived splendour in these heroic 
adventures physical adventures, of course and they magnified 
their heroes into an ideal. 

A poet or an artist appears to be an individual, developed 
by his race, whose business it is to go out and see beauty and 
come back and telL about it His business is to go out and see 
with the eyes of his own people, of his own time, of his own 
country and to show to them the things they love or reverence in 
a manner intelligible to them. 

To the Greeks, the hero was a glorious human creature; in- 
evitably their artists were moved to sculpture and to an ideal, 
an ideal which sought to show how magnificent man might be- 
come. Their honest service in this respect to their race leaves 
them unrivalled through all the centuries that have elapsed In- 
spired they surely were, but inspired wholly by the passionate 
impulse of their time. When the draughtsman came along to 
decorate the vases of his people his motive was usually a simple 
association of those same heroes, gods and goddesses in one pic- 
ture, containing, indeed, the essential surroundings, but always 
governed by the racial delight in perfected humanity. The poets 
told the same stones, so that to-day the sculpture, the picture 
and the play or poem mutually illuminate one another. Though 
not designed to illustrate any special line or poem, the pictures 
become illustrations of the finest type, generic rather than 

The Roman artist began to see landscape and introduce it into 
his wall paintings, usually to increase the apparent size of the 
garden upon whose enclosing walls his pictures were usually 

The Christian religion provided the next tremendous impulse 
toward visual art. Again all eyes were turned in one direction, 
all aspirations toward one glory and all reverence toward the 



sacred personages who suffered that they might bring to the 
humble masses no less than to the exalted individuals the wonder- 
ful message. For the Founder of the Christian religion had made 
the multitude worthy in its own eyes. He proclaimed their kin- 
ship with God and convinced them that they were beloved chil- 
dren of a loving, omnipotent Father in Heaven with Whom they 
should dwell, after this life of trial, in glory forever. 

To a people treated like beasts of burden, driven and trampled 
upon, such a revelation was of tremendous import. The individ- 
ual's right to prosperity and happiness here in this world naturally 
had not yet occurred to the many. They were taught that resig- 
nation, contentment and labour for their masters was the service 
for which they should receive the Divine reward in Heaven. The 
poet and the artist, born and bred of the peoples under that im- 
pulse, did as they were bound to do. They showed to the multitude 
the thing it reverenced and longed to see. The artists of that day 
were the sons of the multitude, and sharing in the beliefs of that 
multitude. They set forth in their paintings that which filled their 
own hearts no less than the hearts of all men moved by the same 

Gradual Development. The whole thing became a driving 
desire to make visible a great drama. They began to perceive the 
possibility of the dramatic composition which preserved the just 
proportions, and yet permitted the emphasis to fall upon the 
important incident in the picture which is known as the "centre 
of interest." 

Composition was not unknown before this time, but it was 
a composition of design entirely, owing nothing to tone and 
very little to light and shade. Rarely, in even the best examples 
of vase paintings, is great action attempted Generally, the 
figures express themselves in simple gestures, so that no intoler- 
able suspended motion is noticeable. The Italian painter, finding 
himself confronted by the necessity to depict dramatic moments 
full of activity, devised new methods of composition. The sus- 
pended moving body or drapery, conforming to realism, is made 
to flow upon a line in the composition in such a manner that it is 
no longer a painfully maintained posture, but a part of the 
rhythm of the composition, an expression of extreme grace and 
of beauty. 

Year in and year out that development went painfully on. They 
strove mightily, those men; they worked to exhaustion. They had 
but little to work with, compelled as they were to invent their own 
materials, colours, brushes, whatever they needed. In the early 
years of the attempt to reveal to their own eyes, and those of 
their people, a vision glowing of the spirit, they had nothing with 
which to do it. They could not draw, they could not paint; they 
recognized perspective but vaguely and they lacked general knowl- 
edge. But they had a story to tell in pictures and they themselves 
lay under an urgent need to see the visualization of their own 
dream. It was a story of the spirit which is beauty. They 
painted a message from heart to heart. Any man, standing be- 
fore these old treasured pictures, who is unable to let them appeal 
directly to his emotions, as is the case with music, can never hope 
to see them nor to understand why they are treasured. 

As time went on jealousy and rivalry arose. The secrets of 
the craft were carefully guarded. A painter of great ability was 
crowded with commissions, which were often commands Day- 
light was precious. Every moment was needed upon his composi- 
tions. He surrounded himself with pupils and from among these 
he chose helpers according to their ability. Thus came into 
existence the journeyman-apprentice, who reached his greatest 
development during the last century. He was the pupil of great 
technical skill, direct observation and little imagination. He was 
sent out to get facts. A group of trees was needed for some part 
of an important composition. He was sent out to make a study 
of it not only the group of trees with meadow and clouds, but 
accurate information of branch and twig, with the pattern of 
leaf, the modelling of the trunk and the facts about the spreading 
roots with the plants growing between. He came back with defi- 
nite knowledge, precise information which the master painter us*ed 
as he saw fit. He chose what he needed, simplifying it into har- 
mony with its importance in the picture, discarding what was 

irrelevant. The master painters were great illustrators, and it is 
from among them that arose the immortal few who are known as 
the Old Masters, because of the grandeur of their vision and the 
splendour of their expression of it. 

And then the association of picture and its subject-text bound 
in the same volume came into being in the form of the illuminated 
manuscript. The same story and the same sincerity inspired these 
little pictures, truly works of art, though small and painted upon 
the page of a book and definitely designed to harmonize with the 
page and with the elaborate initial letter of which, frequently, 
they were a part. Some of them were superb masterpieces. The 
size of a picture matters little If, however, the subject idea is 
unworthy of a great effort, the picture made too large, and with the 
inevitable elaboration, appears even more trivial than if propor- 
tioned appropriately. 

Portraiture. In ancient portraiture, incidental to all this 
early art, one seems to observe evidence that likeness primarily 
was sought. In Egypt imposed conventions prevented any real de- 
velopment of characteristic portraiture, or perhaps the artist was 
so trained to convention that it was not possible for him to free 
himself from its influence Nevertheless, there are examples, 
small statues and statuettes, which are portraits of individuals, 
of definite character (keek portraits, however, painted on small 
panels, seem meagre studies of character, but were probably suf- 
ficiently good likenesses. During the Renaissance portraiture 
carne very much alive, emerging from hampering tradition and 
convention, until, in the i;th century it reached a magnificent 
expression. It became a realistic study of character, which was 
food for imagination. Painting his portrait, the artist came to 
know the man. He found, as he and everyone else already knew, 
that men are very much alike, and entirely different, in real life; 
he discovered that it could be expressed in art Self-defence had 
taught every one to discern the mood of another. Every one 
knew at once whether another was about to strike, to smile, to, 
speak a word of kindness; now the artist began to discover it in 
terms of his craft. He discovered that he could envelop the 
characters of his picture in an emotional atmosphere. He per- 
ceived in the hat and gloves left by his sitter on chair or table 
a likeness to their owner and that if they were used in a picture 
these adjuncts would have something to say as to the character 
of the man. When he came to paint the genre (q.v.) picture, he 
saw to it thai the things belonging to his subject character were 
exactly the things with which this individual would inevitably 
surround himself. That is a part of illustration which requires 
imagination, knowledge and understanding derived from close 
and habitual observation. Imagination here is spiritual vi>ion. 
This vision once possessed, aided by all his various funds of 
knowledge, the artist will perceive how an individual whose 
character he has studied and come to understand will behave in 
a given situation. It amounts to a vision of orderly events 
inevitable for that individual 

The religious story had been told, and while it continued to 
appear, and still often does, it was no longer in demand to the 
same extent. The artist was free to choose his subjects where he 
would, to descend gradually from that height to which the hunger, 
need and will of his race had driven him. Perhaps the most im- 
pressive example of this hangs in the museum of the Louvre. 
Huge paintings tell the story of the marriage of a man and a 
woman, but the man was king of France, Henry IV., and the 
woman a princess of Italy, Marie de' Medici. To the conscious- 
ness of that time such nuptials were great and impressive affairs, 
symbolic and resplendent with the grandeur of nations. Real- 
istic pictures, however gorgeous, would be merely pictures of the 
pageantry of the event. The artist's task, however, was to make 
the significance of the event immortal. 

Here is another instance where the artist was in accord with 
the convictions and motives of his time. He may have hated that 
particular king, but he and all men worshipped kings. To him and 
to all men this particular episode was of divine moment and sig- 
nificance The gates of heaven opened; gods and angels with all 
their attributes of Power, Principalities and Virtues were present 
at the ceremonial, bearing aloft, in order to magnify those two 



royal mortals above mankind, the insignia of their isolation. That 
is what the pictures tell us. 

To this artist, learned in his craft, it was not a very troublesome 
problem The art and science of composition taught him how to 
use every incident in his pictures numberless attendant figures; 
the profuse ornament of landscape and cloud; luxurious draperies, 
architecture, banners, armour extraordinary in their number, 
variety and form, to exalt the two principal personages upon 
the apex of his design and convey that, while in the midst of many, 
they were solitary, unapproachable, beings apart. Previously he 
had painted many portraits, landscapes, studies of all kind in 
astonishing numbers. He had used his countless studies in count- 
less paintings of every sort. He employed many hands besides 
his own. Nevertheless, he invented and designed his group of 
pictures as a whole, supervised and brought it into being. They 
were great inventions, for his imagination was apparently con- 
cerned with another aspect of the matter: it was busy with his 
audience not in vanity, but in the completion of his theme. His 
business was to convey an idea to the world. He was not realizing 
a vision of his own and so, in his imagination, he viewed his grow- 
ing designs with the eyes of the world, inventing his means step by 
step. Whether he, specially, was hated, whether he was bitterly re- 
garded by jealousy are things aside. His world was with him in 
this task which it had commanded. He worked for a gr^at 
audience, for the generations, for all time. He was not at the 
mercy of the turning page descending into oblivion with a trivial 

Later Development. It is not to be understood that no great 
works of art have occurred since that time. But the times were 
changing. Democratic ideas began to seep in and spread. New 
seas and continents were being discovered Shipping, commerce, 
international intercourse vastly increased. Wealth was increasing 
rapidly until it became more than a motive, an ideal. The artist, 
of necessity sensitive to the psychology of his time, inevitably 
sensed this ideal. Being no longer under command of church 
and noble he was free to sell his talents to the highest bidder. He 
did and became often both politician and courtier, frequenting 
and contriving that he might frequent, the places whence com- 
missions came. For the palaces of the rich, artists painted huge 
compositions, many of them splendid but of frivolous thought 
upon tawdry subjects Not all of them did this, for some were 
the spiritual descendants of the great masters; they went back 
to the country-side. There they painted pictures so full of charm, 
of beauty and of poetry that they still hold our wonder. 

The religious subject in pictorial art is not of paramount 
importance, nor is any subject. War and the ambitions of men 
have provided the opportunity for many great paintings. As to 
the written title of a picture, it is a mere label. The subject is 
what the passion of his race has taught the artist to think about 
it Because the poet, the artist and the inventor which is to say 
the poet is born supremely sensitive to racial motive, he has 
led in thought and has imagined into material existence the things 
of its need and desire. 

Imagination is the power of creative vision which gives direc- 
tion to intellect. It is the business of intellect to find means 
whereby this vision is given material existence. In finding these 
means intellect must refer again and again to imagination for 
new directions until the dream comes true. 

There is another sort of imagination: a primitive imagination 
busy with fears and reprisals It is the mother of superstition 
and has troubled the mind of man with a terror of natural phe- 
nomena. He cowered before the wind, retreated in dismay before 
the rising waters in the spring-time and shuddered at thunder, 
whispering that it was the voice of an angry god or the roar of 
some demon As he grew weary of his fears man developed a 
courageous creature who was not afraid to take his life in his 
hand, to go out and see; one who would be satisfied with nothing 
but the truth, who would not stop till he knew it. He went out 
upon his mission and came back and reported that these things 
are inevitable results of natural law dangerous but not malig- 
nant. Having begun, he can not stop, for the will of the race is 
that he must go on. We call him the scientist; his reports are 

called scientific facts; but scientific fact ib the statement of 
the operation of natural law and natural law must be obeyed in 
art as well as in life. 

Learning to Draw. If any one turns to these pages in the 
hope that he will find a suggestion how to proceed, let him 
remember that, like the primitive artist, he has already in child- 
hood scratched the uncertain image upon a slate. Let him take 
as his model the labour of the artist from that remote primitive 
time until he attained to his greatest stature. 

First he learned to draw a figure; then he strove to make 
that figure beautiful; then, expressive. He laboured with nature 
to learn the laws of composition He came into the lamplight 
and went out into the sunshine to know about light and shade. 
He studied atmosphere and the moods of nature. He learned to 
present an individual with his characteristic possessions and the 
psychology of his relations with others He mastered these things 
thoroughly then dismissed the troubles of ignorance and painted 
his picture. This impersonation of all artists lived for many 
centuries through all the turmoil of the great march of mankind. 
He is immortal. We arc part of him. Without the understanding 
which came through his long life we can do little. His life has 
left its record. Learn to know it. 

The laws of composition are written down. Learn them. The 
scientist has sought till he found the laws of light; he has ar- 
ranged the simple formula of perspective; these are material 
means which nature provides and imposes. We must know them. 

The artist has always told a story of some sort ; let it be the sim- 
ple statement that "Silver is Beautiful with Blue." That is theme 
enough for a masterpiece of colour Perhaps it may be that ( 'A 
Tree against Clouds is a Beautiful Design." That is theme enough 
for a masterpiece in black and white. 

The Work of the Illustrator. If stories are told in words, 
however skillfully elaborated and explained, one must refer 
to one's own observation and experience to perceive the mo- 
tive of the author. That reference to the writer's observation, 
conveyed in words of one's own experience and vision, is generic 
illustration. Many persons have had no opportunity for parallel 
experiences with the author. Many have not the power of origi- 
nal observation. But the majority can associate the two when 
someone shows them how. That is the work of the illustrator. 

No modern illustrator worthy of the name fails to realize 
that he is working for the people who buy that medium, of dis- 
tribution of story and picture which we call a "magazine." He 
is paid by so small a fraction of the amount expended that his 
work is bought for virtually nothing. He is under command of 
the whim of no one man. But he is under command. So were 
his forbears. They were under command of the whim of power. 
One of the greatest, a sculptor, was commanded by peremptory 
authority to paint the ceiling of the Sistine chapel. He spent 
three years lying on his back to work upon it and eased his 
bruises by writing plaintive sonnets and querulous letters to his 
father complaining that the work was vile and would not be 

We of the present are under command only of the necessity 
imposed by a vast organization of which we voluntarily form a 
part. That the story and picture may reach the millions who wait 
upon a certain day, a great, complicated organization of men and 
machines must work constantly and without interruption. The 
illustrator becomes a part of that organization when he accepts 
a commission. He does not have to accept it; he may refuse; 
but once undertaken it must be done within a given time that all 
the processes may function at their b'est and the printed work 
delivered where and when it is expected. This is not arbitrary; it 
is inevitable. 

Consider the editorship of the grand epoch of art. The labour 
of years was unveiled the cold churchman stalked before it 
seeking heresy. The partisan peered into its corners for offence. 
Woe to the poor artist if either was found ! The editor of to-day 
is all concern in his attitude toward the artist, providing a chair 
arid kindly words; this is found to be more humane than the 
accusation of heresy and a cell under the leads. 

The work of an illustrator is of the present, now Art is of its 



own time, looking forward. It derives its knowledge and power of 
comparison from the past, but its real inspiration from its own 
time. It is a sad thing to find an artist to-day so possessed with 
admiration of one of the great of the past that he endeavours to 
depict his own times, not as the dead genius might do now, but as 
he did then: whispering an unintelligible echo of stalwart tones 
reverberating with the meaning of the past. Times* have changed. 
Little of the expression of the past applies to the present. There 
is no motive now, in any one direction, to impel a living pictorial 

Mankind is making machines, discovering new laws and forces, 
applying them to his entertainment. Art, too, is an impulse of 
nature and it also is being used for entertainment. Born of the 
multitude, the artist must serve the multitude; if it so com- 
mands, he serves by leading it And if it should have a great 
dream he must present it pictorially. If the public desires tawdry 
decorations, he will be bullied or cajoled into making them. If 
it demand entertainment he must help provide it. Increasingly 
specialized, used for meagre ends, he has therefore almost ceased 
to be sleeping, perhaps, to be awakened at the call of a new 
need. Buildings go up and are torn down alter such brief exis- 
tence that mural paintings are but vaguely used the easel pic- 
ture has little reason to be it is too heavy for our temporary 
walls. The exhibition gallery continues to house for its appointed 
time the dwindling work of the journeyman-apprentice. The 
real place for pictures seems to be the page of the magazine. 
The times demand it; it appears inevitable. Possibly this is only 
a phase. 

It is the illustrator's business to give his best. The public will 
not help him, because it cannot. It behooves the illustrator to 
become a scholar; to know; to put all he is and has into his 
work; to study his story, not merely read it. He must do it 
alone, for himself; no one cares If his work is up to publishing 
standards in craftsmanship it will be used Editors will not help 
him with drastic criticism, or demand his best. He must work 
alone and for himself that is what <k art for art's sake" means 
now. It is true he will be paid a handsome sum; but it is also 
true he will be paid just as much for work not his best Here is 
a spiritual problem. He must do his best, for himself, alone, 
rejoicing if three persons in the million realize it. He must be 
a strong man. 

The Illustrator's Problems, To-day the conditions are 
utterly different from any hitherto confronting the artist. Instead 
of some single motive he has many. Wide spread democracy en- 
courages everyone to get for himself whatever he most desires. 
Universally that is wealth. Everyone works for wealth and in his 
leisure seeks amusement, entertainment, demanding of the arts 
that they provide it. 

If a universal motive is a compelling theme for the artist then 
this universal struggle for wealth should surely supply it. If it is, 
then it appears to have developed, by almost equally universal 
patronage, a new art : the motion picture. It may be significant 
that the most popular, and therefore successful, motion pictures 
dwell lavishly upon great wealth, the effort to gain it within 
or without the law or else upon broad comedy. The motion 
picture might be regarded as illustration in its most elaborate 
form; but it is not. It is an art alone, and like all arts, best when 
it tells its own story in its own terms, borrowing from no other. 

In the life of to-day there is another new thing We are con- 
scious of enormous forces that can be made to obey. We are 
aware of tremendous machines developing an energy equal to an 
army division, to several army divisions! We have ceased to fear 
the forces of nature and we have learned that if we obey natural 
law we may use the unlimited power nature's forces supply. These 
huge machines move in simple rhythm; ponderous creatures, im- 
personal, obedient, whose soulless grandeur has given a character 
to the times. Their significance is power. Some of us shudder at 
it, some exult, and it moves deeply the emotions of others. 

In the presence of these new beings, made by the hands of men, 
traditional beauty of graceful curves, with the delicate harmony 
of colour, becomes a cloying sweetness, out of key. The painter 
has made an effort to express his sense of all this, Therefore we 

have had a procession of "schools": the cubists, the futurists and 
many others have made efforts to get into tune with the age. The 
painter tried geometrical forms; he tried brutal evasions of actu- 
ality of form and colour He sought desperate means indeed. He 
sought to express the thing he felt he did not seek to find some 
new thing to sell. For the painter has tried to stand firm upon 
integrity and to be faithful to traditions. 

Whenever an individual perceives a new and real thing and 
tells about it, immediately he is surrounded by followers, enthusi- 
asts, incapable of, or lacking the courage of original vision, but 
quite able to see when shown, and courageous enough to follow 
They arc sincere They, in turn, are followed by imitators. The 
imitator sees only the thing that has been done and he sees it but 
superficially, copying the mannerism more often than the manner 
and never apprehending the underlying motive at all Nor does he 
care His purpose is to sell what he can while the public interest in 
the original remains, He it is who destroys that public interest, for 
his stature is soon apparent, and his stuff is rejected. The pity of 
it is that he brings about a misunderstanding of the whole effort ; 
a few see the work of the original while the many are informed of 
it only through meaningless imitations. 

Modern Tendencies. The foregoing is a bare outline of the 
history of illustrative art, from the first intimation scratched on 
stone to the present difficult situation. A few centuries ago a 
knowledge of the histo